Order SILURIFORMES: Family LORICARIIDAE: Subfamilies HYPOSTOMINAE, RHINELEPINAE and DELTURINAE

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v. 12.0 – 27 May 2017  view/download PDF

Subfamily HYPOSTOMINAE
42 genera · 463 species · Taxonomic note: contains taxa previously placed in the subfamily Ancistrinae.

Acanthicus Agassiz 1829    thorny or spiny, referring to entire dorsal surface of head of A. hystrix armed with long erectile spines, or odontodes

Acanthicus adonis Isbrücker & Nijssen 1988    in Greek mythology, Adonis was a handsome young man loved by the goddess Venus, here alluding to the fish’s attractive (spotted) juvenile coloration

Acanthicus hystrix Spix & Agassiz 1829    porcupine, referring to entire dorsal surface of head armed with a bundle of long erectile spines, or odontodes

Ancistomus Isbrücker & Seidel 2001    a combination of the names Ancistrus and Hypostomus, presumably reflecting similarities to both genera

Ancistomus feldbergae (de Oliveira, Rapp Py-Daniel, Zuanon & Rocha 2012)    in honor of Eliana Feldberg, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, for her many contributions to cytogenetics of Amazonian fishes

Ancistomus micrommatos (Cardoso & Lucinda 2003)    micro-, small; ommatos, eye, referring to its small, dorsolaterally placed eyes

Ancistomus snethlageae (Steindachner 1911)    in honor of German ornithologist Maria Emilie Snethlage (1868-1929), who collected type

Ancistomus spilomma (Cardoso & Lucinda 2003)    spilos, spot; omma, eye, referring to small dark spots in upper portion of eye

Ancistomus spinosissimus (Cardoso & Lucinda 2003)    very thorny, referring to numerous hypertrophied odontodes scattered over entire dorsolateral surface of trunk and fins in mature males

Ancistrus Kner 1854    from the Greek agkistron, fishhook, referring to their hooked interopercular odontodes

Ancistrus abilhoai Bifi, Pavanelli & Zawadzki 2009    in honor of Vinícius Abilhoa, curator of fishes, Museu de História Natural do Capão de Imbuia (Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil), who collected some of the type series, and who has been of great assistance to the authors in this and other studies

Ancistrus agostinhoi Bifi, Pavanelli & Zawadzki 2009    in honor of Ângelo Antônio Agostinho, for his “myriad” contributions to our knowledge of the ecology of neotropical fishes, and his participation in the establishment of the Núcleo de Pesquisas em Limnologia, Ictiologia e Aquicultura (Paraná, Brazil), “one of the most important centers of research in ecology of fishes of the Latin America”

Ancistrus aguaboensis Fisch-Muller, Mazzoni & Weber 2001    ensis, suffix denoting place: río Água Boa, upper Tocantins River basin, Brazil, where it is endemic

Ancistrus bolivianus (Steindachner 1915)    anus, belong to: Bolivia (also occurs in Peru)

Ancistrus brevifilis Eigenmann 1920brevis, short; filum, thread, referring to short bifid or multifid tentacles on snout

Ancistrus brevipinnis (Regan 1904)    brevis, short; pinnis, fin, allusion not explained nor evident, perhaps referring to shorter first dorsal-fin ray compared to most congeners then placed in Xenocara (=Ancistrus)

Ancistrus bufonius (Valenciennes 1840)    toad-like, presumably referring to its appearance

Ancistrus caucanus Fowler 1943    anus, belonging to: Río Cauca basin, Colombia, type locality (a misnomer, for it actually occurs in the Magdalena River drainage; see A. vericaucanus)

Ancistrus centrolepis Regan 1913    kentron, thorn or spine and/or centrum, middle; lepis, scale, referring to middle 2-3 series of lateral scutes with “spinules enlarged, ending in quite strong spines at the posterior edge of each scute”

Ancistrus chagresi Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889    of the Río Chagres, Panama Canal Zone, Panama, type locality

Ancistrus cirrhosus (Valenciennes 1836)    full of curls, referring to fleshy tentacles on head of adult males and snout of females

Ancistrus claro Knaack 1999    named for the rio Claro, Mato Grosso, Brazil, type locality

Ancistrus clementinae Rendahl 1937    of the Río Clementina system, northwest of Babahoyo, Ecuador, type locality

Ancistrus cryptophthalmus Reis 1987    cryptos, hidden; ophthalmus, eye, referring to its hidden, nonfunctional eyes, covered by dermal ossifications and skin

Ancistrus cuiabae Knaack 1999    of the Cuiabá River basin, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, where it is endemic

Ancistrus damasceni (Steindachner 1907)    patronym not identified, possibly in honor of Col. José Damasceno Nogueira, who hosted Steindachner at his home in Filomeno, Brazil, in June 1903, near type locality

Ancistrus dolichopterus Kner 1854    dolichos, elongated; pterus, fin, referring to dorsal fin as high as it is long, the length of its base equal to its distance from the caudal

Ancistrus dubius Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889    doubtful or uncertain, proposed as a subspecies of A. cirrhosus differing only in coloration

Ancistrus erinaceus (Valenciennes 1840)    hedgehog, presumably referring to its hooked interopercular odontodes

Ancistrus eustictus (Fowler 1945)    eu-, well; stictus, spotted, probably referring to 5-6 large black spots on dorsal fin

Ancistrus falconensis Taphorn, Armbruster & Rodríguez-Olarte 2010    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Venezuelan state of Falcón, type locality

Ancistrus formoso Sabino & Trajano 1997    referring to its distribution in the Formoso phreatic system, rio Formoso basin, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

Ancistrus fulvus (Holly 1929)    brown, referring to its uniform dark-brown coloration

Ancistrus galani Pérez & Viloria 1994    in honor of Carlos Galan, Venezuelan speleologist and biologist, who collected type

Ancistrus greeni (Isbrücker 2001)    in honor of artist J. Green, who provided the “very precise and very beautiful” (translation) illustrations for Regan’s 1904 monograph of the family (replacement name for Chaetostoma maculatus Regan 1904, preoccupied by C. cirrhosus var. maculata Steindachner 1882)

Ancistrus gymnorhynchus Kner 1854    gymnos, bare or naked; rhynchus, snout, referring to reduced absence of tentacles (described from a female, which lacks or has fewer tentacles)

Ancistrus heterorhynchus (Regan 1912)    heteros, different; rhynchus, snout, presumed to be related to A. bufonius, but “different somewhat … in the much greater width of the naked margin of the snout, into which the bony plates extend as a narrow median prominence nearly reaching the apex of the snout”

Ancistrus hoplogenys (Günther 1864)    hoplos, armor; genys, cheek, referring to 8-9 non-flexible, curved interopercular spines

Ancistrus jataiensis Fisch-Muller, Cardoso, da Silva & Bertaco 2005    ensis, suffix denoting place: córrego Jataí, tributary of rio Vermelho, rio Tocantins basin, Goías, Brazil, only known area of occurrence

Ancistrus jelskii (Steindachner 1876)    in honor of Belarusian-Polish ornithologist Konstanty Jelski (1837-1896), who collected type

Ancistrus karajas de Oliveira, Rapp Py-Daniel, Zawadzki & Zuanon 2016    named for the indigenous tribe Karajás (or Carajás), who inhabit the lower rio Tocantins basin (Pará, Brazil), type locality

Ancistrus krenakarore de Oliveira, Rapp Py-Daniel, Zawadzki & Zuanon 2016    from kran iakarare, meaning “giant indians,” honoring the indigenous tribe Kren-Akarore who originally inhabited the rio Tapajós basin (Pará, Brazil), where this catfish occurs; to survive to the presence of “white men,” the entire Kren-Akarore population was forced to transfer to Parque Nacional do Xingu in the late 1960s, where they now call themselves “Panará,” meaning “we people”

Ancistrus latifrons (Günther 1869)    latus, broad; frons, forehead, referring to broad interorbital space

Ancistrus leucostictus (Günther 1864)    leukos, white; stictus, spotted, referring to “pure white dots” scattered over entire body and over all the fins

Ancistrus lineolatus Fowler 1943    with small or narrow lines, referring to white longitudinal lines on dorsal fin

Ancistrus lithurgicus Eigenmann 1912    etymology not explained, perhaps derived from lithurgus, a stone worker, referring to its type locality, a waterfall, where it may use its sucker mouth to cling to rocks in swift water

Ancistrus macrophthalmus (Pellegrin 1912)    macro-, large; ophthalmus, eye, its diameter 5 times in length of head, compared to 6-7 times on the similar A. occidentalis

Ancistrus maculatus (Steindachner 1881)    spotted, proposed as a spotted subspecies or variety of A. cirrhosus

Ancistrus malacops (Cope 1872)    malacos, soft; ops, appearance or eye, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to lores (region between eyes and nostrils) “naked to near the nares”

Ancistrus maracasae Fowler 1946    of Maracas River, Trinidad, West Indies, type locality

Ancistrus marcapatae (Regan 1904)    of the Marcapata Valley, eastern Peru, type locality

Ancistrus martini Schultz 1944    in honor of geologist Bethea Martin, Lago Petroleum Corporation, who aided Schultz in the collection of fishes in Venezuela

Ancistrus mattogrossensis Miranda Ribeiro 1912    ensis, suffix denoting place: Mato Grosso, Brazil, only known area of occurrence

Ancistrus maximus de Oliveira, Zuanon, Zawadzki & Rapp Py-Daniel 2015    largest, referring to its “off-the-chart” size (200 mm SL), reached in the genus only by A. chagresi and A. centrolepis

Ancistrus megalostomus Pearson 1924    megalo-, large; stomus, mouth, characterized by its “very wide mandibular ramus”

Ancistrus minutus Fisch-Muller, Mazzoni & Weber 2001    small, referring to its size (one female with mature gonads was just 37.2 mm SL)

Ancistrus montanus (Regan 1904)    mountain, referring to type locality in the Andes of Bolivia, elevation 457 m

Ancistrus mullerae Bifi, Pavanelli & Zawadzki 2009    in honor of Sonia Fisch-Muller, Muséum d’histoire naturelle de la Ville de Genève, Switzerland, for her contributions to our understanding of Ancistrus species

Ancistrus multispinis (Regan 1912)    multi-, many; spinus, spine, referring to 20-25 spines on interoperculum

Ancistrus nudiceps (Müller & Troschel 1849)     nudus, naked or bare; ceps, head, referring to naked area on head, at least 1/3 distance from tip of snout to posterior margin of eye

Ancistrus occidentalis (Regan 1904)    western, presumably referring to its distribution (Ecuador) relative to that of A. cirrhosus, which Regan believed occurred in Guiana and Trinidad and with which it had been confused

Ancistrus occloi Eigenmann 1928    named for Mama Occlo, mother and fertility goddess in Inca mythology, sister and wife of Manco Cápac, first Sapa Inca of the Kingdom of Cusco, presumably alluding to its occurrence in the Andes of Peru [perhaps should be spelled occloae as it honors a female deity, but since ICZN rules are designed for humans, not gods or goddesses, original spelling is retained for now]

Ancistrus parecis Fisch-Muller, Cardoso, da Silva & Bertaco 2005     named for the Chapada dos Parecis, a plateau where type locality (upper rio Tapajós basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil) is situated

Ancistrus pirareta Muller 1989    named for Salto Pirareta, Cordillera, Paraguay, type locality

Ancistrus piriformis Muller 1989    pirum, pear; formis, shape, referring to its characteristic pear-like shape

Ancistrus ranunculus Muller, Rapp Py-Daniel & Zuanon 1994    diminutive of rana, frog, alluding to name “Tadpole Ancistrus” sometimes given in the aquarium trade, referring to its appearance

Ancistrus reisi Fisch-Muller, Cardoso, da Silva & Bertaco 2005    in honor of ichthyologist Roberto E. Reis (Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul), for his “active” contribution to the knowledge of neotropical fishes

Ancistrus salgadae Fowler 1941    of Rio Salgade, Ceará State, Brazil, type locality

Ancistrus sericeus (Cope 1872)    silken, allusion not explained nor evident

Ancistrus spinosus Meek & Hildebrand 1916    spiny, allusion not explained, presumably referring to 8-12 interopercular odontodes (longer on males) and /or pectoral-fin spine “a little longer than the head”

Ancistrus stigmaticus Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889    marked, presumably referring to dark-brown body “thickly covered with light spots” and/or dark-brown fins “irregularly spotted with light”

Ancistrus tamboensis Fowler 1945    ensis, suffix denoting place: Tambo River basin in upper Ucayali drainage, Peru, where it is endemic

Ancistrus taunayi Miranda Ribeiro 1918    in honor of Brazilian historian, professor and novelist Alfonso d’Escragnolle Taunay (1876-1958), director, Museu Paulista

Ancistrus temminckii (Valenciennes 1840)    in honor of Coenraad Jacob Temminck (1778-1858), first director of the National Museum at Leiden, who provided type

Ancistrus tolima Taphorn, Armbruster, Villa-Navarro & Ray 2013    named for princess Yulima of the Pijao tribe, who was burned at the stake and martyred by the Spanish conquistadors, for whom the Department of Tolima, Colombia (where type locality is situated) was named

Ancistrus tombador Fisch-Muller, Cardoso, da Silva & Bertaco 2005    named for Serra do Tombador, Mato Grosso, Brazil, type locality

Ancistrus triradiatus Eigenmann 1918    tri-, three; radiatus, rayed, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to three soft anal-fin rays

Ancistrus variolus (Cope 1872)    spot or spotted, referring to numerous large round spots on body

Ancistrus verecundus Fisch-Muller, Cardoso, da Silva & Bertaco 2005    bashful or modest, referring to absence or reduced development of tentacles on snout

Ancistrus vericaucanus Taphorn, Armbruster, Villa-Navarro & Ray 2013    veri-, true; caucanus, referring to A. caucanus, which was originally thought to be from the Río Cauca of Colombia, but it actually occurs in the Magdalena River drainage, making this the true Ancistrus species from the Río Cauca

Andeancistrus Lujan, Meza-Vargas & Barriga-Salazar 2015    Andean, referring to the mountains from which this genus originates; ancistrus, a root name for many loricariid genera that have clusters of enlarged evertible cheek odontodes, from the Greek agkistron, fishhook

Andeancistrus eschwartzae Lujan, Meza-Vargas & Barriga-Salazar 2015    in honor of Eugenia Schwartz, an artist and benefactor whose generous support through the Coypu Foundation made the authors’ research possible

Andeancistrus platycephalus (Boulenger 1898)    platy, flat; cephalus, head, referring to its “excessively depressed” head (translation)

Aphanotorulus Isbrücker & Nijssen 1983    aphanes, overlooked; torulus, a small expansion, referring to numerous small papillae in buccal cavity

Aphanotorulus ammophilus Armbruster & Page 1996    ammos, sand; philo, to love, referring to its preference for sandy habitats

Aphanotorulus emarginata (Valenciennes 1840)    notched or indented, referring to emarginate (rather than produced) posterior end of occipital shield

Aphanotorulus gomesi (Fowler 1942)    in honor of Alcides Lourenço Gomes, Estacão Experimental de Caça e Pesca (São Paulo, Brazil), who informed Fowler that the previous name for this fish, Plecostomus iheringi Fowler 1941, is preoccupied by P. (=Hypostomus) iheringii Regan 1908

Aphanotorulus horridus (Kner 1854)    bristly or rough, referring to slightly keeled lateral scutes on body, each keel terminating in several small hooks

Aphanotorulus phrixosoma (Fowler 1940)    phrixos, bristling; soma, body, referring to long, curved, bristle-like spines on body

Aphanotorulus rubrocauda Oliveira, Rapp Py-Daniel & Zawadzki 2017    rubro, red; cauda, tail, referring to color of lower lobe of caudal fin

Aphanotorulus unicolor (Steindachner 1908)    uni-, one, referring to uniform chocolate coloration (perhaps described from a preserved or color-faded specimen since catfish is spotted in life)

Araichthys Zawadski, Bifi & Mariotto 2016    ara, Tupí-Guaraní word for parrot (in English) and papagaio (in Portuguese), referring to the rio Papagaio basin (Mato Grosso, Brazil), where it occurs; ichthys, fish

Araichthys loro Zawadski, Bifi & Mariotto 2016    Brazilian common name usually given to pet parrots, referring to the rio Papagaio (“Parrot”), Mato Grosso, Brazil, type locality

Baryancistrus Rapp Py-Daniel 1989    barys, heavy, referring to “broad, robust” body of type species, B. niveatus (L. Rapp Py-Daniel, pers. comm.); Ancistrus, type genus of subfamily and formerly placed in Parancistrus

Baryancistrus beggini Lujan, Arce & Armbruster 2009    in honor of Chris Beggin, owner of The Aquatic Critter, a fish and reptile retailer in Nashville, Tennessee (USA), for his financial support of the authors’ research, ethical ornamental-fish business practices, and influence on the professional development of the first author

Baryancistrus chrysolomus Rapp Py-Daniel, Zuanon & Ribeiro de Oliveira 2011    chrysos, gold; loma, border, referring to whitish orange band at border of dorsal and caudal fins in juveniles (narrower in adults)

Baryancistrus demantoides Werneke, Sabaj Pérez, Lujan & Armbruster 2005    oides, having the appearance of: demantoid, a type of garnet that ranges in color from yellowish green to brownish green, referring to this fish’s color

Baryancistrus longipinnis (Kindle 1895)    longus, long; pinnis, fin, presumably referring to long dorsal fin, its base six times the distance between it and the adipose fin

Baryancistrus niveatus (Castelnau 1855)    snowy, referring to small white spots on body

Baryancistrus xanthellus Rapp Py-Daniel, Zuanon & Ribeiro de Oliveira 2011    yellow, referring to numerous bright-yellow spots over head, body, dorsal, adipose and caudal fins, and on dorsal surface of pectoral and pelvic fins (becoming proportionally smaller and somewhat paler in adults), and wide yellow band on distal third of caudal and dorsal fins of young specimens

Chaetostoma Tschudi 1846    chaeto-, long hair or mane; stoma, mouth, referring to bristles on cheeks of males

Chaetostoma aburrense (Posada 1909)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Valle de Aburrá, Cauca River basin, Colombia, where type locality (Medellín) is situated (although no types are known) [originally but incorrectly spelled aburrensis]

Chaetostoma anale (Fowler 1943)    anal, referring to its enlarged anal fin, equal in length with the pectoral

Chaetostoma anomalum Regan 1903    anomalous, “extremely remarkable in that the adipose fin is usually rudimentary or absent”

Chaetostoma bifurcum Lujan, Meza-Vargas, Astudillo, Barriga-Salazar & López-Fernández 2015    bi-, two; furcus, pronged, referring to two evertible cheek odontodes, characteristic of this species

Chaetostoma branickii Steindachner 1881    patronym not identified, probably in honor of Hieronim Florian Radziwill Konstanty, Count Branicki (1823-1884), Polish nobleman who employed ornithologist Jan Stolzmann (also spelled Sztolcman, 1854-1928), who collected type

Chaetostoma brevilabiatum Dahl 1942    brevis, short; labiatum, lipped, referring to “rather short” snout compared to C. fischeri, C. palmeri and C. thomsoni

Chaetostoma breve Regan 1904    short, allusion not explained nor evident

Chaetostoma carrioni (Norman 1935)    in honor of Ecuadorian paleontologist and naturalist Clodoveo Carrión (1883-1957), who collected type and presented it to the British Museum (Natural History)

Chaetostoma changae Salcedo 2006    in honor of the late Fonchii Chang (1963-1999), Museo de Historia Natural (Lima, Peru), for her “outstanding” contributions to the study of Peruvian fishes and her efforts mentoring Peruvian students [she died, along with her motorista, in a boat accident near Lake Rimachi, Peru; she was wearing rubber boots, which filled with water and anchored her to the bottom, where she was shocked by an electric eel, knocked unconscious and drowned]

Chaetostoma daidalmatos Salcedo 2006    Greek for a dappled or spotted work of art, referring to large dark spots evenly distributed all over body

Chaetostoma dermorhynchum Boulenger 1887    dermo-, skin; rhynchus, snout, referring to “entire margin of the snout naked, soft, swollen, without tentacles”

Chaetostoma dorsale Eigenmann 1922    allusion not explained nor evident; proposed in a footnote as a geographical variant of C. anomalus, which is described as having a dorsal spine equal or shorter than snout length, “base of dorsal equal to its distance from the caudal[,] the last ray reaching to the adipose,” back (dorsum) with dark cross-shades, and dorsal rays with small white dots

Chaetostoma dupouii Fernández-Yépez 1945    in honor of Walter Dupouy (1906-1978), Venezuelan anthropologist-biologist and director, National Museum of Natural Sciences (Caracas), who encouraged and supported Fernández-Yépez’ study of catfishes

Chaetostoma fischeri Steindachner 1879    in honor of Steindachner’s “dear friend” (translation) W. Fischer, who provided a collection of river fishes from Panama, including type of this species

Chaetostoma floridablancaense Ardila Rodríguez 2013    ensis, suffix denoting place: Municipio de Floridablanca, Departamento de Santander, Colombia, type locality (also named in tribute to the author’s homeland, which he loves) [originally but incorrectly spelled floridablancaensis]

Chaetostoma formosae Ballen 2011    Latin for beautiful, referring to the author’s sister, Laura María Ballen, for her unconditional love and support

Chaetostoma guairense Steindachner 1881    ensis, suffix denoting place: Río Guaire near Caracas, Venezuela, type locality

Chaetostoma jegui Rapp Py-Daniel 1991    in honor of ichthyologist Michael Jégu, ORSTOM (Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique d’Outre-Mer), who collected type

Chaetostoma joropo Ballen, Urbano-Bonilla & Maldonado-Ocampo 2016    a collection of musical styles originating in the Llanos region of the Orinoco River Basin, Colombia, where this catfish occurs, honoring the importance and beauty of the region through “one of its most iconic cultural expressions, which does not account for political boundaries and promotes brotherhood among the people of Colombia and Venezuela”

Chaetostoma lepturum Regan 1912    leptos, thin; oura, tail, referring to its more slender tail compared to the similarly colored C. marginatum

Chaetostoma leucomelas Eigenmann 1918    leucos, white; melas, black, referring to light and dark bars on all fins except anal, the contrast strongest on the dorsal and caudal fins

Chaetostoma lexa (Salcedo 2013)    named for Alexandra Keane, sustainability activist, a Political Science student at the College of Charleston, where Salcedo taught at the time (committed students such as Keane can make a difference and help save species like C. lexa from extinction; Norma J. Salcedo, pers. comm.)

Chaetostoma lineopunctatum Eigenmann & Allen 1942    lineo-, line; punctatum, spotted, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to conspicuous black spots between dorsal-fin rays, which can be said to form a line-like series, and/or to “each membrane of the caudal, anal, pectoral, and ventral fins with a dark longitudinal line” and “many obscure black spots” on head and sides (markings on older specimens only)

Chaetostoma loborhynchos Tschudi 1846    lobus, rounded projection or protuberance; rhynchos, snout, referring to its semicircular snout

Chaetostoma machiquense Fernández-Yépez & Martín Salazar 1953    ensis, suffix denoting place: west of Machiques, Estado Zulia, Venezuela, type locality

Chaetostoma marginatum Regan 1904    bordered, perhaps referring to “narrow light edge” on caudal fin

Chaetostoma marmorescens Eigenmann & Allen 1942    marmoratus, marbled; –escens, becoming, referring to uniform dark-brown coloration with “indications of marbling”

Chaetostoma microps Günther 1864    micro-, small; ops, eye, referring to “very small” eye, its diameter ~1/9 length of head and <1/3 width of interorbital space

Chaetostoma milesi Fowler 1941    in honor of Cecil Miles, Secretary of the Dorada Railway (and an ichthyologist), Mariqueta, Tolima Department, Colombia

Chaetostoma niveum Fowler 1944    snowy, referring to small “crowded” whitish spots on trunk and fins

Chaetostoma nudirostre Lütken 1874    nudus, bare or naked; rhynchus, snout, referring to “front side” of head “soft, smooth, without tentacles” (translation)

Chaetostoma palmeri Regan 1912    in honor of M. G. Palmer, British Museum (Natural History), who collected type

Chaetostoma patiae Fowler 1945    of Río Patia, Pacific slope of southwestern Colombia, elevation 915 m, type locality

Chaetostoma paucispinis Regan 1912    paucus, few; spinis, spine, referring to two interopercular spines, fewer than C. lepturus and C. palmeri, described in the same paper

Chaetostoma pearsei Eigenmann 1920    in honor of biologist Arthur Sperry Pearse (1877-1956), University of Wisconsin, who collected type

Chaetostoma platyrhynchus (Fowler 1943)    platy, broad; rhynchus, snout, referring to its “broadly rounded” snout

Chaetostoma setosum Boulenger 1887    bristly, referring to bristles on snout, “short and fine” on the female and “long and strong” on the males

Chaetostoma sovichthys Schultz 1944    in honor of Standard Oil Co. of Venezuela (SOV), for help while Schultz was a guest at the camps of the Lago Petroleum Corporation; ichthys, fish

Chaetostoma spondylus Salcedo & Ortega 2015    Spondylus, a genus of thorny oyster (Spondylidae), referring to tuft of odontodes on trunk lateral dermal plates that resemble the thorny projections on this bivalve mollusc

Chaetostoma stannii Lütken 1874    in honor of German biologist Hermann Friedrich Stannius (1809-1883), who acquired type from “Karsten,” probably German botanist Gustav Karl Wilhelm Hermann Karsten (1817-1908), who may have collected it in Venezuela

Chaetostoma stroumpoulos Salcedo 2006    Greek for plump, referring to its chubby appearance compared to other large-bodied congeners

Chaetostoma tachiraense Schultz 1944    ensis, suffix denoting place: Río Táchira, Táchira state, Venezuela, type locality

Chaetostoma taczanowskii Steindachner 1882    in honor of Polish zoologist Władysław (or Ladislas) Taczanowski (1819-1890), who facilitated the shipment of Trichomycterus (and presumably other) specimens to Steindachner

Chaetostoma thomsoni Regan 1904    in honor of Mr. Kay Thomson, who collected type

Chaetostoma trimaculineum Lujan, Meza-Vargas, Astudillo, Barriga-Salazar & López-Fernández 2015    tri-, three; macula, spot; linea, line, referring to three distinctive rows of spots along the flanks

Chaetostoma vagum Fowler 1943    a wanderer, allusion not explained, perhaps alluding to its being a Colombian version of its presumed closest congener, C. brevis of Ecuador

Chaetostoma vasquezi Lasso & Provenzano 1998    in honor of hydrobiologist Enrique Vásquez, Fundación La Salle de Ciencias Naturales (Bolivar, Venezuela), for his “pioneering” (translation) contributions to the limnology of Venezuela, where this catfish is endemic

Chaetostoma venezuelae (Schultz 1944)    of Venezuela, where it is endemic

Chaetostoma yurubiense Ceas & Page 1996    ensis, suffix denoting place: Parque Nacional Yurubi (Lara, Venezuela), where stream containing type locality originates

Cordylancistrus Isbrücker 1980    cordylo, club or swelling, referring to exceptionally wide head of C. torbesensis; Ancistrus, type genus of subfamily

Cordylancistrus daguae (Eigenmann 1912)    of the Dagua River basin, Colombia, where it is endemic

Cordylancistrus nephelion Provenzano & Milani 2006    Greek for cloud-like spots, referring to irregular white spots on head and body

Cordylancistrus perijae Pérez & Provenzano 1996    of the Sierra de Perijá, a branch of the Eastern Andes Mountains, Maracaibo Basin, Zulia, Venezuela, type locality

Cordylancistrus torbesensis (Schultz 1944)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Río Torbes, Orinoco drainage, Venezuela, type locality

Corymbophanes Eigenmann 1909    corymbus, top or peak; phanes, to appear or make evident, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to the fact that Eigenmann obtained C. andersoni at Aruataima Falls on the Upper Potaro River, the “farthest point” in his Guyana travels, beyond which he did not explore

Corymbophanes andersoni Eigenmann 1909    in honor of geologist C. Wilgress Anderson, Government Surveyor, who probably in some way facilitated Eigenmann’s expedition to Guyana

Corymbophanes kaiei Armbruster & Sabaj Pérez 2000    of Kaie, a character from Amerindian legend for whom Kaieutur Falls in Guyana is named: some accounts describe him as a great chieftain who sacrificed himself by canoeing over the falls in order to save his war-stricken tribe, upon which a great spirit transformed his body, canoe and the goods within it into the rocks at the bottom of the falls, whereas another account describes Kaie as a burdensome old man who was sent over the falls by his fellow tribesmen; either way, like Kaie, the genus has “never been successful at traversing the falls”

Dekeyseria Rapp Py-Daniel 1985    –ia, belonging to: French zoologist Pierre Louis Dekeyser (1914-1984), Universidade Federal da Paraíba (João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil)

Dekeyseria amazonica Rapp Py-Daniel 1985    ica, belonging to: Amazonas, Brazil, type locality and/or distribution in the central Amazon River basin of Brazil

Dekeyseria brachyura (Kner 1854)    brachys, short; oura, tail, referring to obliquely truncated caudal fin

Dekeyseria niveata (La Monte 1929)    snowy, referring to conspicuous light spots everywhere on body except under surface of caudal peduncle, which is plain buff

Dekeyseria picta (Kner 1854)    painted or colored, referring to irregular yellowish spots on brownish head and body, partly confluent into crossbands

Dekeyseria pulchra (Steindachner 1915)    beautiful, referring to its attractive banded color pattern

Dekeyseria scaphirhyncha (Kner 1854)    scapho-, shovel; rhynchus, snout, referring to its depressed head with very broad snout, obtusely rounded in front

Dolichancistrus Isbrücker 1980    dolichos, long; ancistrus, from the Greek agkistron, fishhook, referring to their very long hooked interopercular odontodes, extending much beyond the head in adult males

Dolichancistrus atratoensis (Dahl 1960)    ensis, suffix denoting place: upper Atrato River basin, Colombia, type locality

Dolichancistrus carnegiei (Eigenmann 1916)    in honor of industrialist Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919), founder of the Carnegie Museum, which supported and published many of Eigenmann’s studies

Dolichancistrus cobrensis (Schultz 1944)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Río Cobre, Lake Maracaibo basin, Venezuela, type locality (also occurs in Colombia)

Dolichancistrus fuesslii (Steindachner 1911)    patronym not identified, probably in honor of entomologist A. H. Fassl, who may have collected type (he collected butterflies in the same region of Colombia in 1911); Steindachner’s spelling, füsslii, is apparently a printer’s error since he correctly spelled the name in 1915 (the characid Astyanax fasslii and the catfish Trichomycterus fassli [the latter with a single i], but since there is no internal evidence that the name honored Fassl, the original spelling is retained)

Exastilithoxus Isbrücker & Nijssen 1979    fringe, referring to numerous barbels on upper and lower lips of E. fimbriatus; Lithoxus, referring to previous placement of that species in that genus

Exastilithoxus fimbriatus (Steindachner 1915)    fringed, referring to numerous barbels on upper and lower lips

Exastilithoxus hoedemani Isbrücker & Nijssen 1985    in memory of Dutch ichthyologist Jacobus Johannes Hoedeman (1917-1982)

Guyanancistrus Isbrücker 2001   Guyana, a genus endemic to French Guiana; Ancistrus, type genus of subfamily

Guyanancistrus brevispinis (Heitmans, Nijssen & Isbrücker 1983)    brevis, short; spinis, thorn, referring to shorter evertible interopercular odontodes compared to G. longispinis

Guyanancistrus longispinis (Heitmans, Nijssen & Isbrücker 1983)    longus, long; spinis, thorn, referring to longer evertible interopercular odontodes compared to G. brevispinis

Guyanancistrus niger (Norman 1926)    black, referring to blackish head, body and fins

Hemiancistrus Bleeker 1862    hemi-, partial, referring to similarity to Ancistrus (also genus in which type species, H. medians, had originally been placed)

Hemiancistrus cerrado de Souza, Melo, Chamon & Armbruster 2008    named for the Cerrado region of central Brazil, where it occurs

Hemiancistrus chlorostictus Cardoso & Malabarba 1999    chloros, green; stiktos, spotted, referring to light-green spots on body and fins

Hemiancistrus fuliginosus Cardoso & Malabarba 1999    painted black or sooty, referring to grayish-black coloration with no distinctive marks

Hemiancistrus guahiborum Werneke, Armbruster, Lujan & Taphorn 2005    orum, belonging to: Guahibo, a tribe of people inhabiting parts of southern Venezuela and western Colombia, for the help they provided in collecting specimens

Hemiancistrus hammarlundi Rendahl 1937    in honor of Swedish botanist Carl Hammarlund (1884-1965), who collected type

Hemiancistrus itacua (Valenciennes 1836)    from yaru itacu, local name for this and similar catfishes along the Rio de la Plata in Argentina

Hemiancistrus landoni Eigenmann 1916    in honor of Indianapolis businessman and philanthropist Hugh McKennan Landon (1867-1947), who helped finance expedition that collected type

Hemiancistrus medians (Kner 1854)    in the middle, presumed to be an intermediate form between long- and short-finned Ancistrus, its genus at the time

Hemiancistrus megalopteryx Cardoso 2004    megalo-, large; pteryx, fin, referring to long pectoral fin of males, up to 46.4% of SL

Hemiancistrus meizospilos Cardoso & da Silva 2004    meizon, comparative of megas, big or great; spilos, dots, referring to larger size of dots compared to white-spotted congeners of southern Brazil

Hemiancistrus micrommatos Cardoso & Lucinda 2003    micro-, small; ommatos, eye, referring to its small, dorsolaterally placed eyes

Hemiancistrus punctulatus Cardoso & Malabarba 1999    diminutive of punctum, spot, i.e., having tiny spots, referring to small dark spots on dorsal and lateral plates

Hemiancistrus subviridis Werneke, Sabaj Pérez, Lujan & Armbruster 2005    sub-, less than; viridis, green, i.e., greenish, referring to olive base color in life

Hemiancistrus votouro Cardoso & da Silva 2004    named for the Votouro Indian Reserve, situated on Benjamin Constant, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, type locality

Hopliancistrus Isbrücker & Nijssen 1989    hoplon, Greek for armor, referring to conspicuous odontodes on mouth and cheek of males, i.e., an armored Ancistrus

Hopliancistrus tricornis Isbrücker & Nijssen 1989    tri-, three; cornis, horn, referring to three horn-shaped odontodes along the interopercular in both sexes

Hypancistrus Isbrücker & Nijssen 1991    hypo-, less than, referring to fewer number of teeth compared to most other members of the tribe Ancistrini

Hypancistrus contradens Armbruster, Lujan & Taphorn 2007    contra, opposite; dens, tooth, referring to differently shaped teeth in dentary and premaxilla

Hypancistrus debilittera Armbruster, Lujan & Taphorn 2007    debilis, weak; littera, letter, referring to absent or indistinct E-shaped mark on snout (compared to distinct mark on H. furunculus and H. zebra)

Hypancistrus furunculus Armbruster, Lujan & Taphorn 2007    petty thief or pilferer, referring to dark between eyes, similar to a bandit’s mask

Hypancistrus inspector Armbruster 2002    Latin for observer, referring to its large eyes (etymology section inadvertently deleted from publication; explanation per J. Armbruster, pers. comm.)

Hypancistrus lunaorum Armbruster, Lujan & Taphorn 2007    orum, commemorative suffix, plural: in honor of the Luna family, founders of the village of Macurucu on the Río Orinoco near the mouth of the Ventauri (Amazonas, Venezuela), for their “progressive interest in the development of Macurucu via promotion of scientific research,” which was indispensable in the completion of the authors’ fieldwork

Hypancistrus margaritatus Tan & Armbruster 2016    adorned with pearls, referring to dense white spots on body

Hypancistrus phantasma Tan & Armbruster 2016    phantom, referring to its elusiveness (the described specimens represent the only known specimens, despite nearly a century passing since their collection) and its pale body coloration

Hypancistrus vandragti (Lujan & Armbruster 2011)    in honor of Randy Van Dragt, Professor of Biology at Calvin College (Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA) since 1981, “whose patient introduction to tropical ecology and fish ecomorphology benefitted the first author immeasurably”

Hypancistrus zebra Isbrücker & Nijssen 1991    named for its striped, zebra-like color pattern

Hypostomus Lacepède 1803    hypo-, under; stomus, mouth, referring to ventral position of mouth

Hypostomus affinis (Steindachner 1877)    related, referring to its “remarkably close” appearance (translation) to H. commersoni

Hypostomus agna (Miranda Ribeiro 1907)    latinization of Anhá, local name for this catfish in São Paulo, Brazil

Hypostomus alatus Castelnau 1855    winged, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to high dorsal fin

Hypostomus albopunctatus (Regan 1908)    albus, white; punctatus, spotted, referring to small rounded whitish spots on head, body and fins

Hypostomus ancistroides (Ihering 1911)    oides, having the form of: referring to its resemblance to some species of Ancistrus

Hypostomus angipinnatus (Leege 1922)    angi-, presumably from angustus, narrow or short; pinnatus, finned, referring to “short distance of the dorsal fins” (translation), i.e., short distance between dorsal and adipose fins

Hypostomus annectens (Regan 1904)    linking or joining, reflecting Regan’s belief that it has the “general form” of Plecostomus guacari (=H. plecostomus) and species of the “old genus” Pterygoplichthys, with the number of dorsal rays of the former and the movable interoperculum of the latter

Hypostomus arecuta Cardoso, Almirón, Casciotta, Aichino, Lizarralde & Montoya-Burgos 2012    arecutá, Guaraní word for loricariid fish

Hypostomus argus (Fowler 1943)    Argus, mythical hundred-eyed guardian of Io, referring to its “innumerable” dark spots

Hypostomus asperatus Castelnau 1855    rough, referring to small granular scales on head and most of body

Hypostomus aspidolepis (Günther 1867)    aspido-, shield; lepis, scale, possibly referring to body scutes, each with a prominent keel and 4-7 short setiform spines

Hypostomus aspilogaster (Cope 1894)    aspilos, spotless; gaster, belly, referring to unspotted belly compared to spotted belly of the similar Plecostomus limosus (=H. commersoni)

Hypostomus atropinnis (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1890)    atro-, black; pinnis, fin, described as a subspecies of H. lima with “uniform dark brown” fins

Hypostomus auroguttatus Kner 1854    aureus, golden; guttatus, spotted, referring to irregular yellowish spots on body, sometimes confluent into bands

Hypostomus basilisko Tencatt, Zawadzki & Froehlich 2014    basiliskos, Greek for “little king,” a mythical creature known as the king of snakes, often represented wearing a crown, referring to this catfish’s three strong ridges on top of head

Hypostomus bolivianus (Pearson 1924)    anus, belonging to Bolivia, where it is endemic

Hypostomus borellii (Boulenger 1897)    in honor of zoologist Alfonso Borelli (1857-1943), Università di Torino, who led three expeditions to South America and collected many animals, including type of this species

Hypostomus boulengeri (Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903)    patronym not identified but clearly in honor of ichthyologist-herpetologist George A. Boulenger (1858-1937), British Museum (Natural History)

Hypostomus brevicauda (Günther 1864)    brevis, short; cauda, tail, referring to its “obliquely subtruncated” caudal fin

Hypostomus brevis (Nichols 1919)    short, “notable for its very short body”

Hypostomus butantanis (Ihering 1911)    is, genitive singular of: Butantan Institute, a biomedical research center in the district of Butantã, São Paulo, Brazil, which provided type

Hypostomus careopinnatus Martins, Marinho, Langeani & Serra 2012    careo, be deprived of; pinnatus, finned, referring to absence of adipose fin

Hypostomus carinatus (Steindachner 1881)    keeled, referring to 30 strongly carinate (or keeled) scutes along sides

Hypostomus carvalhoi (Miranda Ribeiro 1937)    in honor of Brazilian ichthyologist-herpetologist Antenor Leitão de Carvalho (1910-1985), who collected type

Hypostomus chrysostiktos Birindelli, Zanata & Lima 2007    chrysos, gold; stiktos, spotted, referring to bright yellow spots on living specimens

Hypostomus cochliodon Kner 1854    cochlear, spoon; odon, tooth, referring to 7-8 short teeth on both sides of jaw, which terminate in a dilated spoon-like crown

Hypostomus commersoni Valenciennes 1836    in honor of French naturalist Philibert Commerçon (also spelled Commerson, 1727-1773), who provided an illustration of this species which Lacépède confused with H. plecostomus in 1803

Hypostomus commersonoides (Marini, Nichols & La Monte 1933)    oides, having the form of: allusion not explained, presumably referring to resemblance to H. commersoni

Hypostomus coppenamensis Boeseman 1969    ensis, suffix denoting place: Coppename River, Suriname, where it appears to be endemic

Hypostomus corantijni Boeseman 1968    of the Corantijn River basin, Suriname, where it appears to be endemic

Hypostomus crassicauda Boeseman 1968    crassus, stout; cauda, tail, referring to its “very stout” caudal peduncle

Hypostomus dardanelos Zawadzki & Carvalho 2014    named for the Dardanelos cachoeira (waterfall), Aripuanã, Mato Grosso, Brazil, where this species was collected in rapids downstream of the falls

Hypostomus delimai Zawadzki, de Oliveira & Debona 2013    in honor of Flávio César Thadeo de Lima (Universidade Estadual de Campinas), for his numerous contributions to neotropical ichthyology

Hypostomus denticulatus Zawadzki, Weber & Pavanelli 2008    atus, provided with: denticulus, small teeth, i.e., small-toothed, referring to smaller and therefore more numerous teeth on dentary and premaxilla than all congeners except H. multidens and H. ternetzi

Hypostomus derbyi (Haseman 1911)    in honor of geologist Orville A. Derby (1851-1915), “who has spent thirty-five years in the cause of science in Brazil, and who rendered [Haseman] more assistance than any other man in South America”

Hypostomus dlouhyi Weber 1985    in honor of Carlo Dlouhy, Muséum d’histoire naturelle de Genève, who collected type

Hypostomus eptingi (Fowler 1941)    in honor of William J. Epting of Philadelphia, who secured many American fishes for the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia

Hypostomus ericae Hollanda Carvalho & Weber 2005    in honor of Erica Pellegrini Caramaschi, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, who helped collect type, for her “great” contributions to the knowledge of fish ecology

Hypostomus ericius Armbruster 2003    Latin for hedgehog, referring to the many sharp odontodes on the keels

Hypostomus faveolus Zawadzki, Birindelli & Lima 2008    honey-combed, referring to color pattern formed by pale blotches with thin dark limits

Hypostomus fluviatilis (Schubart 1964)    of a river, presumably referring to its occurrence in strong river current

Hypostomus fonchii Weber & Montoya-Burgos 2002    in honor of the late Fonchii Chang (1963-1999), Museo de Historia Natural (Lima, Peru), who “disappeared tragically” when she died, along with her motorista, in a boat accident near Lake Rimachi, Peru; she was wearing rubber boots, which filled with water and anchored her to the bottom, where she was shocked by an electric eel, knocked unconscious and drowned

Hypostomus formosae Cardoso, Brancolini, Paracampo, Lizarralde, Covain & Montoya-Burgos 2016    of Formosa Province, Argentina, type locality (also occurs in Paraguay)

Hypostomus francisci (Lütken 1874)    of the Rio São Francisco, Brazil, type locality (also occurs in Argentina)

Hypostomus garmani (Regan 1904)    in honor of Harvard ichthyologist-herpetologist Samuel Garman (1843-1927), who loaned types and sent specimens to the British Museum (Natural History)

Hypostomus goyazensis (Regan 1908)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Goiás, Brazil, type locality

Hypostomus gymnorhynchus (Norman 1926)    gymnos, bare or naked; rhynchus, snout, referring to a “rather broad naked margin” on snout

Hypostomus hemicochliodon Armbruster 2003    hemi-, half; coclear, spoon; odon, tooth, referring to its teeth, which are “about half as spoonshaped” as those of wood-specializing members of the H. cochliodon group, to which it belongs

Hypostomus hemiurus (Eigenmann 1912)    hemi-, half; urus, tail, presumably referring to its oblique, emarginate caudal fin, its lower rays usually less than twice the length of its middle rays

Hypostomus heraldoi Zawadzki, Weber & Pavanelli 2008    in honor of Heraldo A. Britski, curator of fishes, Museu de Zoología at São Paulo, for his extensive contributions to our knowledge of neotropical fish diversity

Hypostomus hermanni (Ihering 1905)    in honor of Ihering’s father, German-Brazilian zoologist Hermann von Ihering (1850-1930)

Hypostomus holostictus (Regan 1913)    holos, whole; stictus, spot, presumably referring to head, body and fins covered with round dark spots

Hypostomus hondae (Regan 1912)    of Honda, Colombia, type locality (also occurs in Venezuela)

Hypostomus hoplonites Rapp Py-Daniel 1988    armored or shielded, referring to its general appearance, heavily plated and spiny (Lucia Rapp Py-Daniel, pers. comm.)

Hypostomus iheringii (Regan 1908)    in honor of Rodolpho von Ihering (1883-1939), zoologist and fish culturist, who collected type (and several other loricariids described in the same paper)

Hypostomus interruptus (Miranda Ribeiro 1918)    referring to how alignment of plates on mid-dorsal keel are misaligned between anterior and posterior halves of body due to a series of plates in front of dorsal fin

Hypostomus isbrueckeri Reis, Weber & Malabarba 1990    in honor of Isaäc J. H. Isbrücker (b. 1944), Zoological Museum in Amsterdam, “who has extensively contributed to the knowledge of loricariid diversity”

Hypostomus jaguar Zanata, Sardeiro & Sawadzki 2013    Tupí-Guaraní word for panther, referring to black-dotted color pattern on a clear background

Hypostomus jaguribensis (Fowler 1915)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Rio Jaguaribe at Barro Alto, Brazil, type locality (Fowler used the spelling “Jaguribé” [minus the a] for the river, which is reflected in his name for the fish]

Hypostomus johnii (Steindachner 1877)    in honor of Orestes Saint John, member of Thayer Expedition, who collected type

Hypostomus khimaera Tencatt, Zawadzki & Froehlich 2014    from the Greek cimaira or khimaira, a mythological creature with a hybrid body formed by three animals (lion, snake, goat), referring to possession of features comparable to “conspicuously distinct” species

Hypostomus kopeyaka Carvalho, Lima & Zawadzki 2010     after its common name among the Tuyuka and Tukano Indians of Brazil and Colombia, kope yaka, or kope ya’ka, meaning “pleco from the holes,” referring to the Indians’ belief that they spend most of their time hiding in holes in the river banks

Hypostomus kuarup Zawadzki, Birindelli & Lima 2012    named for Kuarup, or Quarup, an origin myth and a festivity shared by most of the ethnical groups living in the upper portion of the Xingu Indigenous Park; the first Kuarup is said to have taken place at the Saginhenhu, a locality recently identified by the Indians as being the Cachoeira do Adelino (Mato Grosso, Brazil), one of the localities from which this catfish is known

Hypostomus laplatae (Eigenmann 1907)    of the La Plata River basin, Argentina, type locality (also occurs in Uruguay)

Hypostomus latifrons Weber 1986    latus, wide; frons, forhead, referring to its particularly large interorbital space

Hypostomus latirostris (Regan 1904)  latus, wide; rostris, snout, referring to its “broad, rounded” snout

Hypostomus leucophaeus Tanaka & Pitanga 2016    ash-colored or dun, referring to higher contrast between dark spots and light-brown ground color

Hypostomus levis (Pearson 1924)    smooth, allusion not explained, possibly referring to lower surface of head and abdomen covered with “small granular plates” (as opposed to “small spinulose plates” Pearson described for H. plecostomus)

Hypostomus lexi (Ihering 1911)    in honor of biologist-geologist Belisária Fausto Lex (1878-1950), who presented many specimens to the Museu Paulista in São Paulo, Brazil, including type of this catfish

Hypostomus lima (Lütken 1874)    file or rasp, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to “granulated” strip on each side of lower lip and/or “granulated” pelvic-fin spine (translation)

Hypostomus longiradiatus (Holly 1929)    longus, long; radiatus, rayed, referring to first dorsal-fin ray, which is as long as the head

Hypostomus luteomaculatus (Devincenzi 1942)    luteus, yellow; maculatus, spotted, referring to yellow spots all over fins and body

Hypostomus luteus (Godoy 1980)    yellow, referring to its yellow-orange color in life

Hypostomus macrophthalmus Boeseman 1968    macro-, large; ophthalmus, eye, described as a subspecies of H. pseudohemiurus with a larger eye

Hypostomus macrops (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888)    macro-, large; ops, eye, referring to larger eyes compared to H. lima

Hypostomus macushi Armbruster & de Souza 2005    named for the Macushi people of the northern Rupununi, who provided the authors with a lot of help and hospitality on their journeys in southern Guyana, and who collected most of the best specimens in the type series

Hypostomus maracaiboensis (Schultz 1944)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Lake Maracaibo basin, Venezuela, where it is endemic

Hypostomus margaritifer (Regan 1908)    margarita, pearl; fero, to bear, i.e., pearly, presumably referring to “rounded pale spots” scattered on head and body

Hypostomus melanephelis Zawadzki, Oliveira, de Oliveira & Rapp Py-Daniel 2015    melano-, dark or black; ephelis, freckle, referring to color pattern formed by tiny dark dots along head and body

Hypostomus meleagris (Marini, Nichols & La Monte 1933)    guinea fowl, probably referring to “numerous more or less pronounced pale rounded spots” on back, sides and fins, reminiscent of the color pattern of a guinea fowl

Hypostomus micromaculatus Boeseman 1968    micro-, small; maculatus, spotted, referring to small, usually elongate, spots on fins and body, several on each scute

Hypostomus microstomus Weber 1987    micro-, small; stomus, mouth, distinguished easily by its very small mouth

Hypostomus multidens Jerep, Shibatta & Zawadzki 2007    multi-, many; dens, teeth, referring to high tooth number in each dentary (122-267) and premaxilla (115-260)

Hypostomus mutucae Knaack 1999    of the Rio Mutuca, Mato Grosso, Brazil, type locality

Hypostomus myersi (Gosline 1947)    in honor of Stanford University ichthyologist George S. Myers (1905-1985), “senior collector” of type, to whom Gosline is “indebted for a large part of what knowledge he may have acquired in the field of South American ichthyology”

Hypostomus nematopterus Isbrücker & Nijssen 1984    nemato-, thread; pterus, fin, referring to filamentous dorsal fin

Hypostomus niceforoi (Fowler 1943)    in honor of Brother Niceforo Maria, Museo del Instituto de La Salle, Bogotá, who sent collections of Colombian freshwater fishes to Fowler, including type of this species

Hypostomus niger (Marini, Nichols & La Monte 1933)    black, referring to “mostly blackish” body and fins

Hypostomus nigrolineatus Zawadzki, Carvalho, Birindelli & Azevedo 2016    nigro-, black; lineatus, lined or striped, referring to dark stripes on posterior sides of body, uncommon in the genus

Hypostomus nigromaculatus (Schubart 1964)    nigro-, black; maculatus, spotted, referring to blackish marks on each scute or plate, forming a striped pattern

Hypostomus nigropunctatus Garavello, Britski & Zawadzki 2012    nigro-, black; punctatus, spotted, referring to dark spots on body and fins (compared to pale spots on congeners from rio Iguaçu basin)

Hypostomus nudiventris (Fowler 1941)    nudus, naked; ventris, belly, referring to total absence of scales or scutes on belly

Hypostomus obtusirostris (Steindachner 1907)    obtusus, blunt; rostris, snout, presumably referring to its wide muzzle (“Schnauze breit”)

Hypostomus occidentalis Boeseman 1968    western, described as a western subspecies of H. gymnorhynchus

Hypostomus oculeus (Fowler 1943)    eyed, referring to its “innumerable” small dark spots

Hypostomus pagei Armbruster 2003    in honor of ichthyologist Lawrence M. Page, for his help and guidance during Armbruster’s career, and for helping to collect a majority of the specimens of this species

Hypostomus pantherinus Kner 1854    like a panther, referring to scattered round spots on head, body and fins

Hypostomus papariae (Fowler 1941)    of Lago Papary, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, type locality

Hypostomus paranensis Weyenbergh 1877   ensis, suffix denoting place: Paraná River system, Argentina, where it is endemic

Hypostomus paucimaculatus Boeseman 1968    paucus, few; maculatus, spotted, referring to larger and, therefore, fewer, spots on body compared to congeners in Suriname

Hypostomus paucipunctatus Hollanda Carvalho & Weber 2005    paucus, few; punctatus, dotted, referring to widely spaced spots covering body, compared to close-set spots on H. waiampi, H. oculeus and H. pyrineusi

Hypostomus paulinus (Ihering 1905)    inus, belonging to: São Paulo, Brazil, where type locality (Rio Piracicaba) is situated (also occurs in Argentina and Paraguay)

Hypostomus peckoltoides Zawadzki, Weber & Pavanelli 2010    oides, having the form of: the related genus Peckoltia, which includes species with dark saddles similar to those found on this one

Hypostomus perdido Zawadzki, Tencatt & Froehlich 2014    named for the rio Perdido (Portuguese for lost), Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, type locality

Hypostomus piratatu Weber 1986    Pira-tatù, local Guaraní name for this catfish, meaning “armadillo fish”

Hypostomus plecostomoides (Eigenmann 1922)    oides, having the form of: the genus Plecostomus (=Hypostomus); originally placed in the genus Cochliodon, which Eigenmann described as similar to Plecostomus but “with large unpointed teeth”

Hypostomus plecostomus (Linnaeus 1758)    pleco-, folded, pleated or plicate; stomus, mouth, referring to its lips, which can be said to fold downward to form a suctorial mouth

Hypostomus pseudohemiurus Boeseman 1968    pseudo-, false, referring to how this species “at first sight strongly resembles” H. hemiurus, but such an appearance is false

Hypostomus punctatus Valenciennes 1840    spotted, referring to many small black dots on body and fins

Hypostomus pusarum (Starks 1913)    arum, commemorative suffix, plural: named in memory of the boys who collected this catfish with their hands and with dip-nets under overhanging grassy banks at Ceará-Mirim, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, “the best collectors we found in Brazil” (presumably based on a native word, meaning unknown)

Hypostomus pyrineusi (Miranda Ribeiro 1920)    in honor of Miranda Ribeiro’s good friend Lieut. Antonio Pyrineus de Souza (d. 1936), a naturalist with the Rondon Commission to install telegraph poles from Mato Grosso to Amazonas, which included expedition that collected type

Hypostomus regani (Ihering 1905)    in honor of ichthyologist Charles Tate Regan (1878-1943), Natural History Museum (London), who offered advice and assured Ihering that his new species were distinct from those in Regan’s 1904 monograph on the family

Hypostomus rhantos Armbruster, Tansey & Lujan 2007    Greek for sprinkled, speckled or spotted, referring to the tiny, randomly placed spots on body and head

Hypostomus robinii Valenciennes 1840    in honor of M. (Monsieur) Robin, probably French naturalist-explorer Charles-Cesár Robin (most famous for his 1807 account of his voyages through Louisiana, Florida and the West Indies), who provided type (a dried specimen) from Trinidad

Hypostomus rondoni (Miranda Ribeiro 1912)    in honor of Cândido Rondon (1865-1958), Brazilian army engineer and explorer, whose Rondon Commission to install telegraph poles from Mato Grosso to Amazonas included expedition that collected type

Hypostomus roseopunctatus Reis, Weber & Malabarba 1990    roseus, pink; punctatus, dotted or spotted, referring to color pattern

Hypostomus saramaccensis Boeseman 1968    ensis, suffix denoting place: middle Saramacca River, Suriname, type locality

Hypostomus scabriceps (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888)    scaber, rough; ceps, head, referring to lower surface of head covered with scutes

Hypostomus scaphyceps (Nichols 1919)    scapho-, shovel; ceps, head, presumably referring to “very broad and rounded” snout

Hypostomus sculpodon Armbruster 2003    sculpo, to carve, cut, grave, or chisel in stone, brass or wood; odon, tooth, referring to its ability to chisel wood with its teeth

Hypostomus seminudus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888)    semi-, partial; nudus, bare or naked, referring to ventral surface “more or less naked” (sides of belly and a narrow band between ventrals covered with scutes)

Hypostomus simios Hollanda Carvalho & Weber 2005    Greek for snub-nosed, referring to its profile

Hypostomus soniae Hollanda Carvalho & Weber 2005    in honor of Sonia Fisch-Muller, Muséum d’histoire naturelle (Geneva), specialist in loricariid systematics and one of the collectors of the type series

Hypostomus strigaticeps (Regan 1908)    strigatus, furrowed or browed; ceps, head, referring to granular patch in front of each gill opening on an otherwise naked head

Hypostomus subcarinatus Castelnau 1855    sub-, less than or somewhat; carinatus, keeled, i.e., slightly keeled, presumably referring to four longitudinal ridges on sides

Hypostomus taphorni (Lilyestrom 1984)    in honor of colleague and friend Donald C. Taphorn, student of Venezuelan fishes (he also helped collect type)

Hypostomus tapijara Oyakawa, Akama & Zanata 2005    Tupí word meaning “one who is sedentary” or “ancient dweller,” local name for this catfish along the Ribeira de Iguape river basin of Brazil

Hypostomus tenuis Boeseman 1968    thin, a “a very slender species with a remarkably elongate [caudal] peduncle”

Hypostomus ternetzi (Boulenger 1895)    in honor of ichthyologist and naturalist Carl Ternetz (1870-1928), who collected type

Hypostomus tietensis (Ihering 1905)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Rio Tietê, São Paulo, Brazil, type locality (also endemic to Tietê River basin)

Hypostomus topavae (Godoy 1969)    of topava, a zone of basaltic rocks that are exposed when the river is low, an important fishing location and where this catfish was collected

Hypostomus unae (Steindachner 1878)    of the Rio Una, Uru River basin, Bahia State, Brazil, type locality

Hypostomus uruguayensis Reis, Weber & Malabarba 1990    ensis, suffix denoting place: Rio Uruguay, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, type locality (also occurs in Uruguay)

Hypostomus vaillanti (Steindachner 1877)    patronym not identified but probably in honor of Léon Vaillant (1834-1914), zoologist, Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (Paris)

Hypostomus variipictus (Ihering 1911)    varius, several; pictus, painted, referring to white lines on dorsal-fin membranes and white spots that form transverse streaks on the other fins

Hypostomus varimaculosus (Fowler 1945)    vari-, various; maculosus, spotted, referring to its variegated color pattern

Hypostomus variostictus (Miranda Ribeiro 1912)    varius, different, stictus, marked or spotted, probably referring to both yellow and dark spots on body and fins

Hypostomus vermicularis (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888)    vermiculate, referring to spots on head “sometimes confluent into vermiculating lines” (per Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1890)

Hypostomus waiampi Hollanda Carvalho & Weber 2005    named for Waiampi, an Amerindian ethnic group from northeastern Brazil, presently established in an Indian reserve with the same name, western Cupixi River Basin, Amapâ, Brazil, where it appears to be endemic

Hypostomus watwata Hancock 1828    Creole name (also spelled watawata) for this species in Guyana

Hypostomus weberi Carvalho, Lima & Zawadzki 2010    in honor of Claude Weber, Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Génève, for his contributions to the knowledge of the genus Hypostomus

Hypostomus wilsoni (Eigenmann 1918)    in honor of Indianapolis businessman Charles Wilson, who helped finance Eigenmann’s trip to Brazil and collected many specimens himself, including type of this species

Hypostomus wuchereri (Günther 1864)    in honor of Brazilian physician Otto Edward Henry Wucherer (1820-1873), whose collection supplied types of this and several other species from Bahia, Brazil

Hypostomus yaku Martins, Langeani & Zawadzki 2014    from the Tupí-Guaraní language, dialect Mbyá, y (water) and raku (hot or warm), referring to name of the rio Quente (=hot), a warm-water river (~34˚C) in Goiás, Brazil, only known area of occurrence

Isorineloricaria Isbrücker 1980    isos, like, referring to how its general body shape, prominent odontodes, and secondary sexual dimorphism “strikingly remind” one of several species of Rineloricaria (Loricariinae)

Isorineloricaria acuarius Ray & Armbruster 2016    Latin for needle maker, referring to the numerous hypertrophied odontodes found on breeding males, “which can make study of these fishes difficult”

Isorineloricaria spinosissima (Steindachner 1880)    very spiny, referring to strong spines covering head and body of adult males

Isorineloricaria tenuicauda (Steindachner 1878)    tenuis, thin; cauda, tail, referring to thinner caudal peduncle compared to S. emarginata

Isorineloricaria villarsi (Lütken 1874)    in honor of physician-zoologist Carron de Villars, who provided type

Lasiancistrus Regan 1904    lasios, bearded, proposed as a subgenus of Ancistrus that sometimes has short bristles on sides of snout

Lasiancistrus caucanus Eigenmann 1912    anus, belonging to: Valle del Cauca, Colombia, where Cartago (type locality) is situated (also occurs in Panama)

Lasiancistrus guacharote (Valenciennes 1840)    according to Valenciennes, local name for this catfish on Puerto Rico, but this catfish does not occur there (possibly its name in the Lake Maracaibo basin of Venezuela, its actual type locality)

Lasiancistrus heteracanthus (Günther 1869)    heteros, different; acanthus, spine, referring to two kinds of spines on interoperculum: a group of ~12 slender but stiff and slightly hooked spines surrounded by a ring of long setiform spines

Lasiancistrus saetiger Armbruster 2005    bristle bearing, referring to whisker-like odontodes in all species of the genus

Lasiancistrus schomburgkii (Günther 1864)    in honor of explorer Robert Hermann Schomburgk (1804-1865), who presented type to the British Museum (Natural History)

Lasiancistrus tentaculatus Armbruster 2005    diminutive of tentacle, referring to tentacules along snout in nuptial males

Leporacanthicus Isbrücker & Nijssen 1989    leporis, hare or rabbit, referring to long and firm premaxillary teeth, i.e., a hare-like Acanthicus

Leporacanthicus galaxias Isbrücker & Nijssen 1989    Greek for Milky Way, referring to its milky white spots

Leporacanthicus heterodon Isbrücker & Nijssen 1989    hetero-, different; odon, teeth, referring to its unique hare- or rabbit-like teeth

Leporacanthicus joselimai Isbrücker & Nijssen 1989    in honor of Brazilian ichthyologist José Lima de Figueiredo, who drew the senior author’s attention to the “peculiar” (translation) genera now known as Leporacanthicus and Hopliancistrus

Leporacanthicus triactis Isbrücker, Nijssen & Nico 1992    tri-, three; aktis, ray, unique among congeners in having three (vs. four) branched anal-fin rays

Leptoancistrus Meek & Hildebrand 1916    lepto-, thin or slender, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to “anteriorly low” body; ancistrus, from the Greek agkistron, fishhook, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to interopercular spines and/or to presumed relationship with the ancistrine genus Ancistrus)

Leptoancistrus canensis (Meek & Hildebrand 1913)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Río Cana, Cana, Darien, Panama, type locality

Leptoancistrus cordobensis Dahl 1964    ensis, suffix denoting place: Córdoba Department, Colombia, where Río Sinú (type locality) is situated

Lithoxus Eigenmann 1910    stony, “It is flat and clings to the rock, which it greatly resembles,” according to Eigenmann (1912), referring to L. lithoides

Lithoxus boujardi Muller & Isbrücker 1993    in honor of T. Thierry Boujard, Laboratoire d’Hydrobiologie de Guyane (INRA), who at the time had been studying the fishes of Guyana for six years [authorial note: Muller later seen as S. Fisch-Muller]

Lithoxus bovallii (Regan 1906)    in honor of Swedish biologist and archaeologist Carl Bovallius (1849-1907), who collected type

Lithoxus jantjae Lujan 2008    in honor of Lujan’s mother, nicknamed Jantje (pronounced yäntchi) prior to her emigration from the Netherlands, “in deep appreciation for her hard work and material and emotional encouragement that promoted [Lujan’s] professional development and made this research possible”

Lithoxus lithoides Eigenmann 1912    oides, having the form of: lithos, stone; “It is flat and clings to the rock, which is greatly resembles,” according to Eigenmann (1912)

Lithoxus pallidimaculatus Boeseman 1982    pallid, pale; maculatus, spotted, referring to “almost white” spots on head, back and caudal peduncle

Lithoxus planquettei Boeseman 1982    in honor of Paul Planquette (1940-1996), Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (Kourou, French Guiana), who collected type

Lithoxus stocki Nijssen & Isbrücker 1990    in honor of carcinologist Jan H. Stock (1931-1997), “on occasion of his retirement, with remembrance of and gratitude for his energetic and enthusiastic activities as a teacher and colleague”

Lithoxus surinamensis Boeseman 1982    ensis, suffix denoting place: upper Suriname River drainage and/or Suriname, where it is endemic

Megalancistrus Isbrücker 1980    megalo-, large, referring to the large size (up to 53 cm TL in M. gigas) of the known species; Ancistrus, type genus of subfamily

Megalancistrus barrae (Steindachner 1910)    of Barra, Brazil, near type locality (Rio São Francisco)

Megalancistrus parananus (Peters 1881)    anus, belonging to: Río Paraná at La Paz, Entre-Ríos, Argentina, type locality (also occurs in Paraguay, Brazil and Uruguay)

Neblinichthys Ferraris, Isbrücker & Nijssen 1986    Neblina, name of base camp on Río Mawarinuma tributary, Venezuela, type locality of N. pilosus; ichthys, fish

Neblinichthys brevibracchium Taphorn, Armbruster, López-Fernández & Bernard 2010    brevis, short; bracchium, forearm, referring to relatively short pectoral spines present in the genus

Neblinichthys echinasus Taphorn, Armbruster, López-Fernández & Bernard 2010    echinus, sea-urchin or prickly; nasus, nose, referring to extremely hypertrophied odontodes along entire edge of snout of males

Neblinichthys peniculatus Armbruster & Taphorn 2013    adjectival form of the Latin peniculus for brush, referring to brush-like odontodes on snout

Neblinichthys pilosus Ferraris, Isbrücker & Nijssen 1986    hairy, referring to the “hair-styled” (quotes in original) bristles of mature males

Neblinichthys roraima Provenzano R., Lasso A. & Ponte 1995    named for Monte Roraima, type locality, the highest (2,800 m) tepui (table-top mountain or mesa) of the Gran Sabana area, Estado Bolívar, Venezuela

Neblinichthys yaravi (Steindachner 1915)    local name for this catfish along the Río Coquenan in Venezuela

Panaqolus Isbrücker & Schraml 2001    diminutive of Panaque, i.e., small Panaque, referring to their smaller size (<150 mm SL vs. up to 490 mm SL)

Subgenus Panaqolus

Panaqolus changae (Chockley & Armbruster 2002)    in honor of the late Fonchii Chang (1963-1999), Museo de Historia Natural (Lima, Peru), for her contributions to the study of loricariids and her specific interest in this species [she died, along with her motorista, in a boat accident near Lake Rimachi, Peru; she was wearing rubber boots, which filled with water and anchored her to the bottom, where she was shocked by an electric eel, knocked unconscious and drowned]

Panaqolus claustellifer Tan, Souza & Armbruster 2016    claustellum, keyhole; fero-, to bear, referring to dark-brown lines on snout surrounding a keyhole-like shape of light-brown base coloration

Panaqolus gnomus (Schaefer & Stewart 1993)    gnome, a diminutive fabled being or dwarf, referring to small adult size (up to 70.8 mm) and garish banded coloration

Panaqolus purusiensis (La Monte 1935)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Rio Purus, Brazil, type locality

Panaqolus tankei Cramer & Sousa 2016    in honor of German aquarist Andreas Tanke, for his dedication to the genus Panaqolus (he probably was the first to reproduce this species in captivity), and for his successful efforts to improve communications between aquarists and scientists “in an era of less and less money for research and an ever accelerating destruction of natural habitats”

Subgenus Panafilus Lujan, Cramer, Covain, Fisch-Muller & López-Fernández 2017    combination of Panaqolus, nominate genus, and filum, filament or fiber, referring to elongated unbranched principal caudal-fin rays in all members of this subgenus

Panaqolus albivermis Lujan, Steele & Velasquez 2013    albus, white; vermis, worm, referring to its “variable but distinctive” white-to-yellow markings, or vermiculations

Panaqolus albomaculatus (Kanazawa 1958)    albo-, white; maculated, spotted, referring to small, rounded, light-colored spots on head, body and fins

Panaqolus nix Cramer & Rapp Py-Daniel 2015    Latin for snow, referring to dots that look like falling snowflakes on dark individuals, while pale individuals look as if their whole body is covered by snow

Panaqolus nocturnus (Schaefer & Stewart 1993)    of the night, referring to dark, dusky coloration of dorsal and paired fins, and to its nocturnal habits

Subgenus Panaqoco Lujan, Cramer, Covain, Fisch-Muller & López-Fernández 2017    combination of Panaqolus, nominate genus, and Orinoco, river drainage where P. maccus occurs

Panaqolus maccus (Schaefer & Stewart 1993)    clown or buffoon, referring to “Clown Plecostomus” name widely used by aquarists, referring to its striped color pattern

Incertae sedis

Panaqolus dentex (Günther 1868)    with large teeth, described as “comparatively large”

Panaque Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889    local name for P. nigrolineatus in Venezuela

Panaque armbrusteri Lujan, Hidalgo & Stewart 2010    in honor of Jonathan W. Armbruster, Curator of Fishes, Auburn University Museum, for his many contributions to ichthyology in general, and to our understanding of the Loricariidae in particular

Panaque bathyphilus Lujan & Chamon 2008    bathy, deep; philos, fond of, referring to its deep-river-channel habitat

Panaque cochliodon (Steindachner 1879)    cochlear, spoon; odon, tooth, referring to spoon-shaped dentary and premaxillary tooth cusps

Panaque nigrolineatus (Peters 1877)    nigro-, black; lineatus, lined, referring to dark-brown to black wavy longitudinal stripes on body

Panaque schaeferi Lujan, Hidalgo & Stewart 2010    in honor of Scott A. Schaefer, American Museum of Natural History and ichthyological editor of Copeia, for many contributions to ichthyology in general, and to our understanding of the Loricarioidea in particular

Panaque suttonorum Schultz 1944    orum, commemorative suffix, plural: in honor of Dr. and Mrs. Fredrick A. Sutton, who were “very kind” to Schultz when he stayed at the camp of the Lago Petroleum Corporation in Maracaibo, Venezuela [originally spelled suttoni, but since name honors more than one person, emendment is necessary]

Panaque titan Lujan, Hidalgo & Stewart 2010    from the Greek Titan, representing brute force and large size, referring to adult body size (>390 mm SL)

Parancistrus Bleeker 1862    para-, near, presumably referring to similarity to and/or close relationship with Ancistrus

Parancistrus aurantiacus (Castelnau 1855)    orange-colored, referring to its orange-yellow body coloration

Parancistrus nudiventris Rapp Py-Daniel & Zuanon 2005    nudus, naked; ventris, belly, referring to its naked (i.e., non-plated) abdomen, compared to plated abdomen of P. aurantiacus

Paulasquama Armbruster & Taphorn 2011    paulus, small; squama, scale armor, referring to small plates located in dorsal series just below dorsal fin

Paulasquama callis Armbruster & Taphorn 2011    Latin for a stony, uneven, narrow footway, referring to cobblestone-like plates along narrow mesethmoid with naked areas to either side

Peckoltia Miranda Ribeiro 1912    ia, belonging to: German botanist and pharmacist Gustavo Peckolt (1861-1923), who was born in Brazil, became a member of the Natural History Commission of Rondon, and published important books about Brazilian plants in the late 1800s with his father Theodor

Peckoltia braueri (Eigenmann 1912)    in honor of zoologist August Brauer (1863-1917), Berlin Zoological Museum, for the loan of type specimens

Peckoltia brevis (La Monte 1935)    short, presumably referring to deeper (and therefore shorter) body compared to other known Hemiancistrus (original genus) except H. megacephalus

Peckoltia caenosa Armbruster 2008    Latin for muddy or dirty, referring to its muddy coloration and preference for muddy habitats

Peckoltia capitulata Fisch-Muller & Covain 2012    diminutive of capit, head, referring to shorter head length compared to most congeners

Peckoltia cavatica Armbruster & Werneke 2005    born or living in caves, referring to holes in lateritic rocks where most specimens were captured, and where it likely breeds

Peckoltia compta de Oliveira, Zuanon, Rapp Py-Daniel & Rocha 2010    ornamented or adorned, referring to its “bold” striped and spotted color pattern

Peckoltia ephippiata Armbruster, Werneke & Tan 2015    saddled, referring to four saddles on body

Peckoltia furcata (Fowler 1940)    forked, referring to its “very deeply forked” tail

Peckoltia greedoi Armbruster, Werneke & Tan 2015    named for Greedo of Rodia, a bounty hunter killed by Han Solo in Chalmun’s Spaceport Cantina in the 1977 film Star Wars: Episode IV – A New Hope, with whom this species shares a “remarkable resemblance” (specifically, the large, dark eyes and puckered lips)

Peckoltia lineola Armbruster 2008    diminutive of linea, line, referring to short lines on the compound pterotic

Peckoltia lujani Armbruster, Werneke & Tan 2015    in honor of Armbruster’s former graduate student Nathan Lujan, whose expeditions to “some of the most remote regions of South America” have obtained important specimens for the study of loricariid systematics specifically and South American fish systematics and ecology in general,” giving Armbruster “more taxonomic work in the last decade than he had thought possible”; Lujan also collected the best specimens known of this species

Peckoltia multispinis (Holly 1929)    multi-, many; spinus, spine, referring to 39 hooked, curved spines on interoperculum

Peckoltia oligospila (Günther 1864)    oligo-, few; spilus, mark or spot, presumably referring to “only one series” of round, black spots on each interradial space of dorsal fin

Peckoltia otali Fisch-Muller & Covain 2012    Wayana Amerindian name meaning secret, referring to its coloration, similar to its biotope, making it difficult to observe

Peckoltia pankimpuju (Lujan & Chamon 2008)    pankim, beautiful; puju, white, in the language of the Aguaruna (Awajun) people of northern Peru, referring to its nearly white body

Peckoltia relictum (Lujan, Armbruster & Rengifo 2011)    abandoned, referring to its apparently relictual biogeographic distribution

Peckoltia sabaji Armbruster 2003    in honor of Mark Sabaj Perez, Collection Manager of Ichthyology, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, for his “tremendous” help in collecting specimens throughout South America, and because he collected the first live specimen of this species that Armbruster ever saw (pronounced sah-bay’-i)

Peckoltia simulata Fisch-Muller & Covain 2012    Latin for counterfeit, referring to similarity with P. oligopsila

Peckoltia vermiculata (Steindachner 1908)    described as a variety of P. vittata with “wavy purple lines” (translation), or vermiculations, on the head

Peckoltia vittata (Steindachner 1881)    banded, referring to five dark-brown, nearly vertical bands crossing body and/or two similar bands on all fins except anal

Peckoltia wernekei Armbruster & Lujan 2016    in honor of David C. Werneke, for his “diligence, camaraderie and humor” during three expeditions to the upper Orinoco Basin, and for his long service as Collection Manager of Fishes at the Auburn University Museum                                   

Peckoltichthys Miranda Ribeiro 1917    Peckolt, named for German botanist and pharmacist Gustavo Peckolt (1861-1923), who was born in Brazil, became a member of the Natural History Commission of Rondon, and published important books about Brazilian plants in the late 1800s with his father Theodor; ichthys, fish [Miranda Ribeiro stated in 1920 that he proposed this name as a replacement for Peckoltia, preoccupied in plants; while intra-kingdom homonyms are discouraged, they are not prohibited]

Peckoltichthys bachi (Boulenger 1898)    in honor of J. Bach, a physician working on the Rio Juruá of Brazil in the late 1800s, who collected type (also occurs in Colombia, Ecuador and Peru)

Pseudacanthicus Bleeker 1862    pseudo-, false, i.e., although this genus may superficially resemble Acanthicus (which lack an adipose fin), such an appearance is false

Pseudacanthicus fordii (Günther 1868)    in honor of “Mr. Ford,” probably George Henry Ford (1809-1876), who illustrated specimens (including fishes) for the British Museum (Natural History) [in 1861, Günther named a snake after Ford, Epicrates fordii, praising his “truly artistical drawings”]

Pseudacanthicus histrix (Valenciennes 1840)    porcupine, referring to “spiny hairs” (translation) that line the body

Pseudacanthicus leopardus (Fowler 1914)    referring to its leopard-like spots

Pseudacanthicus pirarara Chamon & Sousa 2017    alluding to pirarara, Brazilian common name of the Redtail Catfish, Phractocephalus hemioliopterus (Pimelodidae), which was incorporated by local fishermen in the common name of this species, assacu-pirarara, due to its reddish fins

Pseudacanthicus pitanga Chamon 2015    Tupí-Guaraní word for red, referring to the color of its fins

Pseudacanthicus serratus (Valenciennes 1840)    toothed like a saw, referring to short, serrate spines covering head, body and fins

Pseudacanthicus spinosus (Castelnau 1855)    spiny, referring to white spines on body, small spines on head, and/or spiny rayed fins

Pseudancistrus Bleeker 1862    pseudo-, false, i.e., although this genus may superficially resemble Ancistrus (which have fleshy tentacles), such an appearance is false

Pseudancistrus asurini Silva, Roxo & Oliveira 2015    referring to the Asurini indigenous people who inhabit the right margin and median portions of rio Xingu, close to the municipality of Altamira (Pará, Brazil), where this catfish occurs

Pseudancistrus barbatus (Valenciennes 1840)    bearded, referring to bristles on side of snout, longer on males, “like a badly made beard” (translation)

Pseudancistrus coquenani (Steindachner 1915)    of the Río Coquenan, Venezuela, type locality

Pseudancistrus corantijniensis De Chambrier & Montoya-Burgos 2008    ensis, suffix denoting place: Corantijn River, Suriname, where it is endemic

Pseudancistrus depressus (Günther 1868)    referring to head and trunk, “much depressed and flattened”

Pseudancistrus genisetiger Fowler 1941    genys, cheek; seta, bristle; fero, to bear, referring to prominent bristles on interopercle and lower margin of head

Pseudancistrus guentheri (Regan 1904)    in honor of ichthyologist-herpetologist Albert Günther (1830-1914), who described several loricariid species in his 1864 catalog of catfishes in the British Museum (Natural History)

Pseudancistrus kayabi Silva, Roxo & Oliveira 2015    referring to the Kayabi indigenous people that inhabited the region of the rivers Arinos, dos Peixes and Teles Pires (Mato Grosso, Brazil), where this catfish occurs

Pseudancistrus kwinti Willink, Mol & Chernoff 2010    named after the Kwinti people who live along the Coppename River, Suriname, and traditionally fish in the area where this catfish is found

Pseudancistrus megacephalus (Günther 1868)    mega-, large; cephalus, head, its length >1/3 of SL

Pseudancistrus nigrescens Eigenmann 1912    blackish, referring to nearly uniform “dark slaty” coloration

Pseudancistrus orinoco (Isbrücker, Nijssen & Cala 1988)    named for the Rio Orinoco, Colombia, type locality (also occurs in Venezuela)

Pseudancistrus papariae Fowler 1941    of Lago Papary, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, type locality

Pseudancistrus pectegenitor Lujan, Armbruster & Sabaj Pérez 2007    pecten, quill, referring to hypertrophied odontodes on snout, pectoral spine and evertible cheek plates; genitor, father, referring to fact that one presumably adult male was collected while caring for a large brood of young

Pseudancistrus reus Armbruster & Taphorn 2008    Latin for one who is accused or arraigned like a defendant, prisoner, criminal, or culprit, referring to barred pattern that looks like the stripes of the stereotypical prisoner’s uniform

Pseudancistrus sidereus Armbruster 2004    starry, referring to white-to-gold spots on black background, which look like stars

Pseudancistrus yekuana Lujan, Armbruster & Sabaj Pérez 2007    named for the Ye-kuana, indigenous people inhabiting the upper Río Ventauri and other areas of southern Venezuela (where this catfish occurs) and northern Brazil, whose “generous cooperation” made the authors’ research possible

Pseudancistrus zawadzkii Silva, Roxo, Britzke & Oliveira 2014    in honor of Cláudio Henrique Zawadzki, Universidade Estadual de Maringá (Paraná, Brazil), for his dedication and “remarkable” contributions to the study of loricariid fishes

Pseudolithoxus Isbrücker & Werner 2001    pseudo-, false, i.e., although this genus may superficially resemble Lithoxus, such an appearance is false

Pseudolithoxus anthrax (Armbruster & Provenzano 2000)    Greek for coal, referring to dark, coal-like color

Pseudolithoxus dumus (Armbruster & Provenzano 2000)    Latin for thorn-bush, referring to well-developed odontodes on pectoral-fin spines and snout

Pseudolithoxus kelsorum Lujan & Birindelli 2011    orum, commemorative suffix, plural: in honor of George (b. 1929) and Carolyn (1934-2008) Kelso, whose generous contribution to Texas A&M University and to the Winemiller Aquatic Ecology Lab facilitated important ichthyological discoveries, including this species (Winemiller is the Kelsos’ son-in-law)

Pseudolithoxus nicoi (Armbruster & Provenzano 2000)    in honor of Leo Nico, Research Biologist, U.S. Geological Survey, who collected most of the known specimens

Pseudolithoxus tigris (Armbruster & Provenzano 2000)    tiger, referring to its tiger-like markings

Pseudoqolus Lujan, Cramer, Covain, Fisch-Muller & López-Fernández 2017    pseudo-, false, i.e., although this genus may superficially resemble Panaqolus, such an appearance is false

Pseudoqolus koko (Fisch-Muller & Covain 2012)    Wayana Amerindian name meaning night, referring to its dark coloration, and alluding to the similarly colored and named Panaqolus nocturnus

Pterygoplichthys Gill 1858    pterygion, dimunitive of pteryx and fin; hoplon, weapon, referring to sail-like dorsal fin with single large spine; ichthys, fish

Pterygoplichthys ambrosettii (Holmberg 1893)    in honor of Holmberg’s good friend Juan Bautista Ambrosetti (1865-1917), Director, Zoological Division of Museo Provincial de Paraná, for his field work in Argentina (collections and observations)

Pterygoplichthys anisitsi Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903    in honor of J. Daniel Anisits, who collected type

Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Weber 1991)    disjunctive, describing how the former “zoogeographical neighbourhood” between P. pardalis (Amazonas) and P. anisitsi (Paraguay) was interrupted by the “arrival” of P. disjunctivus (Madeira)

Pterygoplichthys etentaculatus (Spix & Agassiz 1829)    e-, not or without; tentaculatus, tentacled, referring to lack of barbels (“cirrho nullo”)

Pterygoplichthys gibbiceps (Kner 1854)    gibbus, hump; ceps, head, referring to large pear-shaped prominence on occiput

Pterygoplichthys joselimaianus (Weber 1991)    anus, belonging to: Brazilian ichthyologist José Lima de Figueiredo, for his generous support and many observations on the species covered in Weber’s paper

Pterygoplichthys lituratus (Kner 1854)    smeared, erased or blotted, probably referring to dark coloration with light spots or vermiculations on head, body and fins

Pterygoplichthys multiradiatus (Hancock 1828)    multi-, many; radiatus, referring to more dorsal fin rays (14) compared to Hypstomus watwata (8), described in the same paper

Pterygoplichthys pardalis (Castelnau 1855)    like a leopard, referring to round spots or points of dark brown on a light-yellow background

Pterygoplichthys parnaibae (Weber 1991)    of the río Parnaíba basin, Brazil, where it is endemic

Pterygoplichthys punctatus (Kner 1854)     spotted, referring to round blackish spots all over fins and body

Pterygoplichthys scrophus (Cope 1874)    scrofa, a breeding sow, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to its “much more robust” appearance compared to Liposarcus jeanesianus (=Pterygoplichthys pardalis)

Pterygoplichthys undecimalis (Steindachner 1878)    eleven, referring to number of dorsal-fin rays (I, 10) compared to the closely related Chaetostomus duodecimalis (=P. etentaculatus), which has 12 (I, 11)

Pterygoplichthys weberi Armbruster & Page 2006    in honor of Claude Weber, Muséum d’histoire naturelle (Geneva), for his “fine work” on Pterygoplichthys and his contributions to loricariid systematics

Pterygoplichthys xinguensis (Weber 1991)    ensis, suffix denoting place: río Xingú basin, Brazil, where it is endemic

Pterygoplichthys zuliaensis Weber 1991    ensis, suffix denoting place: Zulia, Venezuela, where Río Santa Ana, type locality, is situated

Scobinancistrus Isbrücker & Nijssen 1989    scobina, rasp, i.e., rasping Ancistrus, referring to their “peculiar” (translation) long and narrow spoon-shaped teeth [note: these catfishes are carnivorous and do not use their teeth to rasp wood like Panaque and other closely related genera]

Scobinancistrus aureatus Burgess 1994    adorned with gold, referring to bright yellow or golden fin borders and spots all over body and fins

Scobinancistrus pariolispos Isbrücker & Nijssen 1989    pareion, cheek; lispos, smooth, referring to weakly developed odontodes in males

Soromonichthys Lujan & Armbruster 2011    named for Soromoni Creek, Amazonas State, Venezuela, type locality; ichthys, fish

Soromonichthys stearleyi Lujan & Armbruster 2011    in honor of Ralph Stearley, Professor of Geology at Calvin College (Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA) since 1992, “whose patient introductory tutelage in fish osteology set the first author on his career”

Spectracanthicus Nijssen & Isbrücker 1987    spectrum, appearance; Acanthicus, “a genus of Loricariidae” (translation), allusion not explained, possibly referring to its Acanthicus-like appearance

Spectracanthicus immaculatus Chamon & Rapp Py-Daniel 2014    unspotted, referring to its evenly dark gray to dark brown coloration, lacking dots or spots

Spectracanthicus murinus Nijssen & Isbrücker 1987    mouse-gray, referring to its coloration

Spectracanthicus punctatissimus (Steindachner 1881)    very spotted, referring to white or light-blue dots on head, body and fins

Spectracanthicus tocantinensis Chamon & Rapp Py-Daniel 2014    ensis, suffix denoting place: rio Tocantins, Pará, Brazil, type locality

Spectracanthicus zuanoni Chamon & Rapp Py-Daniel 2014    in honor of Jansen Zuanon, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, for his contribution to the knowledge of neotropical ichthyology; also, he was the first ichthyologist to collect and identify this species as new

Transancistrus Lujan, Meza-Vargas & Barriga-Salazar 2015    trans, across, referring to distribution of genus across rivers draining Pacific slope of the Andes Mountains in Ecuador; ancistrus, a root name for many loricariid genera that have clusters of enlarged evertible cheek odontodes, from the Greek agkistron, fishhook

Transancistrus aequinoctialis (Pellegrin 1909)    equatorial, referring to its type locality just 13´south of the Equator in Ecuador

Transancistrus santarosensis (Tan & Armbruster 2012)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Riô Santa Rosa, near the southern coast of Ecuador, where it appears to be endemic


Subfamily RHINELEPINAE
3 genera · 6 species

Pogonopoma Regan 1904    pogon, beard; poma, lid or covering, referring to “operculum and interoperculum with well-developed marginal bristles”

Pogonopoma obscurum Quevedo & Reis 2002    dark, referring to its coloration (black in living specimens, uniformly grayish-brown in alcohol)

Pogonopoma parahybae (Steindachner 1877)    of Rio Parahyba (Paraíba do Sul), southeastern Brazil, type locality (also endemic to Paraíba do Sul River basin)

Pogonopoma wertheimeri (Steindachner 1867)    in honor of either Louis Wertheimer of the Thayer Expedition to Brazil, or Achilles Wertheimer, who died on the expedition due to a snakebite (see Wertheimeria, Doradidae)

Pseudorinelepis Bleeker 1862    pseudo-, false, i.e., although this genus may superficially resemble Rhinelepis, such an appearance is false

Pseudorinelepis genibarbis (Valenciennes 1840)    genys, jaw or chin; barbis, barbel, referring to interoperculum armed with a bundle of long erectile spines (similar to a tuft of hairs)

Rhinelepis Agassiz 1829    rhine, rasp; lepis, scale, referring to rough scales (or body plates) of R. aspera

Rhinelepis aspera Spix & Agassiz 1829    asper, rough, referring to “minute rough needles” (translation) all over body

Rhinelepis strigosa Valenciennes 1840    slender, allusion not explained nor evident (does not appear to be a slender fish to us)


Subfamily DELTURINAE
2 genera · 7 species                                            

Delturus Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889    delta, fourth letter of Greek alphabet; oura, tail, referring to tail, flat above, trenchant below, ∆-shaped in cross section

Delturus angulicauda (Steindachner 1877)    angulus, angular; cauda, tail, referring to tail, which is flat below and trenchant above, its cross sections making a triangular (∆) shape

Delturus brevis Reis & Pereira 2006    short, referring to smaller maximum size compared to congeners and to comparatively reduced counts of some plates and dorsal-fin rays

Delturus carinotus (La Monte 1933)    keeled, referring to five azygous plates between dorsal and adipose fins, which rise to form a keel

Delturus parahybae Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889    of Rio Paraíba do Sul (Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil), type locality (also endemic to Paraíba do Sul River basin)

Hemipsilichthys Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889    hemi-, half and psilos, bare or smooth, referring to scaleless area behind dorsal fin; ichthys, fish

Hemipsilichthys gobio (Lütken 1874)    etymology not explained, possibly referring to its superficial resemblance (body shape and barbels) to the Gudgeon, Gobio gobio (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae)

Hemipsilichthys nimius Pereira, Reis, Souza & Lazzarotto 2003    excessive, referring to 7-9 branched dorsal-fin rays, whereas congeners have seven

Hemipsilichthys papillatus Pereira, Oliveira & Oyakawa 2000    papillate, referring to distinctly shaped papillae on lower lip