Order SQUALIFORMES (Dogfish Sharks)

COMMENTS
v. 12.0 – 14 March 2017  view/download PDF

6 families • 23 genera/subgenera • 129 species/subspecies

Family CENTROPHORIDAE Gulper Sharks
2 genera • 16 species

Centrophorus Müller & Henle 1837    kentron, thorn or spine; pherein, to have or bear, referring to grooved spines on dorsal fins

Centrophorus atromarginatus Garman 1913    atra, black; marginatus, enclosed with a border, referring to black edging on all or most fins

Centrophorus granulosus (Bloch & Schneider 1801)    referring to granular brown skin

Centrophorus harrissoni McCulloch 1915    in honor of biologist Charles Turnbull Harrisson (1869-1914), responsible for collecting and preserving many of the “more interesting” fishes during the “fishing experiments” of FIS Endeavour off the coast of Australia, 1909-1914 [he disappeared along with his ship and all hands in December 1914; no distress message had been given and no trace of the ship was ever found]

Centrophorus isodon (Chu, Meng & Liu 1981)    iso-, equal; don, tooth, referring to similarly-shaped teeth on both jaws

Centrophorus lusitanicus Barbosa du Bocage & de Brito Capello 1864    icus, belonging to: Lusitania, ancient name of Portugal, type locality

Centrophorus moluccensis Bleeker 1860    ensis, suffix denoting place: Moluccas Islands, Indonesia, type locality

Centrophorus seychellorum Baranes 2003    orum, commemorative suffix, plural: in honor of the “seychellois,” helpful and always smiling inhabitants of the paradise islands of the Republic of Seychelles

Centrophorus squamosus (Bonnaterre 1788)    scaly, referring to its large scales

Centrophorus tessellatus Garman 1906    tessellated, i.e., inlaid with small squares, probably referring to dermal denticles block-like and wide-spaced, not overlapping

Centrophorus uyato (Rafinesque 1810)    uyat or uyato, derived from agullats or ahullats, vernacular for dogfish sharks in the Mediterranean [based on a Squalus (Squalidae, see below) from the Mediterranean, name is now incorrectly applied to this gulper shark from the eastern Indian Ocean and north Atlantic]

Centrophorus westraliensis White, Ebert & Compagno 2008    ensis, suffix denoting place: Western Australia, only known geographic range

Centrophorus zeehaani White, Ebert & Compagno 2008    in honor of the commercial vessel Zeehaan, from which first specimens were collected from Tasmanian waters in 1979

Deania Jordan & Snyder 1902    ia, belonging to: ichthyologist Bashford Dean (1867-1928), American Museum of Natural History, for his research on selachian fishes

Deania calcea (Lowe 1839)    shoe or slipper, from Portuguese vernacular, sapata branca, white shoe, referring to whiter coloration and long snout that resembles a shoe

Deania hystricosa (Garman 1906)    like a porcupine, referring to rough skin formed by large pitchfork-shaped denticles

Deania profundorum (Smith & Radcliffe 1912)    of the depths, type specimens collected from 392 to 976 fathoms

Deania quadrispinosa (McCulloch 1915)    quadri-, fourfold; spinosus, thorny, referring to four-spined dermal denticles


Family ETMOPTERIDAE Lantern Sharks
4 genera • 48 species

Aculeola de Buen 1959    stinger or spur, referring to spines on both dorsal fins

Aculeola nigra de Buen 1959    black, referring to uniform black color in formalin

Centroscyllium Müller & Henle 1841    kentron, thorn or spine, referring to spines on both dorsal fins; skylion, Greek for dogfish or small shark, probably from skyllo, to tear or mangle

Centroscyllium excelsum Shirai & Nakaya 1990    elevated, referring to very high first dorsal fin

Centroscyllium fabricii (Reinhardt 1825)    in honor of Danish naturalist, missionary and ethnographer Otto Fabricius (1744-1822), the first to study this species and the fishes of Greenland

Centroscyllium granulatum Günther 1887    grainy, referring to “epidermoid productions” of head and body being “granulated” and much coarser than C. fabricii

Centroscyllium kamoharai Abe 1966    in honor of ichthyologist Toshiji Kamohara (1901-1972), Kochi University, for his generosity to all ichthyologists

Centroscyllium nigrum Garman 1899    black, referring to deep black coloration

Centroscyllium ornatum (Alcock 1889)    decorated or adorned, probably referring to “head with minute white spots in the shape of a lute; ventrals with pale tips”

Centroscyllium ritteri Jordan & Fowler 1903    in honor of William Emerson Ritter (1856–1944), University of California, for his work on the tunicates and enteropneusta (acorn worms) of the Pacific Ocean

Etmopterus Rafinesque 1810    etmagen, to cut; ptero, fin, referring to frayed fins of original type specimen

Etmopterus alphus Ebert, Straube, Leslie & Weigmann 2016    white spot on skin, referring to characteristic white spot on cheeks

Etmopterus benchleyi Vásquez, Ebert & Long 2015    in honor of Peter Benchley (1940-2006), author of Jaws and subsequently an avid shark conservationist; his legacy, the Benchley Awards, recognizes outstanding achievements in ocean conservation

Etmopterus bigelowi Shirai & Tachikawa 1993    in honor of Henry B. Bigelow (1879–1967), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, who, with William C. Schroeder and Stewart Springer, first described this species in 1955 but misidentified it as E. pusillus

Etmopterus brachyurus Smith & Radcliffe 1912    brachys, short; oura, tail, referring to shorter caudal fin compared to E. lucifer

Etmopterus bullisi Bigelow & Schroeder 1957    in honor of marine biologist Harvey R. Bullis, Jr., presumably for collecting or supplying type, and/or furnishing the authors with other fishes collected off the coasts of Florida

Etmopterus burgessi Schaaf-Da Silva & Ebert 2006    in honor of George Burgess, Florida Museum of Natural History, for his contributions to the systematics of Etmopterus

Etmopterus carteri Springer & Burgess 1985    in honor of Carter Gilbert, Florida Museum of Natural History, for his 1967 revision of hammerhead sharks

Etmopterus caudistigmus Last, Burgess & Séret 2002    cauda, tail; stigma, mark, referring to oval markings on caudal fin

Etmopterus compagnoi Fricke & Koch 1990    in honor of shark taxonomist Leonard J. V. Compagno, for his research on South African sharks

Etmopterus decacuspidatus Chan 1966    dekas, ten; cuspidatus, pointed, referring to five (sometimes four) pairs of cusplets on each side of every upper tooth

Etmopterus dianthus Last, Burgess & Séret 2002    pink, referring to upper body coloration in life

Etmopterus dislineatus Last, Burgess & Séret 2002    dis, broken; lineatus, lined, referring to dark broken lines resembling dots and dashes extending horizontally along body

Etmopterus evansi Last, Burgess & Séret 2002    in honor of Australian fishery scientist David Evans, who has “meticulously selected and donated valuable taxonomic specimens … collected by commercial trawlers from the tropical deepwater of Western Australia”

Etmopterus fusus Last, Burgess & Séret 2002    fusiform, referring to torpedo-like shape

Etmopterus gracilispinis Krefft 1968    gracilis, slender; spinis, thorn, referring to thin spines on both dorsal fins and/or short, slender thorn or prickle on scales

Etmopterus granulosus (Günther 1880)    granulated, referring to rough conical denticles on skin

Etmopterus hillianus (Poey 1861)    ianus, belonging to: Jamaican magistrate and amateur naturalist Richard Hill (1795-1872), for his “Contributions to the Natural History of the Shark” (1851) and other writings on fishes

Etmopterus joungi Knuckey, Ebert & Burgess 2011    in honor of Shoou-Jeng Joung, National Taiwan Ocean University, for his contributions to chondrichthyan research in Taiwan and for his assistance and support during field surveys conducted by the second and third authors in Taiwanese fish markets

Etmopterus joungi Knuckey, Ebert & Burgess 2011    in honor of Shoou-Jeng Joung, National Taiwan Ocean University, for his contributions to chondrichthyan research in Taiwan and for his assistance and support during field surveys conducted by the second and third authors in Taiwanese fish markets

Etmopterus lailae Ebert, Papastamatiou, Kajiura & Wetherbee 2017    in honor of Laila Mostello-Wetherbee, shark enthusiast and daughter of co-author Brad Wetherbee

Etmopterus lucifer Jordan & Snyder 1902    lux, light; fero, to bear, referring to photophores on belly

Etmopterus molleri (Whitley 1939)    in honor of K. Moller, trawler captain who collected type

Etmopterus perryi Springer & Burgess 1985    in honor of Perry W. Gilbert (1912-2000), Mote Marine Laboratory (Sarasota, Florida, USA), for his contributions to the knowledge of elasmobranch reproduction and other aspects of shark biology

Etmopterus polli Bigelow, Schroeder & Springer 1953    in honor of Belgian ichthyologist Max Poll (1908-1991), who discovered species and sent specimens to Harvard’s Museum of Comparative Zoology

Etmopterus princeps Collett 1904    first or foremost, possibly referring to larger size (largest Etmopterus in the western Atlantic) compared to E. spinax

Etmopterus pseudosqualiolus Last, Burgess & Séret 2002    pseudo, false; Squaliolus (Dalatiidae), a genus of small squaloid sharks, i.e., although this genus may superficially resemble Squaliolus in body shape, such an appearance is false

Etmopterus pusillus (Lowe 1839)    very small (Lowe’s specimens were 28-30 cm in length)

Etmopterus pycnolepis Kotlyar 1990    pycno-, thick or dense; lepis, scale, referring to dense rows of denticles on head, trunk and tail

Etmopterus robinsi Schofield & Burgess 1997    in honor of C. Richard Robins, for his many years of service to systematic ichthyology and his development of the important University of Miami ichthyological collection

Etmopterus schultzi Bigelow, Schroeder & Springer 1953    patronym not identified, presumably in honor of Smithsonian ichthyologist Leonard P. Schultz (1901-1986)

Etmopterus sculptus Ebert, Compagno & De Vries 2011    from sculpo, carve, referring to carved or sculpted appearance of linear denticles

Etmopterus sentosus Bass, D’Aubrey & Kistnasamy 1976    thorny, referring to 2-3 rows of enlarged hooklike denticles on flanks, unique to genus

Etmopterus sheikoi (Dolganov 1986)    in honor of Boris A. Sheiko (b. 1957), marine biologist, Laboratory of Ichthyology at the Zoological Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia, and veteran of many oceanographic expeditions to the Northwestern Pacific Ocean and Northern Bering Sea

Etmopterus spinax (Linnaeus 1758)     spine, referring to spines on both dorsal fins

Etmopterus splendidus Yano 1988    bright or shining, probably referring to purplish-black back and bluish-back underside in life

Etmopterus unicolor (Engelhardt 1912)    uni-, one, referring to uniform dark gray or brown coloration, i.e., without a sharp contrast between dorsal and ventral colors

Etmopterus viator Straube 2011    Latin for traveler, since shark occurs in two geographically distant locations in the Southern Hemisphere (off South Africa, Kerguelen Plateau, southern Indian Ocean, and Chatham Rise, New Zealand, southwestern Pacific)

Etmopterus villosus Gilbert 1905    wooly or shaggy, referring to skin thickly beset with small plates, each bearing a slender spine

Etmopterus virens Bigelow, Schroeder & Springer 1953    green, referring to the bright green iridescent belly of living specimens

Trigonognathus Mochizuki & Ohe 1990    trigonos, triangular; gnathus, jaw, referring to its triangular jaws

Trigonognathus kabeyai Mochizuki & Ohe 1990    in memory of Hiromichi Kabeya, fishing boat captain who collected type specimens


Family SOMNIOSIDAE Sleeper Sharks
7 genera/subgenera • 17 species

Centroscymnus Barbosa du Bocage & Brito Capello 1864    kentron, thorn or spine, referring to spines on both dorsal fins; scymnus, an ancient name for some kind of shark, derived from Greek word for lion cub

Centroscymnus coelolepis Barbosa du Bocage & Brito Capello 1864    coelo-, hollow; lepis, scale, referring to concave skin denticles

Centroscymnus owstonii Garman 1906    in honor of Alan Owston (1853–1915), businessman, yachtsman and collector of Asian wildlife, who obtained type

Centroselachus Garman 1913    kentron, thorn or spine, referring to spines on both dorsal fins; selachos, a cartilaginous fish

Centroselachus crepidater (Barbosa du Bocage & Brito Capello 1864)    crepid, low shoe (e.g., slipper); ater, black, Latin transliteration of Portugeuse vernacular sapata-preta, possibly referring to superficial resemblance to a black velvet slipper

Scymnodalatias Garrick 1956    scymno-, referring to previous placement in Scymnodon; dalatias, referring to lack of dorsal spines like most sharks in the family Dalatiidae (sometimes included within Somniosidae)

Scymnodalatias albicauda Taniuchi & Garrick 1986    albus, white; cauda, tail, referring to white markings on caudal fin

Scymnodalatias garricki Kukuyev & Konovalenko 1988    in honor of New Zealand elasmobranch biologist J. A. F. (Jack) Garrick (1928-1999), who described Scymnodalatias

Scymnodalatias oligodon Kukuyev & Konovalenko 1988    oligos, small, few; odontos, tooth, referring to fewer teeth in upper jaw compared to congeners

Scymnodalatias sherwoodi (Archey 1921)    in honor of C. W. Sherwood, who discovered the shark washed up on a beach in Canterbury, New Zealand, and presented it to the local museum

Scymnodon Barbosa du Bocage & Brito Capello 1864    scymnus, an ancient name for some kind of shark, derived from Greek word for lion cub; odous, teeth, referring to large, triangular cutting teeth on lower jaw

Scymnodon macracanthus (Regan 1906)    macro-, large; acanthus, thorn, referring to stout, prominent dorsal fin spines

Scymnodon plunketi (Waite 1910)    in honor of William Lee Plunket (1864-1920), 16th Governor of New Zealand, for his interest in the Canterbury Museum and “gratefully remembering His Excellency’s kindness when, as his guest, [Waite] accompanied him on his cruise to the southern islands of New Zealand in 1907”

Scymnodon ringens Barbosa du Bocage & Brito Capello 1864    gaping, referring to large, open mouth (“ore amplo, hiante”)

Scymnodon ichiharai Yano & Tanaka 1984    in honor of marine biologist Tadayoshi Ichihara, Tokai University, who suggested that the authors study this shark

Somniosus Lesueur 1818    sleepy, based on Lesueur’s surmise that these sharks are slow or sluggish because of their relatively small fins

Subgenus Somniosus

Somniosus antarcticus Whitley 1939    icus, belonging to: the Antarctic (Whitley presumed this to be the first shark recorded from there)

Somniosus microcephalus (Bloch & Schneider 1801)    micro, small; cephalus, head, possibly referring to short, rounded snout compared to other sharks in catch-all genus Squalus

Somniosus pacificus Bigelow & Schroeder 1944    icus, belonging to: the Pacific Ocean (specifically, the North Pacific, also occurs in Arctic Ocean)

Subgenus Rhinoscymnus Gill 1865    rhino-, etymology not explained, perhaps rhinos, snout, referring to short, rounded snout of type, S. rostratus; scymnus, an ancient name for some kind of shark, derived from Greek word for lion cub

Somniosus longus (Tanaka 1912)    long, perhaps referring to what Tanaka described as its “oblong” shape

Somniosus rostratus (Risso 1827)    beaked, referring to elongated rostrum

Zameus Jordan & Fowler 1903    zame, shark in Japanese (at the time the type species, Z. squamulosus, was known only from Japan)

Zameus squamulosus (Günther 1877)    with small scales, which are so minute as to give skin a velvety appearance


Family OXYNOTIDAE Rough Sharks
1 genus • 5 species

Oxynotus Rafinesque 1810    oxys, sharp; noton, back, referring to keeled back (“dorso carenato”)

Oxynotus bruniensis (Ogilby 1893)   ensis, suffix denoting place: the shore of Bruny Island, Tasmania, where type was discovered in a “dried … but fair state of preservation”

Oxynotus caribbaeus Cervigón 1961    from the Caribbean coast of Venezuela, type locality

Oxynotus centrina (Linnaeus 1758)    kentron, thorn or spine, referring to spines on both dorsal fins

Oxynotus japonicus Yano & Murofushi 1985        icus, belonging to: Japan (specifically, Suruga Bay in Honshu, type locality)

Oxynotus paradoxus Frade 1929    strange or contrary to expectation; Frade was not sure if this shark, with first dorsal spine directed backward instead of forward, represented a new species or an aberrant form of O. centrina


Family DALATIIDAE Kitefin Sharks
7 genera • 9 species

Dalatias Rafinesque 1810    etymology not explained, possibly derived from Dalmatia, then a country on the east side of the Adriatic Sea, or from dalos, torch, allusion not evident

Dalatias licha (Bonnaterre 1788)    latinization of la liche, an old French word for this species

Euprotomicroides Hulley & Penrith 1966    oides, having the form of: referring to resemblance to Euprotomicrus in general shape

Euprotomicroides zantedeschia Hulley & Penrith 1966    referring to Zantedeschia aethiopica, South African arum lily, after which Arum, trawler that collected type, was named

Euprotomicrus Gill 1865    eu-, very; protos, first; mikros, small, referring to very small first dorsal fin

Euprotomicrus bispinatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824)    bi-, two; spinatus, spine, referring to spiny processes on each pelvic fin (claspers) of the male

 Heteroscymnoides Fowler 1934    oides, having the form of, referring to similarity to Heteroscymnus (=Somniosus, now in Somniosidae)

Heteroscymnoides marleyi Fowler 1934    in honor of Natal fisheries officer Harold Walter Bell-Marley (ca.1872-1945), who collected many “interesting” South African fishes for Fowler

Isistius Gill 1865    etymology not explained, perhaps iso-, equal; istios, sail, referring to its two similarly shaped and sized (and posterior) dorsal fins, a character Gill used to diagnose genus (José I. Castro in The Sharks of North America [2011] suggests name may allude to the Egyptian goddess Isis, who was represented in statuary with her head veiled, or to the dark collar of Isistius, both allusions to dark collar encircling throat of I. brasiliensis)

Isistius brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824)    ensis, suffix denoting place: off the coast of Brazil, type locality

Isistius plutodus Garrick & Springer 1964    ploutos, wealth, riches or abundance; odon, tooth, referring to larger size of lower jaw teeth compared to congeners

Mollisquama Dolganov 1984    mollis, soft; squama, scale, referring to its soft scales, which are apparently unique among sharks

Mollisquama parini Dolganov 1984    in honor of ichthyologist Nikolai Vasil’evich Parin (1932-2012), Russian Academy of Sciences, an authority on the fauna of the Nazca submarine ridge (east of Chile), where only known specimen was collected

Squaliolus Smith & Radcliffe 1912    squalus, shark; –olus, little, referring to small size of S. laticaudus

Squaliolus aliae Teng 1959    in honor of the Teng’s wife, Huang A-li, for her continuous encouragement and assistance over the past 20-some years

Squaliolus laticaudus Smith & Radcliffe 1912    latus, broad; cauda, tail, referring to broad (but short) caudal fin


Family SQUALIDAE Dogfish Sharks
2 genera • 34 species/subspecies

Cirrhigaleus Tanaka 1912    cirrus, curl of hair, referring to moustache-like nasal barbels on C. barbifer; galeus, Greek for weasel, an ancient name for sharks, perhaps alluding to what some may have perceived as a weasel-like body or pointed snout

Cirrhigaleus asper (Merrett 1973)    rough, referring to rough skin texture

Cirrhigaleus australis White, Last & Stevens 2007    southern, referring to distribution in the temperate Southern Hemisphere

Cirrhigaleus barbifer Tanaka 1912    barba, beard; fero, to bear, referring to moustache-like barbels on anterior nasal flaps

Squalus Linnaeus 1758    Latin for a kind of sea-fish, usually applied to sharks

Squalus acanthias acanthias Linnaeus 1758    spine or prickly thing, referring to dorsal fin spines

Squalus acanthias ponticus Myagkov & Kondyurin 1986    icus, belonging to: the Black Sea (=Pontos), where it is endemic

Squalus acutipinnis Regan 1908    acutus, sharp; pinna, fin, presumably referring to dorsal-fin spines

Squalus albicaudus Viana, Carvalho & Gomes 2016    albus, white; cauda, tail, referring to white ventral lobe of caudal fined

Squalus albifrons Last, White & Stevens 2007    albus, white; frons, brow, referring to white upper ocular margin in most specimens where denticles have been shed

Squalus altipinnis Last, White & Stevens 2007    altus, high; pinna, fin, referring to upright dorsal fin

Squalus bahiensis Viana, Carvalho & Gomes 2016    –ensis, suffix denoting place: coast near Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, where it is apparently endemic

Squalus blainville (Risso 1827)    in honor of zoologist-anatomist Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville (1777-1850), who named several shark taxa in 1816 [a noun in apposition, without the patronymic “i”]

Squalus brevirostris Tanaka 1917    brevi-, short; rostris, snout, referring to shorter preoral snout length compared to S. japonicus

Squalus bucephalus Last, Séret & Pogonoski 2007    bu, large; kephalis, of the head, referring to “relatively bulky” head

Squalus chloroculus Last, White & Motomura 2007    chloros, green; oculus, eye, referring to vivid green eyes of fresh specimens

Squalus crassispinus Last, Edmunds & Yearsley 2007    crassus, fat or stout; spinus, thorn, referring to stout dorsal fin spines

Squalus cubensis Howell Rivero 1936    ensis, suffix denoting place: Havana, Cuba, type locality (but occurs throughout warm-temperate and tropical eastern Atlantic)

Squalus edmundsi White, Last & Stevens 2007    in honor of Matt Edmunds for his “high-quality, preliminary research” on Australian Squalus during a summer vacation scholarship at CSIRO Marine Laboratories in the early 1990s

Squalus formosus White & Iglésias 2011    osus, adjectival suffix: referring to Formosa, or Taiwan, type locality

Squalus grahami White, Last & Stevens 2007    in honor of ichthyologist Ken Graham, who collected type and has contributed greatly to the knowledge of southeast Australian elasmobranchs

Squalus griffini Phillipps 1931    patronym not identified but likely in honor of Louis T. Griffin (d. 1935), Auckland Museum, author of several papers on New Zealand fishes

Squalus hemipinnis White, Last & Yearsley 2007    hemi-, half; pinna, fin, referring to strongly notched, v-shaped posterior margin of second dorsal fin

Squalus japonicus Ishikawa 1908    Japanese, referring to type locality (but occurs throghout northwest Pacific)

Squalus lalannei Baranes 2003    in honor of Maurice Lousteau-Lalanne (b. 1955), Ministry for the Protection of the Environment of the Republic of Seychelles, for his help in organizing the expedition that collected type, his kindness, and his friendship

Squalus lobularis Viana, Carvalho & Gomes 2016    lobed, referring to diagnostic broad and lobe-like dorsal and pectoral fins

Squalus megalops (Macleay 1881)    mega-, large; ops, eye, referring to “great length” of “orbital cavity”

Squalus melanurus Fourmanoir & Rivaton 1979    melanos, black; oura, tail, referring to black patch on lower caudal fin lobe

Squalus mitsukurii Jordan & Snyder 1913    in honor of zoologist Kakichi Mitsukuri (1858-1909), dean of the Imperial University of Tokyo, who was with Jordan and Snyder at Misaki, Japan, when type was taken

Squalus montalbani Whitley 1931    patronym not identified but since name is replacing the preoccupied S. philippinus of the Philippines, perhaps it is in honor of Filipino fisheries biologist Heraclio R. Montalban

Squalus nasutus Last, Marshall & White 2007    large-nosed, referring to elongated prenarial snout

Squalus notocaudatus Last, White & Stevens 2007    nota, mark; cauda, tail, referring to dark bar on caudal fin

Squalus quasimodo Viana, Carvalho & Gomes 2016    name of hump-backed character in Victor Hugo’s novel The Hunchback of Dame (1831), referring to conspicuous dorsally humped body

Squalus rancureli Fourmanoir & Rivaton 1979    in honor of oceanographer Paul Rancurel, who collected type and was the first to note its principal characters

Squalus raoulensis Duffy & Last 2007    ensis, suffix denoting place: Raoul Island, New Zealand, type locality

Squalus suckleyi (Girard 1855)    in honor of physician-naturalist George Suckley (1830–1869), who collected type