Table of Contents

Fish name etymologies are published in a series of pages arranged in phylogenetic sequence. Each linked page below may comprise an entire order, individual families within an order, or a selection of genera (in alphabetical order) from an exceptionally diverse subfamily or subfamily.

updated/revised 25 April 2019 (see Revision History)

Class MYXINI
Order MYXINIFORMES Hagfishes
Family MYXINIDAE   (6 genera • 81 species)
Subfamily RUBICUNDINAE
Subfamily EPTATRETINAE
Subfamily MYXININAE

Class PETROMYZONTIDA
Order PETROMYZONTIFORMES Lampreys  (3 families • 11 genera/subgenera • 46 species)
Family PETROMYZONTIDAE Northern Lampreys   (9 genera/subgenera • 42 species)
Subfamily PETROMYZONTINAE
Subfamily LAMPRETINAE
Family GEOTRIIDAE Southern Lamprey   (monotypic)
Family MORDACIIDAE Southern Topeyed Lampreys   (1 genus • 3 species)

Class CHONDRICHTHYES Cartilaginous Fishes
chondros, cartilage; ichthos, fish, i.e., fishes (chimaeras, sharks, skates, rays) with cartilaginous skeleton

Subclass HOLOCEPHALI
holos, whole; cephalus, head, referring to fusion of upper jaws (palatoquadrates) to skull in all living species and in many but not all fossils

Order CHIMAERIFORMES Chimaeras   (3 families · 6 genera · 54 species)
Family CALLORHINCHIDAE Plownose Chimaeras   (1 genus • 3 species)
Family CHIMAERIDAE Shortnose Chimaeras   (2 genera • 43 species)
Family RHINOCHIMAERIDAE Longnose Chimaeras or Ratfishes   (3 genera • 8 species)

Class CHONDRICHTHYES Subclass ELASMOBRANCHII
elasmos, plate; branchos, gill, referring to plate-like interbranchial septa (i.e., tissue layer separating two halves of gill)

Infraclass EUSELACHII
eu-, true, good or original; selachos, a cartilaginous fish, including all elasmobranchs that have an anal fin (secondarily lost in many living forms) and two dorsal fins each with an anterior, cylindroconical spine of enameloid and dentine supported by the fin skeleton (spines lost in most living neoselachians; the first dorsal fin is absent in a few living sharks, and one or both dorsals are absent in many rays)

Division NEOSELACHII
neo-, new or modern; selachos, a cartilaginous fish, including all living sharks and rays and certain Mesozoic sharks, including palaeospinacids (Palaeospinax and Synechodus) and possibly orthacodonts and anacoracids

Subdivision SELACHII (“The Sharks”)
selachos, a cartilaginous fish, comprising the sharks
(9 orders • 34 families • 108 genera/subgenera • 540 species/subspecies)

Order HETERODONTIFORMES Bullhead Sharks
Family HETERODONTIDAE   (1 genus • 9 species)

Order ORECTOLOBIFORMES Carpet Sharks   (7 families • 13 genera • 45 species)
Family PARASCYLLIIDAE Collared Carpet Sharks   (2 genera • 8 species)
Family BRACHAELURIDAE Blind Sharks   (1 genus • 2 species)
Family ORECTOLOBIDAE Wobbegongs   (3 genera • 12 species)
Family HEMISCYLLIIDAE Bamboo Sharks   (2 genera • 17 species)
Family STEGOSTOMATIDAE Zebra Shark   (monotypic)
Family GINGLYMOSTOMATIDAE Nurse Sharks   (3 genera • 4 species)
Family RHINCODONTIDAE Whale Shark   (monotypic)

Order LAMNIFORMES Mackerel Sharks   (7 families • 10 genera • 16 species)
Family ODONTASPIDIDAE Sand Tiger Sharks   (2 genera • 4 species)
Family MITSUKURINIDAE Goblin Shark   (monotypic)
Family PSEUDOCARCHARIIDAE Crocodile Shark   (monotypic)
Family MEGACHASMIDAE Megamouth Shark   (monotypic)
Family ALOPIIDAE Thresher Sharks   (1 genus • 3 species)
Family CETORHINIDAE Basking Shark   (monotypic)
Family LAMNIDAE Mackerel Sharks   (3 genera • 5 species)

Order CARCHARHINIFORMES Ground Sharks   (8 families • 53 genera/subgenera • 293 species/subspecies)
Family SCYLIORHINIDAE Cat Sharks   (17 genera • 159 species)
Family PROSCYLLIIDAE Finback Cat Sharks   (3 genera • 7 species)
Family PSEUDOTRIAKIDAE False Cat Sharks   (3 genera • 5 species)
Family LEPTOCHARIIDAE Barbled Hound Shark   (monotypic)
Family TRIAKIDAE Hound Sharks   (9 genera • 47 species/subspecies)
Subfamily TRIAKINAE Hound Sharks
Subfamily GALEORHININAE School Sharks
Family HEMIGALEIDAE Weasel Sharks   (4 genera • 8 species)
Family CARCHARHINIDAE Requiem Sharks   (12 genera • 57 species)
Family SPHYRNIDAE Hammerhead Sharks   (4 genera/subgenera • 9 species)

Order HEXANCHIFORMES   (2 families • 4 genera • 7 species)
Family CHLAMYDOSELACHIDAE Friled Sharks   (1 genus • 2 species)
Family HEXANCHIDAE Cow Sharks   (3 genera • 5 species)

Order ECHINORHINIFORMES Bramble Sharks
Family ECHINORHINIDAE   (1 genus • 2 species)

Order SQUALIFORMES Dogfish Sharks   (6 families • 23 genera/subgenera • 138 species/subspecies)
Family CENTROPHORIDAE Gulper Sharks   (2 genera • 17 species/subspecies)
Family ETMOPTERIDAE Lantern Sharks   (4 genera • 50 species)
Family SOMNIOSIDAE Sleeper Sharks   (7 genera/subgenera • 17 species)
Family OXYNOTIDAE Rough Sharks   (1 genus • 5 species)
Family DALATIIDAE Kitefin Sharks   (7 genera • 9 species)
Family SQUALIDAE Dogfish Sharks   (2 genera • 40 species/subspecies)

Order SQUATINIFORMES Angel Sharks
Family SQUATINIDAE   (1 genus • 22 species)

Order PRISTIOPHORIFORMES Saw Sharks
Family PRISTIOPHORIDAE   (2 genera • 8 species)

Division NEOSELACHII Subdivision BATOIDES (“The Rays”)
-oides, having the form of: batis, Greek for a flat fish, usually applied to a skate or ray
(4 orders • 26 families • 105 genera/subgenera • 660 species/subspecies)

Order TORPEDINIFORMES Electric Rays   (5 families • 15 genera • 64 species)
Family PLATYRHINIDAE Fanrays   (2 genera • 5 species)
Family TORPEDINIDAE Electric Rays   (2 genera • 18 species)
Family HYPNIDAE Coffin Ray   (monotypic)
Family NARCINIDAE Numbfishes   (5 genera • 31 species)
Family NARKIDAE Sleeper Rays   (5 genera • 9 species)

Order RHINOPRISTIFORMES Guitarfishes and Sawfishes    (5 families • 12 genera • 66 species)
Family TRYGONORRHINIDAE Banjo Rays   (3 genera • 8 species)
Family RHINOBATIDAE Guitarfishes   (3 genera • 34 species)
Family RHINIDAE Wedgefishes   (3 genera • 10 species)
Family GLAUCOSTEGIDAE Giant Guitarfishes   (1 genus • 9 species)
Family PRISTIDAE Sawfishes   (2 genera • 5 species)

Order RAJIFORMES Skates   (4 families • 39 genera/subgenera • 297 species/subspecies)
Family ARHYNCHOBATIDAE Softnose Skates   (14 genera/subgenera • 106 species)
Family GURGESIELLIDAE Pygmy Skates   (3 genera • 19 species)
Family RAJIDAE Skates   (17 genera • 158 species/subspecies)
Family ANACANTHOBATIDAE Legskates   (5 genera • 14 species)

Order MYLIOBATIFORMES Stingrays   (12 families • 39 genera • 233 species)
Family ZANOBATIDAE Panrays   (1 genus • 2 species)
Family PLESIOBATIDAE Giant Stingaree   (monotypic)
Family UROLOPHIDAE Stingarees   (3 genera • 28 species)
Family HEXATRYGONIDAE Sixgill Stingray   (monotypic)
Family DASYATIDAE Stingrays   (19 genera • 95 species)
Subfamily DASYATINAE   (8 genera • 34 species)
Subfamily NEOTRYGONINAE   (2 genera • 17 species)
Subfamily UROGYMNINAE   (7 genera • 38 species)
Subfamily HYPOLOPHINAE   (2 genera • 6 species)
Family POTAMOTRYGONIDAE Neotropical Stingrays   (5 genera • 37 species)
Subfamily STYRACURINAE   (1 genus • 2 species)
Subfamily POTAMOTRYGONINAE   (4 genera • 32 species)
Family GYMNURIDAE Butterfly Rays   (1 genus • 13 species)
Family UROTRYGONIDAE Round Rays   (2 genera • 17 species)

Family AETOBATIDAE Pelagic Eagle Rays   (1 genus • 5 species)
Family MYLIOBATIDAE Eagle Rays   (2 genera • 18 species)
Family RHINOPTERIDAE Cownose Rays   (1 genus • 8 species)
Family MOBULIDAE Devilrays   (2 genera • 8 species)

Megaclass OSTEICHTHYES Bony Fishes and Tetrapods
osteo-, bone; ichthys, fish, i.e., fishes (and their tetrapod relatives) with skeletons (at least in part) made from bone

Superclass SARCOPTERYGII Lobe-finned Fishes and Tetrapods
sarco-, flesh; pteron, fin or wing, fishes with fleshy, lobed fins (a clade that now includes all four-limbed vertebrates), as opposed to the ray-finned fishes that characterize Superclass Actinopterygii

Class COELACANTHIMORPHA
morpha, form or shape, i.e., having the form of a coelacanth

Order COELACANTHIFORMES Coelacanths
Family LATIMERIIDAE Coelacanths   (1 genus • 2 species)

Superclass SARCOPTERYGII Class DIPNOTETRAPODOMORPHA
a clade of lobe-finned fishes that includes the lungfishes (dipno-) and the tetrapods (tetrapodo-); morpha, form or shape

Subclass DIPNOMORPHA
di-, two and pneuma, breath, i.e., double breathing, having both external and internal nostrils; morpha, form or shape

Order CERATODONTIFORMES Lungfishes   (3 extant families • 3 genera • 9 species/subspecies)
ceratos, horn; odontos, tooth, referring to prominent, shark-like tooth plates of Ceratodus Agassiz 1838, a cosmopolitan genus of Triassic lungfishes
Suborder LEPIDOSIRENOIDEI
Family NEOCERATODONTIDAE Australian Lungfish   (monotypic)
Suborder CERATODONTOIDEI
Family LEPIDOSIRENIDAE South American Lungfish   (monotypic)
Family PROTOPTERIDAE African Lungfishes   (1 genus • 7 species/subspecies)

Megaclass OSTEICHTHYES Superclass ACTINOPTERYGII Ray-finned Fishes
actino-, ray; pteron, fin or wing, i.e., fishes with fins of webbed skin supported by bony or horny spines (“rays”), as opposed to the fleshy, lobed fins that characterize Superclass Sarcopterygii

Class CLADISTIA
etymology not explained, perhaps clado, branch; –ista, a signifying agent, i.e., “one that branches,” possibly referring to basally branching rays of polypterids (bichirs)

Order POLYPTERIFORMES Bichirs
Family POLYPTERIDAE   (2 genera • 19 species/subspecies)

Superclass ACTINOPTERYGII Class ACTINOPTERI Subclass CHONDROSTEI
chondros, cartilage; osteo, bone, being primarily cartilaginous fishes that show some ossification

Order ACIPENSERIFORMES   (2 families • 6 genera • 32 species/subspecies)
Family ACIPENSERIDAE Sturgeons   (4 genera • 30 species/subspecies)
Subfamily ACIPENSERINAE
Subfamily SCAPHIRHYNCHINAE
Subfamily PSEUDOSCAPHIRHYNCHINAE
Subfamily HUSINAE
Family POLYODONTIDAE Paddlefishes   (2 genera • 2 species)

Class ACTINOPTERI Subclass NEOPTERYGII
neo-, new or modern; pterus, fin or wing, presumably referring to the “newness” or modernity of their rayed fins

Infraclass HOLOSTEI
holos, whole or entire; osteus, bone, referring to highly ossified skeleton in most taxa (a thin layer of bone covers a mostly cartilaginous skeleton in bowfins, Amiiformes)

Order LEPISOSTEIFORMES Gars
Family LEPISOSTEIDAE   (2 genera • 7 species)

Order AMIIFORMES Bowfins
Family AMIIDAE   (one extant genus and species)

Subclass NEOPTERYGII Infraclass TELEOSTEI
teleos, perfect or complete; osteus, bone, possibly referring to entire skeletons comprised completely of true bone (rather than cartilage), but perhaps also referring to their evolutionary position as the most advanced of living fishes

Megacohort ELOPOCEPHALAI
cephala, head, perhaps used here to delineate a “crown group” of teleostean fishes

Cohort ELOPOMORPHA
morpha, form or shape, i.e., having the form of an elopiform or elopid fish

Order ELOPIFORMES   (2 families • 2 genera • 9 species)
Family ELOPIDAE Tenpounders   (1 genus • 7 species)
Family MEGALOPIDAE Tarpons   (1 genus • 2 species)

Order ALBULIFORMES Bonefishes
Family ALBULIDAE   (3 genera • 13 species)
Subfamily ALBULINAE
Subfamily PTEROTHRISSINAE

Order NOTACANTHIFORMES   (2 families • 8 genera/subgenera • 27 species)
Family HALOSAURIDAE Halosaurs   (4 genera/subgenera • 16 species)
Family NOTACANTHIDAE Deep-sea Spiny Eels   (4 genera • 11 species)

Order ANGUILLIFORMES Eels   (20 families • 166 genera/subgenera • 993 species/subspecies)
Family PROTANGUILLIDAE Primitive Cave Eel   (monotypic)
+ Family SYNAPHOBRANCHIDAE Cutthroat Eels   (12 genera • 45 species)
Subfamily SIMENCHELYINAE Pugnose Snubnose Eel
Subfamily ILYOPHINAE Arrowtooth Eels or Mustard Eels
Subfamily SYNAPHOBRANCHINAE Cutthroat Eels
+ Family HETERENCHELYIDAE Mud Eels   (2 genera • 8 species)
+ Family MYROCONGRIDAE Myroconger Eels   (1 genus • 5 species)
+ Family MURAENIDAE Moray Eels   (19 genera/subgenera • 210 species)
Subfamily UROPTERYGIINAE

Subfamily MURAENINAE
+ Family CHLOPSIDAE False Morays   (8 genera • 25 species)
+ Family DERICHTHYIDAE Longneck Eels and Shorttail Eels   (3 genera • 11 species)
Family OPHICHTHIDAE Snake Eels and Worm Eels   (66 genera/subgenera • 346 species)
Subfamily OPHICHTHINAE Snake Eels
Subfamily MYROPHINAE Worm Eels
Family MURAENESOCIDAE Pike Congers   (6 genera • 15 species)
+ Family NETTASTOMATIDAE Duckbill Eels   (6 genera • 46 species)
+ Family CONGRIDAE Conger Eels   (30 genera • 212 species)
Subfamily CONGRINAE Conger Eels
Subfamily HETEROCONGRINAE Garden Eels
Subfamily BATHYMYRINAE
+ Family MORINGUIDAE Spaghetti Eels   (2 genera • 15 species)
+ Family CYEMATIDAE Bobtail Eel   (monotypic)
+ Family NEOCYEMATIDAE Bobtail Snipe Eel   (monotypic)
+ Family MONOGNATHIDAE Onejaw Gulpers   (1 genus • 15 species)
+ Family SACCOPHARYNGIDAE Swallowers   (1 genus • 10 species)
+ Family EURYPHARYNGIDAE Gulper or Pelican Eel   (monotypic)
+ Family NEMICHTHYIDAE Snipe Eels   (3 genera • 9 species)
+ Family SERRIVOMERIDAE Sawtooth Eels   (2 genera • 10 species)
+ Family ANGUILLIDAE Freshwater Eels   (1 genus • 20 species/subspecies)

Megacohort OSTEOGLOSSOCEPHALAI
cephala-, head, perhaps used here to delineate a “crown group” of teleostean fishes

Supercohort OSTEOGLOSSOMORPHA
osteo-, bone and glossum, tongue, referring to toothed tongue; morpha, form or shape

Order HIODONTIFORMES Mooneyes
Family HIODONTIDAE   (1 genus • 2 species)

Order OSTEOGLOSSIFORMES   (6 families • 32 genera/subgenera • 253 species/subspecies)
Family PANTODONTIDAE Freshwater Butterflyfish   (monotypic)
Family OSTEOGLOSSIDAE Bonytongues   (3 genera/subgenera • 6 species)
Family ARAPAIMIDAE Arapaimas   (2 genera • 5 species)
Family NOTOPTERIDAE Featherfin Knifefishes   (4 genera • 10 species)
Subfamily NOTOPTERINAE
Subfamily XENOMYSTINAE
Family MORMYRIDAE Elephantfishes   (21 genera • 230 species/subspecies)
Subfamily MORMYRINAE
Subfamily PETROCEPHALINAE
Family GYMNARCHIDAE Aba   (monotypic)

Supercohort CLUPEOCEPHALA
clupea, a herring; cephala, head, perhaps used here to delineate a “crown group” of teleostean fishes

Cohort OTOMORPHA
oto-, referring to otophysic (hearing) connection between swim bladder and inner ear in most members; morpha, form or shape

Subcohort CLUPEI
Order CLUPEIFORMES   (5 families • 88 genera/subgenera • 444 species/subspecies)
Superorder DENTICIPITOIDEI
Family DENTICIPITIDAE Denticle Herring   (one extant species)
+ Superorder CLUPEOIDEI
+ Family PRISTIGASTERIDAE Longfin Herrings   (9 genera • 39 species)
Subfamily PELLONINAE

Subfamily PRISTIGASTERINAE
+ Family ENGRAULIDAE Anchovies   (17 genera • 161 species/subspecies)
Subfamily COILIINAE

Subfamily ENGRAULINAE
+ Family CHIROCENTRIDAE Wolf Herrings   (1 genus • 2 species)
Family CLUPEIDAE Herrings   (60 genera/subgenera • 241 species/subspecies)
Subfamily DUSSUMIERIINAE Round Herrings    (4 genera • 19 species)
Subfamily EHIRAVINAE   (8 genera • 19 species)
Subfamily PELLONULINAE Freshwater Herrings   (16 genera • 34 species)
Subfamily CLUPEINAE Herrings, Sardines and Sprats   (17 genera/subgenera • 89 species/subspecies)
Subfamily ALOSINAE Shads   (8 genera/subgenera • 56 species/subspecies)
Subfamily DOROSOMATINAE Gizzard Shads   (7 genera/subgenera • 24 species)

Subcohort ALEPOCEPHALI
Order ALEPOCEPHALIFORMES Slickheads   (3 families • 33 genera • 142 species/subspecies)
Family PLATYTROCTIDAE Tubeshoulders   (13 genera • 40 species)
Family BATHYLACONIDAE   (1 genus • 3 species)
Family ALEPOCEPHALIDAE Slickheads   (19 genera • 99 species/subspecies)

Subcohort OSTARIOPHYSI
ostar, small bone; physa, bladder, referring to Weberian apparatus, a complex of modified vertebrae and ligaments that connect the gas bladder to the inner ear (except for Series Anotophysi)

Section ANOTOPHYSA
an-, without; oto-, ear; physa, bladder, referring to lack of Weberian apparatus; instead, anotophysans possess a primitive homolog consisting of three modified anterior vertebrae associated with cephalic rib bones

Order GONORYNCHIFORMES   (4 families • 7 genera • 37 species)
Family CHANIDAE Milkfishes   (one extant species)
Family GONORYNCHIDAE Beaked Sandfishes   (1 genus • 5 species)
Family KNERIIDAE Knerias   (4 genera • 30 species)
Family PHRACTOLAEMIDAE Snake Mudhead   (monotypic)

Section OTOPHYSA
oto-, ear; physa, bladder, referring to Weberian apparatus, a complex of modified vertebrae and ligaments that connect gas bladder to inner ear, giving otophysans the most sensitive hearing among fishes

Superorder CYPRINIPHYSAE
combination of Cypriniformes and physa, bladder (see above)

Order CYPRINIFORMES   (23 families • 527 genera/subgenera • 4,778 species/subspecies)
Suborder GYRINOCHEILOIDEI
Family GYRINOCHEILIDAE Algae Eaters   (1 genus • 3 species)
+ Suborder CATOSTOMOIDEI
+ Family CATOSTOMIDAE Suckers   (14 genera/subgenera • 95 species/subspecies)
Subfamily MYXOCYPRININAE
Subfamily CYCLEPTINAE
Subfamily ICTIOBINAE
Subfamily CATOSTOMINAE
Suborder COBITOIDEI
Family BOTIIDAE Botia Loaches   (8 genera • 60 species)
Subfamily LEPTOBOTIINAE
Subfamily BOTIINAE
+ Family VAILLANTELLIDAE Longfin Loaches   (1 genus • 3 species)
+ Family COBITIDAE Spined Loaches   (18 genera • 228 species/subspecies)
Family BARBUCCIDAE Fire-eyed Loaches   (1 genus • 2 species)
+ Family GASTROMYZONTIDAE Sucker Loaches   (19 genera/subgenera • 145 species)
+ Family SERPENTICOBITIDAE Snake Loaches   (1 genus • 3 species)
+ Family BALITORIDAE Hillstream or River Loaches   (16 genera • 107 species/subspecies)
Subfamily BALITORINAE
Subfamily HOMALOPTEROIDINAE
+ Family ELLOPOSTOMATIDAE Squarehead Loaches   (1 genus • 2 species)
Family NEMACHEILIDAE Stone Loaches   (55 genera/subgenera • 745 species/subspecies)
AborichthysPteronemacheilus

SasaidusYunnanilus
Suborder CYPRINOIDEI
Family PAEDOCYPRIDIDAE   (1 genus • 3 species)

+ Family PSILORHYCHIDAE Mountain Carps    (1 genus • 29 species)
Family CYPRINIDAE Carps   (163 genera/subgenera • 1,740 species/subspecies)
Subfamily LABEONINAE Labeos   (53 genera/subgenera • 495 species/subspecies)
Subfamily PROBARBINAE   (52 genera • 4 species)
+ Subfamily TORINAE   (13 genera • 218 species/subspecies)
Subfamily SMILOGASTRINAE   (23 genera • 443 species/subspecies)
Subfamily CYPRININAE Carps   (24 genera/subgenera • 223 species/subspecies)
Subfamily ACROSSOCHEILINAE   (4 genera/subgenera • 51 species/subspecies)
+ Subfamily BARBINAE Barbels   (7 genera • 141 species/subspecies)
+ Subfamily SPINIBARBINAE Spine Barbs    (2 genera • 15 species)
+ Subfamily SCHIZOTHORACINAE Snow Barbels   (6 genera/subgenera • 79 species/subspecies)
+ Subfamily SCHIZOPYGOPSINAE Mountain Barbels    (9 genera • 45 species/subspecies)
+ Subfamily Incertae sedis   (20 genera/subgenera • 26 species/subspecies)
Family SUNDADANIONIDAE   (2 genera • 9 species)
+ Family DANIONIDAE Danios   (39 genera • 352 species)
Subfamily CHEDRINAE Trout Barbs
Subfamily RASBORINAE Rasboras
Subfamily DANIONINAE Danios
Subfamily ESOMINAE Flying Barbs
Family LEPTOBARBIDAE Cigar Barbs   (1 genus • 5 species)
+ Family XENOCYPRIDIDAE East Asian Minnows   (44 genera • 163 species/subspecies)
+ Family TINCIDAE Tench   (monotypic)
Family ACHEILOGNATHIDAE Bitterlings   (6 genera • 83 species/subspecies)
+ Family GOBIONIDAE Gudgeons   (29 genera/subgenera • 238 species/subspecies)
Subfamily GOBIONINAE
Subfamily SARCOCHEILICHTHYINAE
+ Family TANICHTHYIDAE Mountain Minnows   (1 genus • 4 species)
Family LEUCISCIDAE Minnows   (104 genera/subgenera • 758 species/subspecies)
Subfamily PSEUDASPININAE   (4 genera • 20 species)
+ Subfamily LEUCISCINAE European Minnows   (37 genera/subgenera • 333 species/subspecies)
+ Subfamily PHOXININAE Eurasian Minnows   (1 genus • 27 species/subspecies)
Subfamily LAVINIINAE Western Chubs   (16 genera/subgenera • 64 species/subspecies)
+ Subfamily PLAGOPTERINAE Creek Chubs   (7 genera • 18 species/subspecies)
+ Subfamily POGONICHTHYINAE American Minnows   (39 genera/subgenera • 296 species/subspecies)

Superorder CHARACIPHYSAE
combination of Characiformes and physa, bladder (see above)

Order CHARACIFORMES   (24 families • 286 genera/subgenera • 2,243 species/subspecies)
Suborder CITHARINOIDEI
Family DISTICHODONTIDAE   (16 genera • 105 species/subspecies)
+ Family CITHARINIDAE Lutefishes    (3 genera • 10 species/subspecies)
+ Suborder CHARACOIDEI
+ Family CRENUCHIDAE South American Darters   (12 genera • 96 species)
Subfamily CRENUCHINAE
Subfamily CHARACIDIINAE
+ Family ALESTIDAE African Tetras   (20 genera • 122 species/subspecies)
+ Famliy HEPSETIDAE African Pikes   (1 genus • 6 species)
Family TARUMANIIDAE Muckfish   (monotypic)
+ Family ERYTHRINIDAE
Trahiras   (3 genera • 19 species)
+ Family PARODONTIDAE Scrapetooths   (3 genera • 32 species)
+ Family CYNODONTIDAE Dogtooth Tetras   (3 genera • 8 species)
+ Family SERRASALMIDAE Pacus and Piranhas   (16 genera • 97 species)
+ Family HEMIODONTIDAE Halftooths   (5 genera • 33 species/subspecies)
Subfamily ANODONTINAE
Subfamily HEMIODONTINAE
+ Family ANOSTOMIDAE
Toothed Headstanders   (15 genera • 157 species/subspecies)
+ Family CHILODONTIDAE
Headstanders   (2 genera • 8 species)
Family CURIMATIDAE
Toothless Characiforms   (8 genera • 114 species)
+ Family PROCHILODONTIDAE Bocachicos   (3 genera • 21 species)
+
Family LEBIASINIDAE
Pencilfishes   (6 genera • 74 species/subspecies)
Subfamily LEBIASININAE

Subfamily PYRRHULININAE
+ Family CTENOLUCIIDAE
Pike-Characids   (2 genera • 7 species)
+ Family ACESTRORHYNCHIDAE 
(7 genera • 26 species)
Subfamily ACESTRORHYNCHINAE Freshwater Barracudas
Subfamily HETEROCHARACINAE Biting Tetras
Subfamily ROESTINAE 
Family CHARACIDAE
Characins  
(143 genera/subgenera • 1,188 species/subspecies)
Subfamily STETHAPRIONINAE American Tetras   (44 genera/subgenera • 591 species/subspecies)
AphyoditeGymnocoryumbus

HemigrammusThayeria

Subfamily SPINTHEROBOLINAE Piquiras   (3 genera • 6 species)
+ Subfamily EXODONTINAE Toothy Tetras   (3 genera • 4 species)

+ Subfamily TETRAGONOPTERINAE   (1 genus • 14 species/subspecies)
+ Subfamily CHARACINAE Characines   (9 genera • 95 species)
+ Subfamily APHYOCHARACINAE Glass Characins   (7 genera • 19 species)
+ Subfamily CHEIRODONTINAE   (16 genera • 66 species)
Subfamily STEVARDIINAE   (43 genera • 335 species)
+ Subfamily Incertae sedis   (17 genera • 58 species)
Family IGUANODECTIDAE
  (4 genera/subgenera • 34 species)
+ Family TRIPORTHEIDAE
Keeled Characins   (5 genera • 21 species)
Subfamily TRIPORTHEINAE
Subfamily AGONIATINAE
Subfamily CLUPEACHARACINAE

+
Family BRYCONIDAE
Dorados or Jaw Characins   (4 genera • 50 species)
Subfamily BRYCONINAE
Subfamily SALMININAE
+ Family CHALCEIDAE
Tucanfishes  (1 genus • 5 species)
+ Family GASTEROPELECIDAE
Freshwater Hatchetfishes   (3 genera • 9 species)

Superorder SILURIPHYSAE
combination of Siluriformes and physa, bladder (see above)

Order SILURIFORMES Catfishes   (41 families • 516 genera/subgenera • 3,954 species/subspecies)
Family DIPLOMYSTIDAE Velvet Catfishes   (2 genera • 7 species)
+ Family CETOPSIDAE Whale Catfishes   (5 genera • 43 species)
Subfamily HELOGENINAE
Subfamily CETOPSINAE
+ Family TRICHOMYCTERIDAE Pencil Catfishes   (43 genera • 321 species)
Subfamily COPIONODONTINAE
Subfamily TRICHOGENINAE
Subfamily TRICHOMYCTERINAE
Subfamily VANDELLIINAE
Subfamily TRICHOGENINAE
Subfamily STEGOPHILINAE
Subfamily TRIDENTINAE
Subfamily GLANAPTERYGINAE
Subfamily SARCOGLANIDINAE
+ Family NEMATOGENYIDAE Mountain Catfishes   (1 extant species)
Family CALLICHTHYIDAE Armored Catfishes   (8 genera • 219 species)
Subfamily CALLICHTHYINAE
Subfamily CORYDORADINAE Cory Cats
+ Family SCOLOPLACIDAE Spiny Dwarf Catfishes   (1 genus • 6 species)
+ Family ASTROBLEPIDAE Climbing Catfishes   (1 genus • 82 species)
Family LORICARIIDAE Suckermouth Armored Catfishes   (115 genera • 994 species)
Subfamily LITHOGENINAE Climbing Armored Catfishes   (1 genus • 3 species)
Subfamily NEOPLECOSTOMINAE   (8 genera • 62 species)
Subfamily HYPOPTOPOMATINAE Cascudinhos   (13 genera • 58 species)

Subfamily OTOTHYRINAE   (13 genera • 125 species)
Subfamily LORICARIINAE   (30 genera • 245 species)
Subfamily HYPOSTOMINAE   (45 genera/subgenera • 488 species)
+ Subfamily RHINELEPINAE   (3 genera • 6 species)

+ Subfamily DELTURINAE   (2 genera • 7 species)
Family SILURIDAE Sheatfishes   (13 genera • 102 species)
+ Family KRYPTOGLANIDAE Indian Cave Catfish   (monotypic)
+ Family AUSTROGLANIDIDAE Rock Catfishes   (1 genus • 3 species)
+ Family PANGASIIDAE Shark Catfishes   (5 genera/subgenera • 29 species)
+ Family CHACIDAE Frogmouth Catfishes   (1 genus • 4 species)
+ Family PLOTOSIDAE Eeltail Catfishes   (10 genera • 42 species)
Family RITIDAE   (2 genera • 14 species)
+ Family AILIIDAE Asian Butter Catfishes   (7 genera • 25 species)
+ Family HORABAGRIDAE Sun or Imperial Catfishes   (4 genera • 11 species)
+ Family BAGRIDAE Naked or Bagrid Catfishes   (17 genera • 206 species)
Family AKYSIDAE Stream Catfishes   (5 genera • 57 species)
Subfamily AKYSINAE
Subfamily PARAKYSINAE
+ Family AMBLYCIPITIDAE Torrent Catfishes   (4 genera • 41 species)
+ Family SISORIDAE Hillstream Catfishes   (23 genera • 288 species)
Subfamily SISORINAE
Subfamily GLYPTOSTERNINAE
+ Family AMPHILIIDAE Loach Catfishes   (13 genera • 100 species)
Subfamily AMPHILIINAE
Subfamily LEPTOGLANIDINAE Sand Catlets
Subfamily DOUMEINAE
Family MALAPTERURIDAE Electric Catfishes   (2 genera • 19 species)
+ Family MOCHOKIDAE Squeaker or Upside-down Catfishes   (9 genera • 221 species)
Subfamily CHILOGLANIDINAE
Subfamily MOCHOKINAE
+ Family SCHILBEIDAE African Butter Catfishes   (5 genera • 33 species)
+ Family AUCHENOGLANIDIDAE Giraffe Catfishes   (3 genera • 26 species)
+ Family CLAROTEIDAE Grunter Catfishes   (12 genera/subgenera • 65 species)
+ Family LACANTUNIIDAE Chiapas Catfish   (monotypic)
Family CLARIIDAE Airbreathing Catfishes   (21 genera/subgenera • 120 species)
+ Family HETEROPNEUSTIDAE Airsac Catfishes   (1 genus • 4 species)
+ Family ANCHARIIDAE Madagascar Catfishes   (2 genera • 6 species)
+ Family ARIIDAE Sea Catfishes   (34 genera/subgenera • 152 species)
Subfamily GALEICHTHYINAE
Subfamily ARIINAE
Subfamily BAGREINAE
Family ASPREDINIDAE Banjo Catfishes   (13 genera • 46 species)
Subfamily PSEUDOBUNOCEPHALINAE
Subfamily HOPLOMYZONTINAE
Subfamily ASPREDININAE
+ Family DORADIDAE Thorny Catfishes   (32 genera • 96 species)
Subfamily WERTHEIMERINAE
Subfamily ASTRODORADINAE
Subfamily DORADINAE
+ Family AUCHENIPTERIDAE Driftwood Catfishes   (25 genera/subgenera • 127 species)
Subfamily AUCHENIPTERINAE
Subfamily CENTROMOCHLINAE
+ Family CRANOGLANIDIDAE Armorhead Catfishes   (1 genus • 5 species)
+ Family ICTALURIDAE North American Catfishes   (9 genera/subgenera • 52 species/subspecies)
Family HEPTAPTERIDAE Three-barbeled Catfishes   (24 genera • 221 species/subspecies)
+ Family PIMELODIDAE Long-whiskered Catfishes   (32 genera/subgenera • 113 species)
+ Family PHREATOBIIDAE Cistern Catfishes   (1 genus • 3 species)
+ Family PSEUDOPIMELODIDAE Bumblebee Catfishes   (7 genera • 48 species)

Order GYMNOTIFORMES Neotropical Knifefishes   (5 families • 35 genera/subgenera • 259 species/subspecies)
Family GYMNOTIDAE Nakedback Knifefishes   (2 genera • 51 species/subspecies)
Family RHAMPHICHTHYIDAE Sand Knifefishes   (5 genera • 28 species)
Family HYPOPOMIDAE Bluntnose Knifefishes   (7 genera/subgenera • 34 species)
Family STERNOPYGIDAE Glass Knifefishes   (6 genera • 49 species)
Family APTERONOTIDAE Ghost Knifefishes   (15 genera • 97 species)

Cohort EUTELEOSTEOMORPHA
euteleost, derived from eu-, an intensive (e.g., very), often interpreted as the “true” teleosts but proposed for fishes “mostly of distinctively teleostean level ancestry” (“Division III” fishes in Greenwood et al., 1966, “Phyletic studies of teleostean fishes, with a provisional classification of living forms”), which, at the time, included groups now placed in Cohort Otomorpha; name and etymology date to Greenwood et al., 1967, “Named main divisions of teleostean fishes”; morpha, form or shape

Subcohort LEPIDOGALAXII
Order LEPIDOGALAXIIFORMES Salamanderfish
Family LEPIDOGALAXIIDAE   (monotypic)

Subcohort PROTACANTHOPTERYGII
protos, first; acanthus, spine; pteron, fin or wing, ray-finned fishes that lack spines and therefore are presumed to resemble ancestors of spiny rayed fishes

Order ESOCIFORMES Pikes and Mudminnows   (2 families • 4 genera • 15 species/subspecies)
Family ESOCIDAE Pikes   (1 genus • 8 species/subspecies)
Family UMBRIDAE Mudminnows   (3 genera • 7 species)

Order SALMONIFORMES Salmonids
Family SALMONIDAE   (17 genera/subgenera • 273 species/subspecies)
Subfamily COREGONINAE Whitefishes
Subfamily THYMALLINAE Graylings
Subfamily SALMONINAE Trouts, Salmons and Chars

Order ARGENTINIFORMES Marine Smelts   (4 families • 23 genera/subgenera • 96 species)
Family ARGENTINIDAE Argentines   (3 genera/subgenera • 28 species)
Family OPISTHOPROCTIDAE Barreleyes or Spookfishes   (8 genera • 19 species)
Family MICROSTOMATIDAE Pencilsmelts   (3 genera • 22 species)
Family BATHYLAGIDAE Deepsea Smelts   (8 genera • 25 species)

Order GALAXIIFORMES Galaxiids
Family GALAXIIDAE Galaxiids   (7 genera • 66 species)
Subfamily APLOCHITONINAE Peladillas
Subfamily GALAXIINAE White Bait and Mudfishes

Subcohort STOMIATI
note: based on Stomiatiformes, proposed by Rosen (1973), whose spelling was deemed incorrect and amended to Stomiiformes by Fink & Weitzman (1982); however, some researchers use the original spelling

Order OSMERIFORMES Freshwater Smelts   (4 families • 17 genera • 44 species/subspecies)
Suborder OSMEROIDEI
Family OSMERIDAE Smelts   (6 genera • 17 species/subspecies)
Family PLECOGLOSSIDAE Ayu or Sweetfish   (1 genus • 3 species/subspecies)
Family SALANGIDAE Icefishes or Noodlefishes   (7 genera • 17 species)
Suborder RETROPINNOIDEI
Family RETROPINNIDAE   (3 genera • 7 species)
Subfamily RETROPINNINAE Southern Smelts
Subfamily PROTOTROCTINAE Southern Graylings

Order STOMIIFORMES   (4 families • 67 genera/subgenera • 439 species/subspecies)
Family GONOSTOMATIDAE Bristlemouths   (8 genera • 33 species)
Family STERNOPTYCHIDAE Marine Hatchetfishes   (10 genera/subgenera • 77 species)
Subfamily STERNOPTYCHINAE
Subfamily MAUROLICINAE
Family PHOSICHTHYIDAE Lightfishes   (7 genera • 24 species)
Family STOMIIDAE Barbled Dragonfishes   (42 genera/subgenera • 306 species/subspecies)
Subfamily CHAULIODONTINAE Viperfishes

Subfamily STOMIINAE Scaly Dragonfishes
Subfamily ASTRONESTHINAE Snaggletooths
Subfamily MELANOSTOMIINAE Scaleless Black Dragonfishes
Subfamily MALACOSTEINAE Loosejaws
Subfamily IDIACANTHINAE Black Dragonfishes

Subcohort NEOTELEOSTEI
neo-, new, i.e., a taxon of teleostean fishes considered to monophyletic on the basis of four skull and jaw characters possessed by different members that are lacking in more primitive teleosts

Infracohort ATELEOPODOMORPHA
Order ATELEOPODIFORMES Jellynose Fishes
Family ATELEOPODIDAE   (4 genera • 11 species)

Infracohort EURYPTERYGIA
eurys, wide; pteron, fin or wing; coined by Rosen (1973) but allusion not explained, possibly referring to better-developed fins (with spiny rays) compared to soft-rayed fins of Stomiiformes, which he placed in Stenopterygia (stenos, narrow), then presumed to be the more primitive sister group of neoteleosteans

Section CYCLOSQUAMATA
cyclo-, cycloid; squamata, scaled, referring to predominance of cycloid scales among its taxa, compared to the Ctenosquamata, in which ctenoid scales predominate

Order AULOPIFORMES Lizardfishes   (16 families • 50 genera/subgenera • 284 species/subspecies)
Suborder AULOPOIDEI
Family SYNODONTIDAE Lizardfishes   (4 genera • 82 species)
Subfamily SYNODONTINAE Lizardfishes
Subfamily HARPADONTINAE Bombay Ducks
Family AULOPIDAE Flagfins   (4 genera • 15 species)
Family PSEUDOTRICHONOTIDAE Sand-diving Lizardfishes   (1 genus • 4 species)
Suborder PARAULOPOIDEI
Family PARAULOPIDAE Cucumberfishes   (1 genus • 14 species)
Suborder ALEPISAUROIDEI
Family IPNOPIDAE Deepsea Tripod Fishes   (8 genera/subgenera • 34 species/subspecies)
Subfamily IPNOPINAE
Subfamily BATHYSAUROPSINAE
Family GIGANTURIDAE Telescopefishes   (1 genus • 2 species)
Family BATHYSAUROIDIDAE Largescale Deepsea Lizardfish   (monotypic)
Family BATHYSAURIDAE Deepsea Lizardfishes   (1 genus • 2 species)
Family CHLOROPHTHALMIDAE Greeneyes   (2 genera • 21 species)
Family NOTOSUDIDAE Paperbones or Waryfishes   (3 genera • 17 species)
Family SCOPELARCHIDAE Pearleyes   (5 genera • 18 species)
Family EVERMANNELLIDAE Sabertooth Fishes   (3 genera • 8 species)
Family SUDIDAE   (1 genus • 2 species)
Family PARALEPIDIDAE Barracudinas   (7 genera • 26 species/subspecies)
Family ALEPISAURIDAE Lancetfishes   (4 genera • 9 species)
Family LESTIDIIDAE Naked Barracudinas   (4 genera • 29 species)

Section CTENOSQUAMATA
cteno-, ctenoid; squamata, scaled, referring to predominance of ctenoid scales among its taxa, compared to the Cyclosquamata, in which cycloid scales predominate

Subsection MYCTOPHATA
-atus, having the nature of: mycto-, myctophiform fishes

Order MYCTOPHIFORMES Lanternfishes   (2 families • 42 genera/subgenera • 264 species)
Family NEOSCOPELIDAE Blackchins   (3 genera • 6 species)
Family MYCTOPHIDAE Lanternfishes   (39 genera/subgenera • 258 species)
Subfamily GYMNOSCOPELINAE Luminous Lanternfishes
Subfamily NOTOLYCHNINAE Topside Lanternfish
Subfamily LAMPANYCTINAE Toothy Lampfishes
Subfamily DIAPHINAE Headlight Fishes
Subfamily MYCTOPHINAE Lanternishes

Subsection ACANTHOMORPHATA
acanthus, spine; morphata, shaped, referring to presence of true fin spines rather than hardened segmented rays

Division LAMPRIPTERYGII
lampri-, referring to Lampriformes; pterygii, one with fins, now a standard suffix for divisions in bony fishes

Order LAMPRIFORMES Opahs   (6 families • 11 genera • 29 species)
Family VELIFERIDAE Velifers   (2 genera • 2 species)
Family LAMPRIDAE Opahs   (1 genus • 6 species)
Family LOPHOTIDAE Crestfishes   (2 genera • 5 species)
Family RADIICEPHALIDAE Tapertails   (1 genus • 2 species)
Family TRACHIPTERIDAE Ribbonfishes   (3 genera • 11 species)
Family REGALECIDAE Oarfishes   (2 genera • 3 species)

Division PARACANTHOPTERYGII
para, near; acanthus, spine; pterygii, one with fins, representing a “spiny-finned radiation more or less comparable morphologically with that of the [division] Acanthopterygii”; name and explanation date to Greenwood et al., 1966, “Phyletic studies of teleostean fishes, with a provisional classification of living forms”

Series PERCOPSARIA
-arius, pertaining to: percops, percopsiform fishes

Order PERCOPSIFORMES Trout-Perches   (3 families • 8 genera • 13 species/subspecies)
Family PERCOPSIDAE Trout-Perches (1 genus • 2 species)
Family APHREDODERIDAE Pirate Perches (1 genus • 2 species/subspecies)
Family AMBLYOPSIDAE Cavefishes (6 genera • 9 species)

Series ZEIOGADARIA
-arius, pertaining to: combination of the subseries Zeiariae (from Zeiformes) and Gadariae (from Gadiformes)

Subseries ZEIARIAE
Order ZEIFORMES Dories   (6 families • 16 genera • 34 species)
Suborder CYTTOIDEI
Family CYTTIDAE Lookdown Dories   (1 genus • 3 species)
Suborder ZEIODEI
Family OREOSOMATIDAE Oreos   (4 genera • 10 species)
Subfamily PSEUDOCYTTINAE
Subfamily OREOSOMATINAE
Family PARAZENIDAE Smooth Dories   (3 genera • 4 species)
Subfamily PARAZENINAE

Subfamily CYTTOPSINAE
Family ZENIONTIDAE Armoreye Dories   (3 genera • 7 species)
Family GRAMMICOLEPIDIDAE Tinselfishes   (3 genera • 3 species)
Subfamily MACRUROCYTTINAE
Subfamily GRAMMICOLEPIDINAE

Family ZEIDAE Dories   (2 genera • 7 species)

Subseries GADARIAE
derived from Gadus, i.e., Gadiformes, sister order of Stylephoriformes

Order STYLEPHORIFORMES Tube-eye
Family STYLEPHORIDAE   (monotypic)

Order GADIFORMES Cods and Hakes   (13 families • 89 genera/subgenera • 632 species/subspecies)
Family MELANONIDAE Pelagic Cods   (1 genus • 2 species)
+ Family STEINDACHNERIIDAE Luminous Hake   (monotypic)
+ Family BATHYGADIDAE Codhead Rattails   (2 genera • 27 species)
+ Family MACROURIDAE Grenadiers or Rattails   (36 genera/subgenera • 375 species/subspecies)
+ Family TRACHYRINCIDAE Rough Rattails   (3 genera • 8 species)
Subfamily MACROUROIDINAE
Subfamily TRACHYRINCINAE
Family EUCLICHTHYIDAE Eucla Cod   (monotypic)
+ Family MORIDAE Deepsea Cods   (18 genera • 108 species/subspecies)
+ Family MACRURONIDAE Southern Hakes   (3 genera • 6 species/subspecies)
+ Family MERLUCCIIDAE Hakes    (1 genus • 17 species/subspecies)
+ Family RANICIPITIDAE Tadpole Cod   (monotypic)
+ Family BREGMACEROTIDAE Codlets   (1 genus • 14 species)
+ Family MURAENOLEPIDIDAE Eel Cods   (2 genera • 8 species)
+ Family GADIDAE Cods and Haddocks    (19 genera • 64 species/subspecies)
Subfamily PHYCINAE Phycid Hakes
Subfamily GAIDROPSARINAE Rocklings
Subfamily LOTINAE Burbot, Cusk and Lings
Subfamily GADINAE Cods and Haddocks

Division POLYMIXIIPTERYGII
polymixii-, referring to Polymixiiformes; pterygii, one with fins, now a standard suffix for divisions in bony fishes

Order POLYMIXIIFORMES Beardfishes
Family POLYMIXIIDAE (1 genus • 10 species)

Division ACANTHOPTERYGII
acanthus, spine; pteron, fin or wing, representing the ray-finned fishes, referring to the sharp, bony rays in their fins

Subdivision HOLOCENTRIMORPHACEAE
-morpha, form or shape, i.e., having the form of a holocentrid; –aceae, terminal ending for subdivisions in zoology

Order HOLOCENTRIFORMES Squirrelfishes and Soldierfishes
Family HOLOCENTRIDAE   (8 genera • 91 species)
Subfamily HOLOCENTRINAE Squirrelfishes
Subfamily MYRIPRISTINAE Soldierfishes

Subdivision BERYCIMORPHACEAE
-morpha, form or shape, i.e., having the form of a beryciform; –aceae, terminal ending for subdivisions in zoology

Order TRACHICHTHYIFORMES Roughies   (5 families • 23 genera/subgenera • 69 species/subspecies)
Family ANOPLOGASTRIDAE Fangtooths   (1 genus • 2 species)
Family DIRETMIDAE Spinyfins   (3 genera • 4 species)
Family ANOMALOPIDAE Flashlight or Lanterneye Fishes   (6 genera • 9 species)
Family MONOCENTRIDAE Pinecone Fishes   (2 genera • 3 species)
Family TRACHICHTHYIDAE Roughies   (11 genera/subgenera • 51 species/subspecies)

Order BERYCIFORMES   (8 families • 29 genera • 119 species/subspecies)
Family GIBBERICHTHYIDAE Gibberfishes   (1 genus • 2 species)
Family STEPHANOBERYCIDAE Pricklefishes   (4 genera • 4 species)
Family HISPIDOBERYCIDAE   (monotypic)
Family RONDELETIIDAE Redmouth Whaleishes   (1 genus • 2 species)
Family BARBOURISIIDAE Red or Velvet Whalefish   (monotypic)
Family CETOMIMIDAE Flabby Whalefishes   (14 genera • 26 species)
Family MELAMPHAIDAE Bigscales   (5 genera • 73 species/subspecies)
Family BERYCIDAE Alfonsinos   (2 genera • 10 species)

Subdivision PERCOMORPHACEAE
perco-, perch; morpha-, form or shape, proposed by Cope (1871) for fish groups with abdominal (and presumably perch-like) ventral fins; –aceae, terminal ending for subdivisions in zoology

Series OPHIDIARIA
Order OPHIDIIFORMES Cusk-eels   (5 families • 119 genera • 545 species)
Suborder OPHIDIOIDEI
Family CARAPIDAE Pearlfishes   (8 genera • 35 species)
Subfamily PYRAMODONTINAE
Subfamily CARAPINAE Fierasfers
Subfamily TETRAGONDACNINAE Square-mouthed Pearlfishes

+ Family OPHIDIIDAE Cusk-eels   (50 genera • 267 species)
Subfamily BROTULINAE Bearded Cusk-eels
Subfamily BROTULOTAENIINAE Prickle Cusk-eels
Subfamily OPHIDIINAE
Subfamily NEOBYTHITINAE

Suborder BYTHITOIDEI
Family BYTHITIDAE Viviparous (or Livebearing) Brotulas   (34 genera • 124 species)
+ Family DINEMATICHTHYIDAE   (26 genera • 116 species)
+ Family PARABROTULIDAE False Brotulas   (1 genus • 3 species)

Series BATRACHOIDIARIA
Order BATRACHOIDIFORMES Toadfishes   (23 genera • 84 species)
Family BATRACHOIDIDAE
Subfamily PORICHTHYINAE
Subfamily THALASSOPHRYNINAE Venomous Toadfishes
Subfamily BATRACHOIDINAE

Subfamily HALOPHRYNINAE

Series GOBIARIA

Order KURTIFORMES   (2 families • 43 genera/subgenera • 369 species)
Family KURTIDAE Nurseryfishes   (1 genus • 2 species)
Family APOGONIDAE Cardinalfishes   (42 genera/subgenera • 367 species)
Subfamily APOGONINAE

Subfamily PSEUDAMIINAE
Subfamily AMIOIDINAE
Subfamily PAXTONINAE

Order GOBIIFORMES Gobies   (8 families • 332 genera/subgenera • 2,247 species/subspecies)
Family RHYACICHTHYIDAE Loach Gobies   (2 genera • 3 species)
+ Family ODONTOBUTIDAE Freshwater Sleepers   (7 genera • 24 species)
+ Family MILYERINGIDAE Blind Cave Gobies   (2 genera • 5 species)
+ Family ELEOTRIDAE Spinycheek Sleepers   (29 genera • 137 species)
+ Family BUTIDAE Butid Sleepers   (10 genera • 46 species)
+ Family THALASSELEOTRIDIDAE Ocean Sleepers   (2 genera • 3 species)
Family OXUDERCIDAE Mudskipper Gobies   (100 genera/subgenera • 633 species/subspecies)
AbomaOxyurichthys
PaedogobiusZappa
Family GOBIIDAE Gobies   (181 genera/subgenera • 1,397 species/subspecies)
AcentrogobiusCtenogobiops
DeltentosteusHyrcanogobius
IstigobiusPterocerdale
RhinogobiopsZebra

Series OVALENTARIA
ovum, egg; lentae, sticky or tenacious, referring to the diagnostic and characteristic adhesive eggs found in most species in this clade

Incertae sedis The following eight families are Incertae sedis in Ovalentaria; they are listed here in alphabetical order.
Family AMBASSIDAE Asiatic Glassfishes   (8 genera • 45 species)
+ Family EMBIOTOCIDAE Surfperches   (13 genera • 27 species/subspecies)
+ Family GRAMMATIDAE Basslets   (2 genera • 17 species)
+ Family OPISTOGNATHIDAE Jawfishes   (4 genera • 88 species)

+ Family PLESIOPIDAE Roundheads   (12 genera • 49 species)
Subfamily PLESIOPINAE Roundheads or Longfins
Subfamily ACANTHOCLININAE Spiny Basslets
+ Family POLYCENTRIDAE Afro-American Leaffishes   (4 genera • 5 species)

Family POMACENTRIDAE Damselfishes   (30 genera/subgenera • 422 species/subspecies)
Subfamily CHROMINAE
Subfamily GLYPHISODONTINAE
Subfamily LEPIDOZYGINAE
Subfamily MICROSPATHODONTINAE
Subfamily POMACENTRINAE
Family PSEUDOCHROMIDAE Dottybacks   (25 genera/subgenera • 155 species)
Subfamily PSEUDOCHROMINAE
Subfamily PSEUDOPLESIOPINAE
Subfamily ANISOCHROMINAE
Subfamily CONGRODANINAE Eeelblennies
Subfamily ASSICULINAE
Subfamily ASSICULOIDINAE

Superorder MUGILOMORPHAE
Order MUGILIFORMES Mullets
Family MUGILIDAE   (25 genera • 79 species)

Superorder CICHLIMORPHAE
Order CICHLIFORMES   (2 families • 257 genera/subgenera • 1,661 species/subspecies)
Family CICHLIDAE Cichlids   (256 genera/subgenera • 1,659 species/subspecies)
Subfamily ETROPLINAE   (3 genera • 16 species)
+ Subfamily PTYCHOCHROMINAE   (5 genera • 16 species)
Subfamily PSEUDOCRENILABRINAE African Cichlids   (167 genera/subgenera • 1,056 species/subspecies)
AbactochromisGreenwoodochromis

HaplochromisKonia
LabeotropheusOtopharynx
PallidochromisYssichromis
Subfamily CICHLINAE American Cichlids   (81 genera/subgenera • 571 species)
AcarichthysCryptoheros
DarienherosWajpamheros
Family PHOLIDICHTHYIDAE Convict Blennies   (1 genus • 2 species)

Superorder BLENNIIMORPHAE
Order BLENNIIFORMES Blennies  (6 families • 159 genera/subgenera • 945 species/subspecies)
Family TRIPTERYGIIDAE Triplefin Blennies   (29 genera • 182 species)
+ Family DACTYLOSCOPIDAE Sand Stargazers   (9 genera • 48 species)
Family BLENNIIDAE Combtooth Blennies   (63 genera/subgenera • 408 species/subspecies)
Subfamily SALARIINAE
Subfamily BLENNIINAE
Family CLINIDAE Kelp Blennies   (27 genera/subgenera • 87 species)
+ Family LABRISOMIDAE   (18 genera/subgenera • 129 species)
+ Family CHAENOPSIDAE Pikeblennies or Tubeblennies   (13 genera • 91 species/subspecies)

Order GOBIESOCIFORMES Clingfishes
Family GOBIESOCIDAE
   (50 genera • 182 species/subspecies)
Subfamily GOBIESOCINAE
Subfamily LEPADOGASTRINAE
Subfamily PROTOGOBIESOCINAE
Subfamily ASPASMINAE
Subfamily DIADEMICHTHYINAE
Subfamily CHEILOBRANCHINAE Shore-Eels
Subfamily CHORISOCHISMINAE
Subfamily DIPLOCREPINAE
Subfamily HAPLOCYLICINAE
Subfamily TRACHELOCHISMINAE

Superorder ATHERINOMORPHAE
Order ATHERINIFORMES Silversides   (10 families • 55 genera/subgenera • 381 species/subspecies)
Suborder ATHERINOPSOIDEI
Family ATHERINOPSIDAE New World Silversides   (19 genera/subgenera • 112 species/subspecies)
Subfamily ATHERINOPSINAE
Subfamily MENIDIINAE
Subfamily NOTOCHEIRINAE Surf Silverside
Suborder ATHERINOIDEI
+ Family ATHERINIDAE Silversides   (12 genera • 72 species)
Subfamily ATHERINIMORINAE
Subfamily ATHERININAE
Subfamily CRATEROCEPHALINAE Hardyheads
Subfamily BLEHERATHERININAE New Caledonian Silverside
+ Family ATHERIONIDAE Pricklenose Silversides   (1 genus • 3 species)
Family BEDOTIIDAE Malagasy Rainbowfishes   (2 genera • 16 species)
+ Family MELANOTAENIIDAE Rainbowfishes   (7 genera • 112 species/subspecies)
+ Family PSEUDOMUGILIDAE Blue-eyes   (3 genera • 19 species)
+ Family TELMATHERINIDAE Sailfin Silversides   (5 genera • 18 species)
+ Family ISONIDAE Surf Sardines   (1 genus • 5 species)
+ Family DENTATHERINIDAE Tusked Sardine   (monotypic)
+ Family PHALLOSTETHIDAE Priapium Fishes   (4 genera • 23 species)

Order BELONIFORMES Needlefishes  (6 families • 43 genera/subgenera • 291 species/subspecies)
Suborder ADRIANICHTHYOIDEI
Family ADRIANICHTHYIDAE   (2 genera • 37 species)
Subfamily ORYZIINAE Medakas or Ricefishes
Subfamily ADRIANICHTHYINAE Duckbilled Fishes
Suborder EXOCOETOIDEI
Family EXOCOETIDAE Flyingfishes   (15 genera/subgenera • 76 species/subspecies)
Subfamily FODIATORINAE
Subfamily PAREXOCOETINAE
Subfamily EXOCOETINAE
Subfamily CYPSELURINAE
Family HEMIRAMPHIDAE Halfbeaks   (9 genera/subgenera • 64 species/subspecies)
Family ZENARCHOPTERIDAE Viviparous Halfbeaks   (5 genera • 62 species/subspecies)
Family BELONIDAE Needlefishes   (10 genera • 47 species/subspecies)
Family SCOMBERESOCIDAE Sauries   (2 genera • 5 species/subspecies)

Order CYPRINODONTIFORMES Killifishes (in development)
Suborder APLOCHEILOIDEI
Family APLOCHEILIDAE Asian and Malagasy Rivulines   (2 genera • 16 species)
+ Family NOTHOBRANCHIIDAE African Rivulines   (33 genera/subgenera • 321 species/subspecies)
Subfamily NOTHOBRANCHIINAE
Subfamily EPIPLATINAE
Family RIVULIDAE New World Rivulines   (48 genera/subgenera • 458 species/subspecies)
Subfamily RIVULINAE
Subfamily KRYPTOLEBIATINAE Mangrove Killifishes
Subfamily CYNOLEBIINAE Pearl Killifishes