Order SILURIFORMES: Families CLARIIDAE, HETEROPNEUSTIDAE, ANCHARIIDAE and ARIIDAE

COMMENTS
v. 10.0 – 7 Aug. 2016  view/download PDF

Family CLARIIDAE Airbreathing Catfishes
21 genera/subgenera  · 121 species

Bathyclarias Jackson 1959    bathys, deep, referring to species flock endemic to Lake Malawi (or Nyasa), “where they occupy a variety of habitats down to the limits of dissolved oxygen”; Clarias, type genus of family

Bathyclarias euryodon Jackson 1959    eury, broad; odon, tooth, referring to very wide vomerine tooth-band, more than twice relative width of endemic congeners

Bathyclarias ilesi Jackson 1959    in honor of colleague T. D. Iles, Joint Fisheries Research Organization (of Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland), for his “keen interest” in clariid systematics, and who drew Jackson’s attention to this species and collected type

Bathyclarias longibarbis (Worthington 1933)    longus, long; barbis, barbel, referring to its “extremely long barbels”

Bathyclarias rotundifrons Jackson 1959    rotundus, rounded; frons, face or forehead, referring to “round and chubby” head with “smooth curving contours”

Bathyclarias worthingtoni Jackson 1959    in honor of Edward Barton Worthington (1905-2001), pioneer explorer of African lakes and their fisheries, “whose taxonomic studies on the non-cichlid fishes of the Central African region have proved to be such a valuable foundation on which to base future work”

Channallabes Günther 1873    Channa, genus of Asian snakeheads (Perciformes: Channidae), many of which, like species in this genus, lack pelvic fins (Günther also named the osmeriform genus Neochanna [Galaxiidae], which also lacks pelvic fins); allabes, ancient Greek name for Clarias anguillaris, now used as a suffix for eel-shaped clariid catfishes

Channallabes alvarezi (Roman 1971)    in honor of Mario Álvarez (relationship to author not specified), in “gratitude and friendship” (translation)

Channallabes apus (Günther 1873)    a-, without; pous, foot, referring to “useless” paired fins: pectoral fins “reduced to a minute rudiment” and ventral fins absent

Channallabes longicaudatus (Pappenheim 1911)    longus, long; caudatus, tailed, referring to longer tail compared to presumed congener at the time, Clariallabes melas

Channallabes ogooensis Devaere, Adriaens & Verraes 2007    ensis, suffix denoting place: Ogowe River system, Gabon, where it appears to be endemic

Channallabes sanghaensis Devaere, Adriaens & Verraes 2007    ensis, suffix denoting place: Sangha freshwater region of Africa, where it occurs

Channallabes teugelsi Devaere, Adriaens & Verraes 2007    in honor of the late Guy Teugels (1954-2003), curator of fishes at the Musée Royale de l’Afrique Centrale, “as a tribute to his career and his efforts on African catfish taxonomy, especially Clariidae”

Clariallabes Boulenger 1900    combination of Clarias and Gymnallabes, described as intermediate in form between these two genera

Clariallabes attemsi (Holly 1927)    patronym not identified, probably in honor of Holly’s Austrian colleague, zoologist Carl Attems (1868-1952), who described ~1800 new myriapod taxa

Clariallabes brevibarbis Pellegrin 1913    brevis, short; barbis, barbel, referring to “generally shorter” barbels (translation) compared to C. melas

Clariallabes centralis (Poll & Lambert 1958)    central, probably referring to occurrence in the Central Congo River system

Clariallabes heterocephalus Poll 1967    heteros, different; cephalus, head, presumably referring to more elongated head compared to its presumed closest congener, C. variabilis

Clariallabes laticeps (Steindachner 1911)    latus, wide; ceps, head, referring to wider head compared to C. longicauda

Clariallabes longicauda (Boulenger 1902)    longus, long; cauda, tail, presumably referring to length of tail, described as 2/3 length of head

Clariallabes manyangae (Boulenger 1919)    of Manyanga, Lower Congo River, Democratic Republic of the Congo, where it is endemic

Clariallabes melas (Boulenger 1887)    black, referring to uniform black-brown coloration (dorsally)

Clariallabes mutsindoziensis Taverne & De Vos 1998    ensis, suffix denoting place: Mutsindozi River, Lake Tanganyika basin, Burundi, type locality

Clariallabes petricola Greenwood 1956    petra, rock; –cola, living among, referring to presumed habitat consisting of large stones and coarse pebbles, and coarse shingles overlying sandy clay

Clariallabes pietschmanni (Güntert 1938)    in honor of ichthyologist Viktor Pietschmann (1881-1956), for his interest in Güntert’s work and his services to the fish collection of the Natural History Museum in Vienna

Clariallabes platyprosopos Jubb 1965    platy, broad or flat; prosopos, face, presumably referring to distinctive “broad flat head”

Clariallabes simeonsi Poll 1941    in honor of H. M. Simeons (no other information available), who collected type and/or provided the collection of fishes that contained type to the Musée royal d’Histoire naturelle de Bruxelles

Clariallabes teugelsi Ferraris 2007    in honor of Guy Teugels (1954-2003), late curator of fishes at the Musée Royale de l’Afrique Centrale and authority on Clarias taxonomy; replacement name for Clarias (Allabenchelys) dumerili longibarbis David & Poll 1937, preoccupied by C. longibarbis Worthington 1933

Clariallabes uelensis (Poll 1941)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Uélé River, Congo River basin, Democratic Republic of Congo, type locality

Clariallabes variabilis Pellegrin 1926    variable, allusion not explained, possibly referring to variable number (0, 1 or 2) of ventral fins (not fin rays) on specimens Pellegrin examined

Clarias Scopoli 1777    meaning uncertain; according to Valenciennes (1840), a corruption of callarias, cod, dating back to Belon (1553), who called C. anguillaris “Claria nilotica” (i.e., cod of the Nile) [note: many modern references state name may be derived from the Greek chlaros (note that Scopoli’s spelling was Chlarias), meaning lively, referring to the extreme hardiness of clariids and/or their ability to live for a long time out of water (and, in some cases, actually move across land)]

Subgenus Clarias

Clarias anfractus Ng 1999    twisted or crooked, referring to irregular outline of pectoral spine

Clarias anguillaris (Linnaeus 1758)    eel-like, referring to elongate body

Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus 1758)    frog, probably referring to frog-like ability to leave the water and move across land

Clarias batu Lim & Ng 1999    Malay word for rock, referring to rock- and boulder-strewn torrent streams in which it inhabits

Clarias brachysoma Günther 1864    brachys, short; soma, body, perhaps referring to length (12.7-15.2 cm), somewhat small for a Clarias

Clarias cataractus (Fowler 1939)    waterfall, where type was collected in Trang, Thailand

Clarias dayi Hora 1936    in honor of Francis Day (1829-1889), Inspector-General of Fisheries in India, who provisionally identified type specimen as C. dussumieri or C. melanoderma (=meladerma) in 1877

Clarias dussumieri Valenciennes 1840    in honor of Jean-Jacques Dussumier (1792-1883), French voyager and merchant, who observed this catfish in India, noting how it can “live long out of water, and crawl great distances” (translation)

Clarias fuscus (Lacepède 1803)    dark or dusky, referring to its brown, unspotted color

Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822)    inus, belonging to: Gariep (meaning “Great Water”) River (now known as Orange River), the longest river in South Africa, type locality (but widespread in Africa and Asia Minor and introduced elsewhere)

Clarias gracilentus Ng, Hong & Tu 2011    slender, referring to its slender body compared to C. nieuhofii

Clarias insolitus Ng 2003    strange, referring to combination of hypertrophied sensory canal pores and a knife-shaped anterior fontanel, not seen in other Southeast Asian Clarias

Clarias intermedius Teugels, Sudarto & Pouyaud 2001    referring to intermediate external morphology between C. macrocephalus and C. meladerma

Clarias kapuasensis Sudarto, Teugels & Pouyaud 2003    ensis, suffix denoting place: Kapuas River basin, Borneo, Indonesia, where it is endemic

Clarias leiacanthus Bleeker 1851    leios, smooth; acanthus, thorn, referring to smooth pectoral spine

Clarias macrocephalus Günther 1864    macro-, long; cephalus, head, referring to long head, ¼ of TL

Clarias magur (Hamilton 1822)    magur and maghur, Assamese and Bengali names, respectively, for this catfish (and for C. batrachus) along the Ganges River in India

Clarias meladerma Bleeker 1846    melas, black; derma, skin, referring to blackish-dark body coloration, sometimes variegated with irregular, deeply black spots

Clarias microspilus Ng & Hadiaty 2011    micro-, small; spilos, spot, referring to very small white spots arranged in a longitudinal and several transverse series on body

Clarias microstomus Ng 2001    micro-, small; stomus, mouth, referring to its narrow snout

Clarias nieuhofii Valenciennes 1840    in honor of Johan Nieuhof (1618-1672), Dutch East India Company, who described and illustrated this species in 1682 (but later examination of Nieuhof’s illustration reveals it is a different species)

Clarias nigricans Ng 2003    blackish, referring to relatively dark color

Clarias olivaceus Fowler 1904    referring to “blackish-olive” vertical fins and upper body

Clarias planiceps Ng 1999    planus, flat; ceps, head, referring to its flattened head

Clarias pseudoleiacanthus Sudarto, Teugels & Pouyaud 2003    pseudo-, false, i.e., although morphologically similar to C. leiacanthus, such an appearance is false

Clarias pseudonieuhofii Sudarto, Teugels & Pouyaud 2004    pseudo-, false, i.e., although similar to, and previously misidentified as, C. nieuhofii, such an appearance is false

Clarias serniosus Ng & Kottelat 2014    scabby, referring to color pattern of small, irregular dark patches

Clarias sulcatus Ng 2004    furrow, referring to narrow frontal fontanel

Clarias teijsmanni Bleeker 1857    in honor of Dutch botanist Johannes Elias Teijsmann (1808-1882, sometimes spelled Teysmann), who collected type

Subgenus Anguilloclarias Teugels 1982    anguilla, eel, referring to anguilliform body typical of the subgenus, i.e., an anguilliform Clarias

Clarias alluaudi Boulenger 1906    in honor of entomologist and explorer Charles A. Alluaud (1861-1949), who collected some of the type series

Clarias cavernicola Trewavas 1936    cavern, cave; –icola, dweller or inhabitant, referring to occurrence in Dragon’s Breath Cave, Otjozondjupa, Namibia

Clarias ebriensis Pellegrin 1920    ensis, suffix denoting place: Ebri lagoon, Ivory Coast, type locality (also occurs in Nigeria)

Clarias nigromarmoratus Poll 1967    nigro-, black; marmoratus, marbled, referring to dense and black marbled color pattern on entire body except belly

Clarias pachynema Boulenger 1903    pachys, thick; nema, thread, presumably referring to longer barbels compared to C. laeviceps

Clarias salae Hubrecht 1881    in honor of Dutch sportsman and collector Carolus Franciscus Sala (1839-1881), who helped Swiss zoologist Johann Büttikofer (1850-1927) collect type

Clarias submarginatus Peters 1882    sub-, under; marginatus, bordered, referring to dark band under light outer band on unpaired fins

Clarias theodorae Weber 1897    matronym not explained and remained a mystery until 1979, when Peter B. N. Jackson uncovered that the name honors Theodora Jacoba Sleeswijk (née van Bosse, 1874-1953), the niece of Weber’s wife, who accompanied him on his visit to South Africa

Clarias werneri Boulenger 1906    in honor of Dr. F. Werner, probably Austrian herpetologist Franz Werner (1867-1939), who collected type

Subgenus Brevicephaloides Teugels 1982    oides, having the form of: brevis, short, cephalus, head, referring to relatively short head (20-25% of SL)

Clarias camerunensis Lönnberg 1895    ensis, suffix denoting place: Cameroon, type locality (but occurs throughout western and west-central Africa)

Clarias dhonti (Boulenger 1920)    in honor of Dhont-De Bie, Belgian East African Expeditionary Force, who collected type

Clarias dialonensis Daget 1962    ensis, suffix denoting place: Fouta Dialon (also spelled Djallon), highland region in Lower Guinea, type locality (also occurs in Sierra Leone)

Clarias dumerilii Steindachner 1866    patronym not identified but probably in honor of August Duméril (1812-1870), herpetologist and ichthyologist, Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (Paris)

Clarias engelseni (Johnsen 1926)    in honor of tropical-disease researcher Harald Engelsen (1883-1954), Merchant Services Division of the Norwegian Red Cross, who collected type

Clarias hilli Fowler 1936    in honor of Gordon Hill, volunteer assistant in the Department of Fishes and Reptiles, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia

Clarias laeviceps Gill 1862    laevis, snooth; ceps, head, referring to its smooth surface

Clarias liocephalus Boulenger 1898    leios, smooth; cephalus, head, referring to smooth head, covered with soft skin

Clarias longior Boulenger 1907    longer, allusion not explained, presumably referring to relatively long, anguilliform body

Subgenus Clarioides Teugels 1982    oides, having the form of: Clarias, i.e., a second subgenus of Clarias; name proposed by David (1937), but since he did not designate type name dates to Teugels, who designated type in 1982

Clarias agboyiensis Sydenham 1980    ensis, suffix denoting place: Agboyi Creek, tributary of Ogun River, Lagos State, Nigeria Ghana, type locality (also occurs in Ghana)

Clarias albopunctatus Nichols & La Monte 1953    albus, white; punctatus, spotted, referring to “numerous scattered, rounded, pale specks”

Clarias angolensis Steindachner 1866     ensis, suffix denoting place: Angola, where Steindachner bought type specimen from a Portuguese merchant for “a not inconsiderable sum of money”

Clarias buettikoferi Steindachner 1894    in honor of Swiss zoologist Johann Büttikofer (1850-1927), who collected type

Clarias buthupogon Sauvage 1879    buthu, meaning unknown; pogon, beard [in 1901, Boulenger changed the spelling to bythipogon without explanation; that spelling could translate to bythos, deep; pogon, beard, perhaps referring to long (deep?) barbels (maxillary reaches beyond anal-fin origin)]

Clarias gabonensis Günther 1867    ensis, suffix denoting place: Gabon, where type locality (Ogowe River) is situated (but occurs throughout western, central and southern Africa)

Clarias macromystax Günther 1864    macro-, long; mystax, moustache, referring to long barbels, “those of the nostrils are as long as the head, and those of the maxillaries extend to the twelfth dorsal ray”

Subgenus Dinotopteroides Fowler 1930    oides, having the form of: Dinotopterus, from which it differs in having fewer gill rakers

Clarias lamottei Daget & Planquette 1967    patronym not identified but clearly in honor of French biologist Maxime Lamotte (1920-2007), who co-founded the biological research station in the Ivory Coast, where this taxon (probably a natural hybrid between C. gariepinus and Heterobranchus isopterus) is apparently endemic

Clarias ngamensis Castelnau 1861    ensis, suffix denoting place: Lake Ngami, Botswana, type locality (but widespread in southern Africa)

Subgenus Platycephaloides Teugels 1982    oides, having the form of: platy, wide; cephalus, head, referring to broad and flat head

Clarias jaensis Boulenger 1909    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Ja River at Bitye, Congo system, southern Cameroon, type locality (also occurs in Nigeria and Gabon)

Clarias maclareni Trewavas 1962    in honor of Mr. P. I. R. MacLaren, Fisheries Development Officer of Nigeria, who collected type

Clarias platycephalus Boulenger 1902    platys, broad; cephalus, head, referring to long and broad head with a wide interorbital space

Clarias stappersii Boulenger 1915    in honor of Louis Stappers of the Belgian government, who led an expedition to central Africa in 1911-1913 and collected type                            

Dinotopterus Boulenger 1906    di-, two; notos, back; pterus, fin, referring to dorsal fin divided into rayed and adipose portions

Dinotopterus atribranchus Greenwood 1961    atri-, black; branchus, gill, referring to dark grayish-black gill filaments

Dinotopterus cunningtoni Boulenger 1906    in honor of Dr. W. A. Cunnington, who led Tanganyika expedition that collected type

Dinotopterus filicibarbis (Jackson 1959)    filicis, fern; barbis, barbel, referring to cone-shaped nasal barbels, with frilled bifid top (somewhat resembling the leaves of a fern)

Dinotopterus foveolatus (Jackson 1955)    full of pits, referring to numerous flat-bottomed, circular pits or depressions on skin

Dinotopterus gigas (Jackson 1959)    large, up to 135 cm and 65 kg, “in all probability the largest in the genus” (which at the time was Bathyclarias)

Dinotopterus jacksoni Greenwood 1961    in honor of Peter B. N. Jackson, who first recognized that certain specimens he referred to as Bathyclarias nyasensis in 1959 might represent a new species

Dinotopterus loweae (Jackson 1959)    in honor of tropical-fish ecologist Rosemary Lowe-McConnell (1921-2014), for her “single-handed” survey of the Tilapia of Lake Malawi (Nyasa), which “drew attention to the large number of clariid species existing in the lake”

Dinotopterus nyasensis (Worthington 1933)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Lake Nyassa (also known as Lake Malawi), southeastern Africa, where it is endemic

Dolichallabes Poll 1942    dolichos, Greek for long, referring to extreme anguilliform body, the most eel-like clariid catfish; allabes, ancient Greek name for Clarias anguillaris, now used as a suffix for eel-shaped clariid catfishes

Dolichallabes microphthalmus Poll 1942    micro-, small; opthalmus, eye, referring to its small eyes

Encheloclarias Myers 1937    enchelys, ancient Greek for eel, i.e., an eel-like Clarias, referring to shape of E. tapeinopterus

Encheloclarias baculum Ng & Lim 1993    Latin for rod, referring to its shape

Encheloclarias curtisoma Ng & Lim 1993    curtus, short; soma, body, referring to relatively short appearance when compared to the more elongate E. tapeinopterus

Encheloclarias kelioides Ng & Lim 1993    oides, having the form of: Ikan Keli (Ikan=fish), Malay name for species in the genus Clarias, which it superficially resembles

Encheloclarias medialis Ng 2012    middle, referring to possession of characters intermediate between those of E. curtisoma and E. kelioides

Encheloclarias prolatus Ng & Lim 1993    Latin for long, referring to elongate body and large number of vertebrae

Encheloclarias tapeinopterus (Bleeker 1853)    tapeinos, lowly; ptera, fin, referring to adipose fin, lower (but longer) than dorsal fin

Encheloclarias velatus Ng & Tan 2000    concealed, referring to its being the first species of Encheloclarias found on Sumatra after 150 years of ichthyological exploration, and to its secretive nature

Gymnallabes Günther 1867    gymnos, bare or naked, allusion not explained (some online references incorrectly state that gymnos means hidden and refers to its secretive habits, a behavior that may not have been known to Günther when he examined his preserved specimen); allabes, ancient Greek name for Clarias anguillaris, now used as a suffix for eel-shaped clariid catfishes

Gymnallabes nops Roberts & Stewart 1976    blind, referring to its eyelessness

Gymnallabes typus Günther 1867    serving as type of genus

Heterobranchus Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1809    heteros, different; branchus, gill, referring to its dendritic gill apparatus, which was quite distinctive among fishes at the time

Heterobranchus bidorsalis Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1809    bi-, two; dorsalis, of the back, referring long dorsal fin divided into rayed and adipose portions

Heterobranchus boulengeri Pellegrin 1922    in honor of ichthyologist-herpetologist George A. Boulenger (1858-1937), British Museum (Natural History), who described many fishes from Central Africa and the Congo River system

Heterobranchus isopterus Bleeker 1863    iso-, equal; pterus, fin, referring to approximate equal length of dorsal and adipose fins (compared to different lengths among congeners)

Heterobranchus longifilis Valenciennes 1840    longus, long; filis, thread, referring to long barbels, longer than the similar Clarias hasselquistii (=C. anguillaris)

Horaglanis Menon 1950    in honor of ichthyologist Sunder Lal Hora (1896-1955), Director, Zoological Survey of India, “under whose inspiring guidance and kind help” Menon’s study was completed; glanis, sheatfish (Silurus glanis), now used as a general term for catfish

Horaglanis abdulkalami Subhash Babu 2012    in honor of the former president of India, Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam (b. 1931), “who ignited young minds towards the real world of Science and Technology”

Horaglanis alikunhii Subhash Babu & Nayar 2004    in honor of “distinguished” aquaculturist Kolliyil Hameed Alikunhi (1918-2010), for his contributions to fishery science in general and Indian fisheries in particular

Horaglanis krishnai Menon 1950    in honor of Mr. N. Krishna Pillay, who collected type after draining a well

Platyallabes Poll 1977    platy, flat, referring to dorsoventrally flattened head and body; allabes, ancient Greek name for Clarias anguillaris, now used as a suffix for eel-shaped clariid catfishes

Platyallabes tihoni (Poll 1944)    in honor of Mr. L. Tihon, director, Laboratory of Industry and Commerce (Leopoldville, Belgian Congo), who supplied photograph of specimen (discovered at a fish market) from which species was described

Platyclarias Poll 1977    platy, flat, referring to very flat head and anterior part of body, i.e., a flat Clarias

Platyclarias machadoi Poll 1977    in honor of A. de Barros Machado, zoologist of the Musée de Dundo (Angola), who collected type

Pseudotanganikallabes Wright 2017    pseudo-, false, i.e., although this genus superficially resembles Tanganikallabes, such an appearance is false

Pseudotanganikallabes prognatha Wright 2017    pro-, anterior; gnathus, jaw, referring to distinctive protrusion of lower jaw

Tanganikallabes Poll 1943    Tanganika, referring to Lake Tanganyika, where T. mortiauxi (and all subsequently described congeners) is endemic; allabes, ancient Greek name for Clarias anguillaris, now used as a suffix for eel-shaped clariid catfishes

Tanganikallabes alboperca Wright & Bailey 2012    albus, white; operca, operculum, referring to distinctive depigmented posterior margin of operculum

Tanganikallabes mortiauxi Poll 1943    in honor of T. Mortiaux, a health worker in Albertville (now Kalemie), western shore of Lake Tanganyika, who collected type

Tanganikallabes stewarti Wright & Bailey 2012    in honor of American ichthyologist Donald J. Stewart, who collected type and much of the type series of T. alboperca

Uegitglanis Gianferrari 1923     Uegit, referring to Uegit, El Uegit, Somalia, where type locality (an underground pool) is situated; glanis, sheatfish (Silurus glanis), now used as a general term for catfish

Uegitglanis zammaranoi Gianferrari 1923    in honor of Italian Army officer V. T. Zammarano, who collected type

Xenoclarias Greenwood 1958    xenos, strange or foreign (i.e., different), referring to how it differs from Clarias “in only one major anatomical character” (greatly reduced suprabranchial organs and cavity)

Xenoclarias eupogon (Norman 1928)    eu-, well or very; pogon, beard, referring to much longer nasal and maxillary barbels compared to the similar C. allaudi, its presumed congener at the time

Xenoclarias holobranchus Greenwood 1958    holo-, entire; branchus, gill, referring to how entire adult branchial region is dedicated to aquatic respiration, unlike those in Clarias, which contain both aquatic and aerial respiratory areas


Family HETEROPNEUSTIDAE Airsac Catfishes

Heteropneustes Müller    hetero-, different; pneustikos, of breathing, referring to long air sac that serves as lungs extending from gill chamber

Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch 1794)    digging or dug up, allusion not explained; according to Shaw (General Zoology, 1904), it is “sometimes dug out of the mud at the bottom, in the manner of [the cobitid loach] Cobitis fossilis

Heteropneustes kemratensis (Fowler 1937)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Kemrat, Thailand, type locality

Heteropneustes longipectoralis Rema Devi & Raghunathan 1999    longus, long; pectoralis, pectoral, referring to long and pointed pectoral fins compared to short and rounded pectoral fins of H. fossilis

Heteropneustes nani Hossain, Sarker, Sharifuzzaman & Chowdhury 2013in honor of the “eminent” fisheries and aquaculture scientist Nani Gopal Das, for his “continuous contribution” to the authors’ research


Family ANCHARIIDAE Malagasy Catfishes
2 genera  · 6 species

Ancharius Steindachner 1880    anchi-, near, referring to similarity to Arius (Ariidae)

Ancharius fuscus Steindachner 1880    dusky, referring to “dirty dark” (translation) color on top and sides (light violet on the bottom)

Ancharius griseus Ng & Sparks 2005    gray, referring to its coloration

Gogo Ng & Sparks 2005    Malagasy word (pronounced goo-goo) most commonly used to refer to members of this family

Gogo arcuatus Ng & Sparks 2005    bent like a bow, referring to concave shape of dorsoposterior margin of dorsal fin

Gogo atratus Ng, Sparks & Loiselle 2008    clothed in black, referring to dark coloration in preservative

Gogo brevibarbis (Boulenger 1911)    brevis, short; barbis, barbel, referring to shorter maxillary barbels compared to Ancharius fuscus, its presumed congener at the time

Gogo ornatus Ng & Sparks 2005    “in splendid dress,” referring to highly mottled pigmentation pattern consisting of light and dark patches


Family ARIIDAE Sea Catfishes
33 genera/subgenera  · 152 species

Subfamily GALEICHTHYINAE

Galeichthys Valenciennes 1840    galeus, weasel; ichthys, fish: Valenciennes explained that catfishes get their name from their cat-like whiskers (or barbels) and therefore named this genus after weasels, which have whiskers, too

Galeichthys ater Castelnau 1861    black, referring to green-black (“vert noir”) upper body coloration (compared to the bronze-green coloration of G. feliceps)

Galeichthys feliceps Valenciennes 1840    felis, cat; ceps, head, i.e., cathead, a variation on the term “catfish,” referring to cat-like whiskers (barbels) that give catfishes their name

Galeichthys peruvianus Lütken 1874    Peruvian, referring to type locality at Callao, Peru (but occurs along Pacific coast of northern South America from Ecuador to Peru)

Galeichthys troworum Kulongowski 2010    orum, commemorative suffix, plural: in honor of the late Eugene Trow, Jr., a student studying the biology and ecology of Galeichthys in South Africa, who recognized the probable distinctiveness of this species, and of his late father, Eugene Trow, Sr., who collected much of the type series [originally spelled trowi; since name honors more than one person, spelling must be amended to troworum per ICZN Art. 31.1.2-3]

Subfamily ARIINAE

Amissidens Kailola 2004    ammissimus, lost; dens, teeth, referring to autogenous tooth plates of A. hainesi, which lack the teeth they usually bear in other taxa

Amissidens hainesi (Kailola 2000)    in honor of fisheries scientist Alan K. Haines, whose 1972-1976 surveys of river systems in Papua New Guinea and his “faithful recording” of ariid biology and ecology made a “significant” contribution to our knowledge of these fishes in the Australian and New Guinea region

Amphiarius Marceniuk & Menezes 2007    amphi-, both sides or double, referring to occurrence of both species in fresh and marine waters; Arius, type genus of family

Amphiarius phrygiatus (Valenciennes 1840)    embroidered, referring to latero-sensory canals, “which form a sort of embroidery pleasant to the eye” (translation)

Amphiarius rugispinis (Valenciennes 1840)    ruga, rough; spina, spine, referring to granular sides of dorsal and pectoral spines

Ariopsis Gill 1861    –opsis, like, presumably referring to previous placement of A. milberti (=A. felis) in Arius

Ariopsis assimilis (Günther 1864)    similar, “closely allied” to Hexanematichthys hymenorrhinos (=Sciades herzbergii) and A. seemanni

Ariopsis canteri Acero P., Betancur-R. & Marceniuk 2017    in honor of Diego Canter Ríos (1984-2007), a “young and talented” Colombian ichthyologist who died in a car accident near Santa Marta along with three other biologists; species delimitation in Ariopsis was part of Diego’s B.Sc. thesis in Marine Biology, which he could not complete due to his untimely death

Ariopsis felis (Linnaeus 1766)    cat (i.e., catfish), manuscript name coined by Scottish physician-naturalist Alexander Garden (1730-1791), Charleston, South Carolina (USA), who sent fish skins to Linnaeus

Ariopsis gilberti (Jordan & Williams 1895)    in honor of ichthyologist and fisheries biologist Charles H. Gilbert (1859-1928), in whose laboratory the present paper was written, and who provided “much valuable aid in many ways”; in addition, Gilbert and previously collected this catfish, misidentified as A. assimilis

Ariopsis guatemalensis (Günther 1864)    ensis, suffix connoting place: Guatemala, where type specimen was purchased (occurs along Pacific coast of North and Central America from Mexico to Honduras)

Ariopsis jimenezi Marceniuk, Acero P., Cooke & Betancur-R. 2017    in honor of Máximo Jiménez Acosta, zooarchaeology technician at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (Panama), who drew attention to the possible existence of a new species based on the examination of osteological characters in specimens formerly misidentified as A. seemanni

Ariopsis seemanni (Günther 1864)    in honor of German botanist Berthold Carl Seemann (1825-1871), who collected type

Ariopsis simonsi (Starks 1906)    in honor of the late Perry Oveitt Simons (1869-1901), American natural history collector in South America, who collected type (his guide murdered him while crossing the Andes of Argentina, presumably for his money and gear)

Arius Valenciennes 1840    tautonymous with Pimelodus arius, latinization of Ari, from Ari gogora, local Bengali name for this catfish in India (Valenciennes said he “borrowed” [translation] the name from Hamilton) [note: many sources state that Arius is derived from a Greek word meaning warrior, presumably referring to their strong dorsal- and pectoral-fin spines, but this interpretation is incorrect]

Arius acutirostris Day 1877    acutus, pointed; rostris, snout, referring to “fleshy and elongated” snout, “extending some distance beyond the mouth”

Arius africanus Günther 1867    African, described as an African “variety” of the Asian A. falcarius (=A. arius)

Arius arenarius (Müller & Troschel 1849)    sandy, probably referring to “strongly granular” head and “highly granular” occipital process (translations)

Arius arius (Hamilton 1822)    latinization of Ari, from Ari gogora, local Bengali name for this catfish in India [note: many sources state that Arius is derived from a Greek word meaning warrior, presumably referring to their strong dorsal- and pectoral-fin spines, but this interpretation is incorrect]

Arius brunellii Zolezzi 1939    patronym not identified, probably in honor of Italian zoologist Gustavo Brunelli (1881-1960), who led expedition that collected type

Arius dispar Herre 1926    dissimilar; Herre could “find no similar fish in the literature, the teeth and gill rakers separating it at once from anything described by Bleeker, Günther, Day, Vaillant, Sauvage, or Weber and Beaufort”

Arius festinus Ng & Sparks 2003    to move rapidly, referring to its habitat, a swift-flowing river

Arius gagora (Hamilton 1822)    local Bengali name for this catfish in India

Arius gigas Boulenger 1911    large, referring to “the large skeletons which were regarded by Günther as the adults” of A. latiscutatus, but which actually belong to this species

Arius latiscutatus Günther 1864    latis, broad; scutatus, shielded, referring to occipital process broader than long

Arius leptonotacanthus Bleeker 1849    leptos, thin; notos, back; acanthus, spine, referring to its slender dorsal spine

Arius maculatus (Thunberg 1792)    spotted, referring to large black spot on adipose fin

Arius madagascariensis Vaillant 1894    ensis, suffix denoting place: western Madagascar, where it is endemic

Arius malabaricus Day 1877    icus, belonging to: Malabar (i.e., southern India), presumably referring to type locality in the Canara region of southwest India

Arius manillensis Valenciennes 1840    ensis, suffix denoting place: Manila, Philippines, type locality

Arius microcephalus Bleeker 1855    micro-, small; cephalus, head, contained 4-41/5 times in SL, smaller than A. arius and A. pidada (=maculatus [in part] and oetik [in part])

Arius subrostratus Valenciennes 1840    sub-, less than; rostratus, beaked, referring to its less-elongate snout compared to A. rostratus (species inquirenda), described in the same publication

Arius sumatranus (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830)    anus, belonging to: Sumatra, Indonesia, type locality (also occurs in India, Myanmar, Pakistan and Sri Lanka)

Arius uncinatus Ng & Sparks 2003    hooked, referring to its curved snout

Arius utik Bleeker 1846    from Ikan (=fish) Manong utik, local Jakartan (Batavian) name for this catfish [also spelled oetik by Bleeker later in 1846, which is frequently used in modern literature, but utik was clearly Bleeker’s intent and appears to have priority by a few months]

Arius venosus Valenciennes 1840    veiny, referring to vein-like latero-sensory canals

Aspistor Jordan & Evermann 1898    a shielded warrior, allusion not explained, presumably referring to large bony plate (occipital process) in front of dorsal fin (the shield) and stout pectoral-fin spine (the warrior)

Aspistor luniscutis (Valenciennes 1840)    luna, moon; scutum, shield, referring to lunate bony plate (occipital process) in front of dorsal fin

Aspistor quadriscutis (Valenciennes 1840)    quadus, square; scutum, shield, referring to square shape of bony plate (occipital process) in front of dorsal fin

Batrachocephalus Bleeker 1846    batrachus, frog; cephalus, head, referring to frog-like head of B. ageneiosus (=mino)

Batrachocephalus mino (Hamilton 1822)    presumably a local name for this catfish along upper Ganges estuaries in India

Brustiarius Herre 1935    brustia, a brush, referring to slender, comb-like gill-rakers, originally proposed as a subgenus of Arius

Brustiarius nox (Herre 1935)    night, referring to black color above and on sides in alcohol, and all-black fins except the ventrals

Brustiarius solidus (Herre 1935)    entire, referring to entire palate “covered by a solid plate of finely granulose teeth”

Carlarius Marceniuk & Menezes 2007    Carl, in honor of Carl Ferraris, Research Associate, California Academy of Sciences, for his contribution to the knowledge of catfishes and continuous support and encouragement throughout the development of the authors’ work on ariid systematics; Arius, type genus of family

Carlarius heudelotii (Valenciennes 1840)    in honor of the late French botanist Jean-Pierre Heudelot (1802-1837), who collected and/or supplied type

Carlarius parkii (Günther 1864)    patronym not identified (possibly spelled Parke), nor can identity be inferred based on available information

Cathorops Jordan & Gilbert 1883    kathorao, to look down; ops, eye, referring to low eye placement

Subgenus Cathorops

Cathorops agassizii (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888)    in honor of zoologist-geologist Louis Agassiz (1807-1873), who led expedition that collected type

Cathorops aguadulce (Meek 1904)    Spanish for fresh water, where it occurs (may also occur in brackish water)

Cathorops arenatus (Valenciennes 1840)    sanded, presumably referring to “yellowish gray fins dusted with fine black dust” (translation)

Cathorops belizensis Marceniuk & Betancur-R. 2008    ensis, suffix denoting place: Belize City, Belize, type locality

Cathorops festae (Boulenger 1898)    in honor of Italian naturalist Enrico Festa (1868-1939), who collected type

Cathorops fuerthii (Steindachner 1876)    in honor of Ignatius Fürth, Austrian consul at Panama (type locality), who collected and/or provided type

Cathorops higuchii Marceniuk & Betancur-R. 2008    in honor of Horácio Higuchi, Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi (Belém, Brazil), for his contribution to the taxonomy, systematics and morphology of South American ariids

Cathorops hypophthalmus (Steindachner 1876)    hypo-, below; ophthalmus, eyes, referring to low placement of eyes, their middle below level of angle of mouth

Cathorops kailolae Marceniuk & Betancur-R. 2008    in honor of Patricia J. Kailola, The University of the South Pacific (Suva, Fiji), for her “enormous” contribution to ariid systematics

Cathorops liropus (Bristol 1897)    liro-, pale; pous, foot, referring to dusky olive pelvic fins, lighter at base, vs. black pelvic fins on the “allied” C. melanopus

Cathorops manglarensis Marceniuk 2007   –ensis, suffix denoting place: off Cape Manglares, Pacific coast of Colombia, type locality; also refers to habitat (Spanish for mangroves)

Cathorops mapale Betancur-R. & Acero P. 2005    derived from chivo mapalé, vernacular for this species among artisanal fishers in most Colombian localities; also the name of a Colombian rhythm of African origin typical of the fishery community of the Colombian Caribbean

Cathorops melanopus (Günther 1864)    melan, black; pous, foot, referring to deep black upper (inner) surface of pelvic fins

Cathorops multiradiatus (Günther 1864)    multi-, many; radiatus, rayed, referring to long anal fin, with up to 27 rays

Cathorops nuchalis (Günther 1864)    nuchal, presumably referring to elevated occipital process

Cathorops raredonae Marceniuk, Betancur-R. & Acero P. 2009    in honor of Sandra J. Raredon, Division of Fishes, National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C., for her valuable assistance in many curatorial duties

Cathorops spixii (Agassiz 1829)    in honor of German biologist Johann Baptist von Spix (1781-1826), who explored Brazil and named this catfish Pimelodus albidus, which Agassiz believed was preoccupied by P. albidus (=Ameiurus catus) Lesueur 1819

Cathorops steindachneri (Gilbert & Starks 1904)    in honor of Austrian ichthyologist Franz Steindachner (1834-1919), who noted in 1876 that Panama specimens allied to C. melanopus did not agree with Günther’s description of that species

Cathorops taylori (Hildebrand 1925)    in honor of Frederic W. Taylor, director general of agriculture for the Government of El Salvador, under whose “immediate direction” this catfish was collected

Cathorops tuyra (Meek & Hildebrand 1923)    named for the Río Tuyra, mouth of Río Yape, Darien, Panama, type locality (but occurs in Pacific drainage rivers and estuaries south to Peru)

Cathorops wayuu Betancur-R., Acero P. & Marceniuk 2012    named after the Wayuu native American ethnic community from La Guajira peninsula (type locality) in northern Colombia and Venezuela

Subgenus Precathorops Betancur-R. & Acero P. 2007    pre-, primitive, referring to the basal position of C. dasycephalus

Cathorops dasycephalus (Günther 1864)dasys, rough; cephalus, head, referring to “coarsely granulated” crown of head

Cephalocassis Bleeker 1857    cephalus, head; cassis, helmet, presumably referring to occipital process, which Bleeker called a “head shield” (translation) in a later publication

Cephalocassis borneensis (Bleeker 1851)    ensis, suffix denoting place: western Borneo, Indonesia, type locality (also occurs in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Malaysia and Viêt Nam)

Cephalocassis jatia (Hamilton 1822)    latinization of Jat from Jat gagora, local Bengali name for this catfish in India

Cephalocassis manillensis (Valenciennes 1840)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Manila, Philippines, type locality

Cephalocassis melanochir (Bleeker 1852)    melanos, black; cheiros, hand, referring to blackish stripe in pectoral and pelvic fins (dorsal and caudal fins, too)

Cinetodus Ogilby 1898    kinetos, moveable; odus, tooth, referring to patch of palatine teeth “implanted upon a moveable cushion”

Cinetodus carinatus (Weber 1913)    keeled, referring to “sharply keeled” (translation) occipital process in young specimens, its posterior end broadly truncated

Cinetodus conorhynchus (Weber 1913)    conus, cone; rhynchus, snout, referring to bluntly conical snout

Cinetodus froggatti (Ramsay & Ogilby 1886)    in honor of Austrian entomologist Walter Wilson Froggatt (1858-1937), “on whom the whole burden of collecting the zoological specimens obtained during the late expedition of the Bonito [which explored New Guinea] seems to have fallen”

Cochlefelis Whitley 1941    cochlear, spoon; felis, cat, i.e., “spooncat,” referring to spatulate snout of C. spatula

Cochlefelis burmanicus (Day 1870)   Burmese, referring to type locality at Salween, Burma (now Myanmar; also occurs in India and Bangladesh)

Cochlefelis danielsi (Regan 1908)    in honor of Maj. W. Cooke Daniels, who led expedition that collected type and presented it to the British Museum (Natural History)

Cochlefelis insidiator (Kailola 2000)    ambusher or lurker, referring to dorsally placed eyes and depressed body form (which suggest that it lies half-hidden in sediment) and strong teeth and jaws (which suggest that it is a predator)

Cochlefelis spatula (Ramsay & Ogilby 1886)    referring to spatulate snout (upper jaw much longer than lower jaw)

Cryptarius Kailola 2004    kryptos, hidden or secret, i.e., a cryptic Arius, referring to its unique combination of characters having been ignored for a such a long time

Cryptarius daugueti (Chevey 1932)    in honor of Master Mariner [no forename given] Dauguet, commander of le Lanessan, from which type was collected

Cryptarius truncatus (Valenciennes 1840)    referring to truncate (or spoon-shaped) snout

Doiichthys Weber 1913    doie, doubt or uncertainty, referring to its uncertain familial relationships at the time (Weber proposed its own family, Doiichthyidae); ichthys, fish

Doiichthys novaeguineae Weber 1913    of New Guinea, type locality (occurs both in Papua Province, Indonesia, and Papua New Guinea)

Genidens Castelnau 1855    tautonymous with Pimelodus genidens (but unnecessarily renamed G. cuvieri): genys, cheek or jaw; dens, teeth, referring to moveable teeth on the palate

Genidens barbus (Lacepède 1803)    latinization of barbue, vernacular among French sailors, probably referring to its six barbels (unusual for a marine fish)

Genidens genidens (Cuvier 1829)    genys, cheek or jaw; dens, teeth, referring to moveable teeth on the palate

Genidens machadoi (Miranda Ribeiro 1918)    patronym not identified, probably in honor of Francisco Machado da Silva, who collected for and/or donated specimens to the Museu Nacional (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)

Hemiarius Bleeker 1862    hemi-, partial, referring to similarity and/or close relationship to Arius

Hemiarius dioctes (Kailola 2000)    hunter or pursuer, referring to its “apparent hunting ability, diet and dentition”

Hemiarius hardenbergi (Kailola 2000)    in honor of J. D. F. Hardenberg, Laboratorium voor het Onderzoek der Zee (Batavia), who recognized this as a new species in 1931 and provided an unpublished museum name for it, for his “insightful” contributions to Indo-Australian ichthyology

Hemiarius harmandi Sauvage 1880i    n honor of François-Jules Harmand (1845-1921), physician, explorer and diplomat, who collected type

Hemiarius sona (Hamilton 1822)    presumably a local Bengali name for this catfish in India

Hemiarius stormii (Bleeker 1858)    in honor of F .J. P. Storm van‘s Gravesande, Dutch government commissioner of Djambi (also spelled Jambi), Sumatra, who provided type

Hemiarius verrucosus (Ng 2003)    warty, referring to numerous small bumps on pectoral spines and dorsal surface of neurocranium

Hexanematichthys Bleeker 1858    hexa-, six and nema-, thread, referring to its six fleshy barbels of H. sondaicus (=sagor); ichthys, fish

Hexanematichthys mastersi (Ogilby 1898)    in honor of George Masters (1837-1912), Curator of the Macleay Museum, Sydney University, to whom Ogilby was “indebted for much valuable information on the fine collection under his charge, and whose general knowledge of the Australian fauna is possibly exceeded by none”

Hexanematichthys sagor (Hamilton 1822)    local Bengali name for this catfish in India

Ketengus Bleeker 1846    latinization of Keteng, Madurese name for this catfish in eastern Java, Indonesia

Ketengus typus Bleeker 1846    serving as type of genus

Nedystoma Ogilby 1898    nedys, womb; stoma, mouth, presumably referring to mouthbrooding behavior of males, in which they carry eggs in their mouth until they hatch (a behavior found in many ariids)

Nedystoma dayi (Ramsay & Ogilby 1886)    in honor of Francis Day (1829-1889), Inspector-General of Fisheries in India, “whose magnificent work on the fishes of India is indispensable to every student of Indo-Pacific ichthyology”

Nemapteryx Ogilby 1908    nema, thread; pteryx, fin, referring to long, filamentous first dorsal-fin ray of N. stirlingi (=armiger)

Nemapteryx armiger (De Vis 1884)    bearing arms, presumably referring to long dorsal spine (longer than head) and perhaps also to its pectoral spines

Nemapteryx augusta (Roberts 1978)    venerable, presumably referring to its “graceful form, and vivid blue coloration in life”

Nemapteryx bleekeri (Popta 1900)    in honor of Dutch medical doctor and ichthyologist Pieter Bleeker (1819-1878), who collected type and forwarded it to the Leyden Museum

Nemapteryx caelata (Valenciennes 1840)    embossed or inlaid, referring to strong granulations on occipital process, which give it a carved or chiseled appearance

Nemapteryx macronotacantha (Bleeker 1846)    macro-, large; notos, back; acanthus, spine, referring to thick dorsal spine

Nemapteryx nenga (Hamilton 1822)    from Nenga gagora, local Bengali name for this catfish in India

Neoarius Castelnau 1878    neo-, new, i.e., a new genus of Arius

Neoarius berneyi (Whitley 1941)    in honor of ornithologist Frederick L. Berney, who “made a valuable collection of fishes in Central Queensland nearly thirty years ago”

Neoarius coatesi (Kailola 1990)    in honor of David C. Coates, formerly of the Department of Fisheries & Marine Resources, Papua New Guinea, who collected most of type series and provided information on its biology

Neoarius graeffei (Kner & Steindachner 1867)    in honor of Swiss entomologist Eduard Heinrich Gräffe (1833-1916), who, while employed by Johann Cesar VI. Godeffroy, a wealthy shipping magnate, curated a natural history collection that introduced several new species from the South Pacific to science, including this catfish

Neoarius leptaspis (Bleeker 1862)    leptos, thin; aspis, shield, allusion unclear, perhaps referring to triangular occipital process, longer rather than broad at its base

Neoarius midgleyorum (Kailola & Pierce 1988)    orum, commemorative suffix, plural: in honor of Stephen Hamar Midgley (b. 1918), amateur ichthyologist and limnologist, and his wife Mary, for bringing this catfish to the attention of the senior author, and for their “enthusiastic and dedicated study” of the fresh waters of northern Australia [originally spelled midgleyi; since name honors more than one person, spelling must be amended to midgleyorum per ICZN Art. 31.1.2-3]

Neoarius pectoralis (Kailola 2000)    shoulder, referring to strong serrae along inner pectoral-fin spine

Neoarius taylori (Roberts 1978)    in honor of William Ralph Taylor (1912-2004), Smithsonian ichthyologist and student of Ariidae

Neoarius utarus (Kailola 1990)    latinization of utara, which means “north” in Bahasa Indonesia, referring to its distribution (northern New Guinea) compared to the similar N. leptaspis (southern New Guinea and northern Australia)

Netuma Bleeker 1858    tautonymous with Bagrus netuma Valenciennes 1840 (=N. thalassina), derived from netouma kéléti, local name for this catfish in Pondicherry, India

Netuma bilineata (Valenciennes 1840)    bi-, two; lineata, lined, allusion explained but unclear: “The epithet we give it refers to a kind of faintly marked curvilinear track produced on the skin of its sides at places where the ribs end” (translation), perhaps referring to visibly sloping line of the rib ends (Patrice Kailola, pers. comm.), which, when combined with lateral line, creates the appearance of two lines on sides of body

Netuma proxima (Ogilby 1898)    near, referring to its “outward resemblance” to Arius australis (=Neoarius graeffei)

Netuma thalassina (Rüppell 1837)    of the sea, a marine and brackish-water catfish described from the Red Sea

Notarius Gill 1863    etymology not explained, perhaps notus, back, referring to large occipital process of type species, N. grandicassis, formerly placed in Arius

Notarius armbrusteri Betancur-R. & Acero P. 2006    in honor of Jonathan W. Armbruster, curator of the Auburn University Museum, for his important contributions to the taxonomy of neotropical catfishes

Notarius biffi Betancur-R. & Acero P. 2004    in honor Eldredge (Biff) Bermingham, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, for his important contribution to the knowledge of neotropical fish biogeography

Notarius bonillai (Miles 1945)    in honor of Heliodoro Bonilla Guzmán, Director of the Department of the Ministry (Colombia) that deals with fishes

Notarius cookei (Acero P. & Betancur-R. 2002)    in honor of archaeologist Richard Cooke (b. 1946), Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, for his contribution to the knowledge of eastern Pacific ariids (he also provided the type series)

Notarius grandicassis (Valenciennes 1840)    grandis, large; cassis, helmet, presumably referring to very large bony plate (occipital process) in front of dorsal fin

Notarius insculptus (Jordan & Gilbert 1883)    sculptured, probably referring to its highly developed, sculptured (grooved and granulated) epioccipital bones

Notarius kessleri (Steindachner 1876)    patronym not identified, possibly in honor of German-Russian zoologist Karl Fedorovich Kessler (1815-1881)

Notarius lentiginosus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888)    freckled (“the sides freckled”)

Notarius neogranatensis (Acero P. & Betancur-R. 2002)    ensis, suffix denoting place: New Granada, oldest name given to Colombia (where it appears to be endemic) by Spanish conquerors

Notarius osculus (Jordan & Gilbert 1883)    diminutive of os, mouth, referring to small mouth (but with thick lips)

Notarius planiceps (Steindachner 1876)    planus, flat; ceps, head, referring to forehead, “perfectly flat across, wide, covered with thick skin” (translation)

Notarius troschelii (Gill 1863)    in honor of zoologist Franz Hermann Troschel (1810-1882), who, with Johann Müller, described Sciades (in which this species was originally placed)

Occidentarius Betancur-R. & Acero P. 2007    occidens, west, referring to distribution of O. platypogon in the Eastern Pacific, the western-most region occupied by ariids

Occidentarius platypogon (Günther 1864)    platy, flat, pogon, beard, presumably referring to basally “compressed” maxillary barbels

Osteogeneiosus Bleeker 1846    osteo-, bone; geneias, chin, referring to stiff and bony maxillary barbels

Osteogeneiosus militaris (Linnaeus 1758)    soldier or warlike, perhaps referring to bony (and hence sharp) maxillary barbels, which “arm” it like a solider

Pachyula Ogilby 1898    pachys, thick; oulon, gums, referring to thick lips, the upper lip “terminating in a broad free lobe”

Pachyula crassilabris (Ramsay & Ogilby 1886)    crassus, wide; labrum, lip, referring to “very thick” lips

Plicofollis Kailola 2004    plico, fold; follis, bellows or windbag, referring to creased or scalloped swim bladder characteristic of genus

Plicofollis argyropleuron (Valenciennes 1840)    arguros, silver; pleuron, side, referring to silver belly and sides

Plicofollis dussumieri (Valenciennes 1840)    in honor of Jean-Jacques Dussumier (1792-1883), French voyager and merchant, who reported on this fish from off the Malabar coast of India

Plicofollis layardi (Günther 1866)    in honor of F. Layard, Ceylon Civil Service, who presented type to the British Museum (Natural History)

Plicofollis magatensis (Herre 1926)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Magat River, Luzon Island, Philippines, type locality

Plicofollis nella (Valenciennes 1840)    derived from nalla-jella, local name for this catfish in Vizagapatam, India

Plicofollis platystomus (Day 1877)    platys, wide; stomus, mouth, width of gape of mouth 4/7 length of head

Plicofollis polystaphylodon (Bleeker 1846)    poly, many; staphylo-, bunched or clustered; odon, tooth, referring to palatine teeth arranged in four patches: a small ovate patch on each side of the vomer, and an elongate patch along each palatine bone

Plicofollis tonggol (Bleeker 1846)    from Ikan (=fish) Manjong tonggol, local Jakartan (Batavian) name for this catfish and similar species

Potamarius Hubbs & Miller 1960    potamos, river, referring to occurrence in fresh water, i.e., a riverine genus of Arius [note: authors erroneously believe that Arius is derived from a Greek word meaning warrior]

Potamarius grandoculis (Steindachner 1877)    grand, large; oculis, eye, referring to large eye, the forehead equal to 12/3 of eye length

Potamarius henni (Fisher & Eigenmann 1922)    in honor of Eigenmann’s student (and successor) Arthur Wilbur Henn (1890-1959), who collected type

Potamarius izabalensis Hubbs & Miller 1960    ensis, suffix denoting place: Lago de Izabal, Guatemala, type locality

Potamarius labiatus (Boulenger 1898)    lipped, referring to its “very thick lips” (translation)

Potamarius nelsoni (Evermann & Goldsborough 1902)    in honor of naturalist-ethnologist Edward William Nelson (1855-1934), Division of Biological Survey, U.S. Department of Agriculture, who helped collect type (and noted that it is the best freshwater food fish in México)

Potamarius usumacintae Betancur-R. & Willink 2007    of the Río Usumacinta basin, Guatemala and México, where it is endemic

Potamosilurus Marceniuk & Menezes 2007    potamos, river, referring to all species occurring in fresh water; silurus, from the Greek silouros, catfish

Potamosilurus latirostris (Macleay 1883)    latus, wide; rostris, snout, referring to “broadly rounded” snout

Potamosilurus macrorhynchus (Weber 1913)    macro-, long or large; rhynchus, referring to conical snout, which forms a prominent cone

Potamosilurus velutinus (Weber 1907)    velvety, presumably referring to “velvety” premaxillary teeth, which “form a uniformly wide, crescent-shaped band whose width is almost 1/6 its length” (translation)

Sciades Müller & Troschel 1849    sciado-, canopy or umbrella, probably referring to occipital process, described as a “distinct bony helmet” (translation)

Sciades couma (Valenciennes 1840)    from couma-couma, local name for this catfish in French Guiana, onomatopoeic for the sound it makes when pulled from the water

Sciades dowii (Gill 1863)    in honor of John M. Dow (1827-1892), ship captain and naturalist, who presented type to the Smithsonian Institution

Sciades herzbergii (Bloch 1794)    patronym not identified, possibly in honor of Count Ewald Friedrich von Herzberg (also spelled Hertzberg, 1725-1795), a Prussian statesman who was one of Bloch’s sponsors

Sciades parkeri (Traill 1832)    in honor of Traill’s friend Charles S. Parker, who “favoured” the author with a drawing of the catfish and its skin

Sciades passany (Valenciennes 1840)    local vernacular for this species at Cayenne, French Guiana (type locality, but occurs throughout coastal South America from Guyana to the mouth of the Amazon)

Sciades paucus (Kailola 2000)    few, referring to fewer gill rakers and smaller eye compared to Neoarius midgleyi, its presumed congener at the time

Sciades proops (Valenciennes 1840)    pro-, before; ops, eye, referring to eye nearer to snout than to preopercle, compared to Bagrus mesops (=S. herzbergii), on which eye is midway between snout and preopercle

Subfamily BAGREINAE

Bagre Cloquet 1816    tautonymous with Silurus bagre; according to Marcgrave (1648), a Portuguese word for catfish used in Brazil, presumably first applied to B. bagre

Bagre bagre (Linnaeus 1766)    according to Marcgrave (1648), a Portuguese word for catfish used in Brazil, presumably first applied to this species

Bagre marinus (Mitchill 1815)    of the sea, the “Salt-water Catfish” of New York State (USA)

Bagre panamensis (Gill 1863)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Panama, presumably referring to type locality although that country is not specifically mentioned (occurs along Pacific coast of Central America and northern South America)

Bagre pinnimaculatus (Steindachner 1876)    pinnis, fin; maculatus, spotted, referring to oval blackish spot on anal, ventral and caudal fins