v. 16.0 – 11 Jan. 2018  view/download PDF

Subfamily LITHOGENINAE Climbing Armored Catfishes

Lithogenes Eigenmann 1909    lithos, stone; genes, birth, i.e., stone-born, probably referring to habitat of L. villosus, dominated by bedrock substrates in upland, high-gradient clearwater streams

Lithogenes valencia Provenzano, Schaefer, Baskin & Royero-Leon 2003    named for the Lago de Valencia basin, Carabobo State, Venezuela, where it is (or was) endemic (possibly extinct due to pollution)

Lithogenes villosus Eigenmann 1909    villous, referring to “a bunch of about twenty-five blunt villii in immediate association with the dentary”

Lithogenes wahari Schaefer & Provenzano 2008    from the Piaroa name Ru´a-Wahari, the god of creation, who created the first man from a mass of fish flesh at a place called Mariuek’a; with each fish captured, he fashioned the eyes, hair, ears, mouth, and nose, in this way making the first man and woman (the Piaroa are the indigenous people of the middle Orinoco Basin in present-day Venezuela, where this catfish occurs)

8 genera • 60 species

Euryochus Pereira & Reis 2017    eurys, broad or large; okkus, eye, referring to noticeably larger eye compared to other members of subfamily

Euryochus thysanos Pereira & Reis 2017    fringe or tassel, referring to finely fringed margin of lower lip

Hirtella Pereira, Zanata, Cetra & Reis 2014    diminutive of hirtus, hairy or prickly, referring to bristle-like hypertrophied odontodes which distinguish mature males from conspecific females and from all other loricariids

Hirtella carinata Pereira, Zanata, Cetra & Reis 2014    keeled or ridged, referring to elongate keel of azygous plates at mid-dorsal line, between dorsal and caudal fins

Isbrueckerichthys Derijst 1996    in honor of loricariid catfish expert Isaäc J.H. Isbrücker (b. 1944), Zoölogisch Museum, Amsterdam; ichthys, fish

Isbrueckerichthys alipionis (Gosline 1947)    is, genitive singular of: Brazilian ichthyologist-herpetologist Alipio de Miranda Ribeiro (1874-1939), “who seems to have been the first and, with the possible exception of Steindachner, the only man to realize the interrelationship of the [loricariid] genera” treated in Gosline’s monograph

Isbrueckerichthys calvus Jerep, Shibatta, Pereira & Oyakawa 2006    bald, referring to area of head that lacks odontodes

Isbrueckerichthys duseni (Miranda Ribeiro 1907)    in honor of Karl Hjalmar Dusén (1855-1926), Swedish botanist and explorer, who collected type

Isbrueckerichthys epakmos Pereira & Oyakawa 2003    Greek adjective meaning in the bloom of age, referring to highly developed odontodes on snout tip in mature males

Isbrueckerichthys saxicola Jerep, Shibatta, Pereira & Oyakawa 2006    saxum, rock; cola, inhabitant, referring to its habitat (under rocks on the bottom of rivers)

Kronichthys Miranda Ribeiro 1908    in honor of naturalist-archaeologist Ricardo Krone (1861-1917), who collected type species, K. subteres; ichthys, fish

Kronichthys heylandi (Boulenger 1900)    in honor of civil engineer H. K. Heyland, who collected type and presented it to the British Museum (Natural History)

Kronichthys lacerta (Nichols 1919)    lizard, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to lizard-like appearance

Kronichthys subteres Miranda Ribeiro 1908    sub-, less than or somewhat; teres, terete (cylindrical or slightly tapering), presumably referring to body shape

Microplecostomus Silva, Roxo, Ochoa & Oliveira 2016    micro-, small, referring to small size of M. forestii; Plecostomus, former generic name (now Hypostomus) of species currently included in the family, “also in reference to the small adult size of the type-species” [incertae sedis; placement in this subfamily is provisional]

Microplecostomus forestii Silva, Roxo, Ochoa & Oliveira 2016    in honor of Fausto Foresti, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho”-UNESP, Brazil), for his contributions to fish genetics, with more than 250 papers published in this field

Neoplecostomus Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888    neo-, proposed as a subgenus (and, hence, “new” form of) Plecostomus (now a synonym of Hypostomus, Hypostominae)

Neoplecostomus bandeirante Roxo, Oliveira & Zawadzki 2012    in honor of the early explorers of São Paulo, who, from the beginning of the 16th to the 18th centuries, ventured into the unmapped interior of Brazil in excursions named bandeiras, hunting for indigenous people and submitting them to enslavement and to search for mineral wealth, such as silver, gold, and diamonds; despite playing an apparent negative role in history, their work was essential for the establishment of new cities and for the geographic demarcation of the Brazilian territory

Neoplecostomus botucatu Roxo, Oliveira & Zawadzki 2012    named after the municipality of Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil, type locality

Neoplecostomus canastra Roxo, Silva, Zawadzki & Oliveira 2017    named after the hills (Serra da Canastra) located at south portion of Minas Gerais, Brazil, where córrego Tamborete drainages (type locality) originate

Neoplecostomus corumba Zawadzki, Pavanelli & Langeani 2008    named for the Rio Corumbá drainage, Rio Paranaiba basin, Goiás, Brazil, only known area of occurrence

Neoplecostomus doceensis Roxo, Silva, Zawadzki & Oliveira 2014    ensis, suffix denoting place: rio Doce Basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil, where it appears to be endemic

Neoplecostomus espiritosantensis Langeani 1990    ensis, suffix denoting place: Espirito Santo, Brazil, where it is endemic

Neoplecostomus franciscoensis Langeani 1990    ensis, suffix denoting place: São Francisco River basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil, where it is endemic

Neoplecostomus granosus (Valenciennes 1840)    full of grain, referring to “strong fleshy granulations” on ventral surface

Neoplecostomus jaguari Andrade & Langeani 2014    referring to the rio Jaguari basin (from the Tupí Guaraní, meaning “river of jaguar”), southeastern Brazil, where it is endemic

Neoplecostomus langeanii Roxo, Oliveira & Zawadzki 2012    in honor of Francisco Langeani Neto (Universidade Estadual Paulista, Instituto de Biociências, Letras e Ciências Exatas), for his dedication and contributions to the study of neotropical fishes

Neoplecostomus microps (Steindachner 1877)    micro-, small; ops, eye, referring to its “very small” eyes (translation)

Neoplecostomus paranensis Langeani 1990    ensis, suffix denoting place: upper Paraná River basin, Brazil, where it is endemic

Neoplecostomus paraty Cherobim, Lazzarotto & Langeani 2016    Paraty, original spelling of the municipality of Parati, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where this catfish occurs in four coastal drainages; Paraty is derived from the Tupí parati (parat, the mullet Mugil curema; i, river)

Neoplecostomus ribeirensis Langeani 1990    ensis, suffix denoting place: Ribeira de Iguapé River basin, Brazil, where it is endemic

Neoplecostomus selenae Zawadzki, Pavanelli & Langeani 2008    in honor of Selena Canhoto Zawadzki, the senior author’s daughter

Neoplecostomus variipictus Bizerril 1995    varius, several; pictus, painted, referring to several spots on body and fins (i.e., as if spotted with paint)

Neoplecostomus yapo Zawadzki, Pavanelli & Langeani 2008    named for the Rio Yapó drainage, Rio Tibagi basin, Paraná, Brazil, only known area of occurrence

Pareiorhaphis Miranda Ribeiro 1918    pareio-, cheek; rhaphis, needle, referring to hypertrophied odontodes (dermal teeth) on sides of heads of nuptial males

Pareiorhaphis azygolechis (Pereira & Reis 2002)    azygos, unwedded or solitary; lechis, plate, referring to 3-6 azygous plates in front of adipose fin

Pareiorhaphis bahianus (Gosline 1947)    anus, belonging to: Bahia, Brazil, type locality

Pareiorhaphis cameroni (Steindachner 1907)    in honor of Miguel Calmon du Pin e Almedia (1879-1935), Brazil’s Minister of Agriculture, Commerce and Industry, as a “token of my respect and gratitude” [Steindachner misspelled the name as cameroni in the abstract to which the name dates; he identified Calmon but continued the misspelling in a more detailed description published later that year, then corrected the spelling in 1908, but since there is no internal evidence that the name was misspelled in the original 1907 abstract, the incorrect spelling must, regrettably, stand—although some taxonomists have begun using calmoni, which could become the accepted spelling via continued usage]

Pareiorhaphis cerosa (Miranda Ribeiro 1951)    horned, referring to hypertrophied odontodes (dermal teeth) on sides of heads of nuptial males

Pareiorhaphis eurycephalus (Pereira & Reis 2002)    eurys, broad or wide; cephalus, head, referring to very broad and moderately depressed head

Pareiorhaphis garapia Pareira, Lehmann A., Schvambach & Reis 2015    named after the Arroio Garapiá (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil), where it occurs and the waterfall which marks the known limit of its distribution

Pareiorhaphis garbei (Ihering 1911)    in honor of Ernesto Garbe, who collected specimens for the Museu Paulista, University of São Paulo, presumably including type of this species

Pareiorhaphis hypselurus (Pereira & Reis 2002)    hypselos, high or tall; oura, tail, referring to high caudal peduncle

Pareiorhaphis hystrix (Pereira & Reis 2002)    porcupine, referring to spiny aspect of hypertrophied odontodes on snout of mature males

Pareiorhaphis lineata Pereira, Pessali, de Andrade & Reis 2017    lined or striped, referring to dark stripe on flank, unique in the genus

Pareiorhaphis lophia Pereira & Zanata 2014    crest or ridge, referring to distinct bump on lower lip, a diagnostic feature of the species

Pareiorhaphis mutuca (Oliveira & Oyakawa 1999)    named for Mutuca creek, Minas Gerais, Brazil, type locality

Pareiorhaphis nasuta Pereira, Vieira & Reis 2007    long-nosed, referring to its long snout, diagnostic of the species

Pareiorhaphis nudula (Reis & Pereira 1999)    diminutive of nudus, bare or naked, referring to extreme reduction of dermal plates and small body size (up to 33.6 mm SL)

Pareiorhaphis parmula Pereira 2005    diminutive of parma, a type of small shield, referring to small plate ventrally located just behind gill opening

Pareiorhaphis proskynita Pereira & Britto 2012    Greek for pilgrim, referring to pilgrimage activity associated with Santuário do Caraça (Caraça’s Sanctuary), founded by Brother Lourenço in 1770s “as a resting place for travelers in search of an alternative to the madness of the mining activities of that century through spiritual redemption,” now Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural (type locality, Minas Gerais, Brazil), which is preserving more than 100 km2 in a region of intense mining activity

Pareiorhaphis regani (Giltay 1936)    in honor of ichthyologist Charles Tate Regan (1878-1943), Natural History Museum (London), whose 1904 monograph on loricariid fishes is cited three times by Giltay

Pareiorhaphis ruschii Pereira, Lehmann A. & Reis 2012    in honor of the late “eminent” Brazilian naturalist Augusto Ruschi (1915-1986), for his “outstanding” contributions to the knowledge of Atlantic Forest hummingbirds and his “unweary efforts” to create the conservation area Reserva Biológica Augusto Ruschi, where this catfish is now protected

Pareiorhaphis scutula Pereira, Vieira & Reis 2010    diminutive of scuta, plate or scute, referring to the small plates that cover its abdominal region

Pareiorhaphis splendens (Bizerril 1995)    brilliant, referring to its “remarkable” color pattern, e.g., “almost orange” spots on living specimens

Pareiorhaphis steindachneri (Miranda Ribeiro 1918)    in honor of Austrian ichthyologist Franz Steindachner (1834-1919), who identified this species as Hemipsilichthys calmoni (=P. cameroni) in 1910

Pareiorhaphis stephana (Oliveira & Oyakawa 1999)    crowned, referring to crown of bristle-like odontodes on margin of head

Pareiorhaphis stomias (Pereira & Reis 2002)    Greek for a large-mouthed animal, presumably referring to its broad mouth, nearly as wide as head

Pareiorhaphis vestigipinnis (Pereira & Reis 1992)    vestigium, vestigial or incomplete; pinnis, fin, referring to small scutelets at adipose-fin position

Pareiorhaphis vetula Pereira, Lehmann A. & Reis 2016    old or a little old man, referring to small size of adult specimens (up to 49.3 mm SL)

Pareiorhina Gosline 1947    pareia, cheek; rhina, file or rasp, probably referring to “granular” (or raspy) sides of head

Pareiorhina brachyrhyncha Chamon, Aranda & Buckup 2005    brachys, short; rhynchos, snout, referring to shape of snout, which is short relative to width of body compared to known congeners at the time

Pareiorhina carrancas Bockmann & Ribeiro 2003    named for the municipality of Carrancas, Minais Gerais, Brazil, type locality

Pareiorhina cepta Roxo, da Costa e Silva, Mehanna & Oliveira 2012    named for CEPTA, acronym of Centro de Pesquisa Treinamento em Aquacultura (Pirassununga, São Paulo, Brazil), which organized expedition that collected type

Pareiorhina hyptiorhachis Silva, Roxo & Oliveira 2013    hyptios, supine; rhachis, ridge or midrib, referring to conspicuous postdorsal ridge

Pareiorhina pelicicei Azevedo-Santos & Roxo 2015    in honor of Fernando Mayer Pelicice, Universidade Federal do Tocantins, for his “relevant” scientific contributions to fish ecology and the impacts of dams on neotropical fishes

Pareiorhina rosai Silva, Roxo & Oyakawa 2016    in honor of João Guimarães Rosa (1908-1967), Brazilian writer who documented the history of people living near the Rio das Velhas and rio Paraopeba (e.g. Sagarana and Grande Sertão Veredas), in the Brazilian Savanna (“sertão”) of Minas Gerais (where this catfish occurs), Bahia and Goiás states, Brazil

Pareiorhina rudolphi (Miranda Ribeiro 1911)    in honor of Rodolpho von Ihering (1883-1939), zoologist and fish culturist, who described this catfish as Plecostomus (Rhinelepis) microps in 1907, but used a preoccupied name (Plecostomus microps Steindachner 1876)

Subfamily HYPOPTOPOMATINAE Cascudinhos
13 genera • 58 species                                         

Acestridium Haseman 1911    diminutive of akestra, ancient Greek for darning needle, presumably referring to long spines on tip of snout of A. discus

Acestridium colombiense Retzer 2005    ensis, suffix denoting place: Colombia, where it is endemic

Acestridium dichromum Retzer, Nico & Provenzano 1999    di-, two; chromum, color, referring to its ability to change body color between brown and green

Acestridium discus Haseman 1911    disc, referring to expanded, disc-like tip of snout

Acestridium gymnogaster Reis & Lehmann A. 2009    gymnos, bare or naked; gaster, belly, referring to naked area of skin between anterior lateral abdominal plates

Acestridium martini Retzer, Nico & Provenzano 1999    in honor of Venezuelan ichthyologist F. J. Martín Salazar, for his contributions to neotropical ichthyology

Acestridium scutatum Reis & Lehmann A. 2009    plated, referring to three series of abdominal plates (compared to two series in most congeners)

Acestridium triplax Rodríguez & Reis 2007    tri-, three; plax, plate, referring to three series of abdominal plates (compared to two in known congeners at the time)

Chauliocheilos Martins, Andrade, Rosa & Langeani 2014    chaulios, conspicuous, outstanding or prominent; cheilos, lip, referring to unique labial appendix of lower lip

Chauliocheilos saxatilis Martins, Andrade, Rosa & Langeani 2014    among rocks, referring to microhabitat (composed primarily of gravel and pebbles) where it is mainly sampled

Gymnotocinclus Carvalho, Lehmann A. & Reis 2008    gymnos, naked, referring to extreme reduction of dermal plates encasing the body; Otocinclus, a genus of the subfamily

Gymnotocinclus anosteos Carvalho, Lehmann A. & Reis 2008    Greek for boneless, referring to absence of lateral connecting bone

Gymnotocinclus canoeiro Roxo, Silva, Ochoa & Zawadzki 2017    Portuguese word for a person or people who handle and/or build canoes, referring to the Avá-Canoeiro, a once numerous and powerful indigenous people inhabiting the upper rio Tocantins valley (where this catfish occurs), now restricted to a few small villages due to a series of gradual and abrupt murders, diseases, and the lack of legal hunting territories; recently, the Avá-Canoeiro were known as the “invisible people” due to the fact that some of them had lived for more than a decade in caves to avoid contact with civilization, leaving the caves only at night to collect and chase food

Hypoptopoma Günther 1868    hypo-, low; optos, sight; poma, lid or cover, probably referring to ventrolateral displacement of eyes and opercle

Hypoptopoma baileyi Aquino & Schaefer 2010    in honor of ichthyologist Reeve M. Bailey (1911-2011), University of Michigan, who helped collect types in 1964 [authors incorrectly gave 2000 as Bailey’s date of death]

Hypoptopoma bianale Aquino & Schaefer 2010    bi-, two; anale, anal, referring to presence of two anal plates

Hypoptopoma brevirostratum Aquino & Schaefer 2010    brevis, short; rostratum, snouted, referring to short snout “in dorsal view”

Hypoptopoma elongatum Aquino & Schaefer 2010    prolonged, referring to elongated general shape of body, particularly at tip of snout, caudal peduncle and caudal fin

Hypoptopoma guianense Boeseman 1974    ensis, suffix denoting place: of the Guianas, where this catfish occurs in Guyana and Suriname

Hypoptopoma gulare Cope 1878    throat, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to presence of plates or scutes on throat

Hypoptopoma incognitum Aquino & Schaefer 2010    unknown or strange, referring to its previous misidentification as other species of Hypoptopoma

Hypoptopoma inexspectatum (Holmberg 1893)    unexpected, allusion not explained; described from one specimen, perhaps Holmberg (who did not seem to be aware of the genus Hypoptopoma) was struck by the unexpected occurrence and/or appearance of a loricariid catfush with ventrolaterally displaced eyes

Hypoptopoma machadoi Aquino & Schaefer 2010    in honor of Antonio Machado-Allison,Universidad Central de Venezuela, for his lifelong dedication and contributions to neotropical ichthyology

Hypoptopoma muzuspi Aquino & Schaefer 2010    of the Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil (MZUSP), “one of the leading institutional collections for ichthyology in South America”

Hypoptopoma psilogaster Fowler 1915    psilos, naked; gaster, stomach, referring to two rows of abdominal plates separated by an unplated surface (compared to complete cover of the abdominal region with three rows of plates in H. thoracatum)

Hypoptopoma steindachneri Boulenger 1895    in honor of Austrian ichthyologist Franz Steindachner (1834-1919), who identified and illustrated this species as H. thoracatum in 1879

Hypoptopoma thoracatum Günther 1868    armored (as in breastplate), referring to bony bridge between pectoral fins

Lampiella Isbrücker 2001    iella, suffix connoting endearment: in honor of Isbrücker’s grandmother, Céline Lampie (1886-1943), murdered at the German extermination camp in Sobibor, Poland, “a small woman with a small humpback” (translation), alluding to the humpbacked shape of L. gibbosa

Lampiella gibbosa (Miranda Ribeiro 1908)    humpbacked, referring to projecting nape

Leptotocinclus Delapieve, Lehmann & Reis 2017    leptos, fine, small or delicate, referring to “delicate aspect” of both species; Otocinclus, a related genus

Leptotocinclus ctenistus Delapieve, Lehmann & Reis 2017    combed, referring to the contact organ formed by a comb of odontodes on pelvic fin of mature males

Leptotocinclus madeirae Delapieve, Lehmann & Reis 2017    of rio Madeira towards Lábrea, Amazonas, Brazil, type locality

Nannoptopoma Schaefer 1996    nannos, little or dwarf, referring to small size and juvenile appearance of both species; optopoma, root of the generic name Hypoptopoma, referring to close phenetic similarity between the two taxa

Nannoptopoma spectabile (Eigenmann 1914)    notable or showy, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to coloration of type: “a dusky stripe forward from eye, joining a dusky stripe extending from snout to the nares; . . . back faintly spotted, the spots forming obscure continuations of the prenasal stripe”

Nannoptopoma sternoptychum Schaefer 1996    sternon, chest; ptychos, fold or plate, referring to presence of thoracic plates

Nannoxyropsis Delapieve, Lehmann & Reis 2017    nannos, small, referring to small size of both species; Oxyropsis, a related genus (and original genus of N. ephippia)

Nannoxyropsis acicula Delapieve, Lehmann & Reis 2017    needle or pin, referring to narrowness of snout compared to N. ephippia

Nannoxyropsis ephippia (Aquino & Sabaj Pérez 2016)    saddle, referring to saddle-like mid-dorsal blotches

Niobichthys Schaefer & Provenzano 1998    Niobe, from Greek mythology, who, after her children were slain by Apollo, was turned to stone by Zeus and transported to a mountain top, which has ever since remained wet with her tears, referring to cloud mist surrounding Cerra La Neblina, Venezuela, type locality; ichthys, fish

Niobichthys ferrarisi Schaefer & Provenzano 1998    in honor of Carl Ferraris, Jr., co-discoverer of this species and participant in 1984 expedition to type locality, for his many contributions to siluriform systematics and neotropical ichthyology

Otocinclus Cope 1871    oto-, ear; cinclus, latticework, referring to “post-temporal bone pierced in a sieve-like manner, forming minute tympana” (i.e., pterotic fenestrae, a character shared to some extent by all loricariids)

Otocinclus affinis Steindachner 1877    related, very similar to O. vestitus (both species have large pterotic fenestrae and lack an adipose fin)

Otocinclus arnoldi Regan 1909    in honor of German aquarist Johann Paul Arnold (1869-1952), who “presented” type to the British Museum

Otocinclus batmani Lehmann A. 2006    named for the comic-book hero Batman, who had a bat shape for a symbol, referring to the single W- or bat-shaped vertical spot on caudal fin

Otocinclus bororo Schaefer 1997    Portuguese name for indigenous tribe formerly inhabiting plains on western side of the rio Paraguai between the rios Jauru and Guapore (Mato Grosso, Brazil), an area included in the range of this species; the western, or Campanha, Bororo, were quickly decimated in the late 1780s and now are mostly extinct except for one isolated group

Otocinclus caxarari Schaefer 1997    Portuguese name for indigenous tribe of people formerly inhabiting lowland regions of the rio Guapore southwest of Porto Velho, Brazil, an area included in the range of this species

Otocinclus cocama Reis 2004    named after the Cocama-Cocamilla Indians that used to be dominant in the lower Ucayali and Marañon rivers of Peru, where this catfish occurs; present estimations point to a little more than 10,000 people in Peru, plus a few hundred in Colombia and Brazil, with much of their culture, language and identity mostly assimilated into regional society

Otocinclus flexilis Cope 1894    pliant, allusion not explained nor evident

Otocinclus hasemani Steindachner 1915    in honor of John D. Haseman (d. 1969), Carl Eigenmann’s student and field collector for the Carnegie Museum of Natural History, who collected type

Otocinclus hoppei Miranda Ribeiro 1939    in honor of German civil engineer (hydroelectric power plants), writer and naturalist Werner Hopp (1886-?, note spelling), who collected type

Otocinclus huaorani Schaefer 1997    name of indigenous people inhabiting the upper Rio Napo of Amazonian Ecuador, an area within the range of this species; the Huaorani were largely uncontacted until the mid-20th century, and are now best known for their attempts to resist encroachment and habitat destruction in the Yasuni National Park south of Coca by foreign national oil exploration activities, both through diplomatic means and by force

Otocinclus juruenae Ribeiro & Lehmann A. 2016
of the Rio Juruena, a right bank tributary of the Rio Tapajós basin (Mato Grosso, Brazil), type locality

Otocinclus macrospilus Eigenmann & Allen 1942    macro-, long or large; spilos, mark or spot, presumably referring to a “very large, isolated spot across the entire end of caudal peduncle and base of the caudal”

Otocinclus mangaba Lehmann A., Mayer & Reis 2010    Portuguese name for the mangaba fruit, Hancornia speciosa, alluding to city of Humaitá (Amazonas, Brazil, type locality), known for its high production of the fruit and locally named “Terra da Mangaba” (Mangabaland)

Otocinclus mariae Fowler 1940    in honor of Maria Howes, wife of Arthur Howes, for whom Fowler is “indebted for many American fishes” (although Fowler credits “Gordon Howes” for collecting the types of several Bolivian fishes)

Otocinclus mimulus Axenrot & Kullander 2003    diminutive of mimus, actor, referring to mimicry in color pattern with Corydoras diphyes (Callichthyidae)

Otocinclus mura Schaefer 1997    Portuguese name for indigenous tribe formerly inhabiting the middle reaches of the rio Solimoes (Amazonas, Brazil), within present range of this species; the Mura were a constant considerable threat to river travel and fiercely resisted colonial assimilation, for which they suffered severe onslaughts by frontier colonists from the mid 1770s to 1785

Otocinclus tapirape Britto & Moreira 2002    named for the indigenous Tapirapé tribe, which nowadays inhabits a restricted area between the rio Tapirapé and rio Araguia in Goiás, Brazil, where this catfish occurs

Otocinclus vestitus Cope 1872    clothes or garment, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to several series of plates covering body

Otocinclus vittatus Regan 1904    banded, referring to dark stripe from snout through eye to end of middle caudal rays

Otocinclus xakriaba Schaefer 1997    Portuguese name for indigenous tribe of people formerly inhabiting upper region of the São Francisco basin (Minas Gerais and Bahia states, Brazil), within present range of this species; the Xakriabá apparently were not successful at avoiding contact and colonial assimilation and were driven from the area ca. 1774

Oxyropsis Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889    oxy, pointed; opsis, face or appearance, presumably referring to depressed head of O. wrightiana

Oxyropsis acutirostra Miranda Ribeiro 1951    acutus, sharp; rostris, snout, referring to its pointed snout

Oxyropsis carinata (Steindachner 1879)    keeled, referring to serrated longitudinal keel on sides

Oxyropsis wrightiana Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889    ana, belonging to: Scottish-Canadian zoologist Robert Ramsay (misspelled Ramsey) Wright (1852-1933), “who has contributed more than any one else” to the knowledge of the anatomy of American catfishes

Plesioptopoma Reis, Pereira & Lehmann A. 2012    plesion, primitive; optopoma, root of Hypoptopoma, type genus of subfamily, referring to putative basal position among hypoptopomines

Plesioptopoma curvidens Reis, Pereira & Lehmann A. 2012    curvus, curved or bent; dens, teeth, referring to strongly curved tooth series on both premaxilla and dentary

Pseudotocinclus Nichols 1919    pseudo-, false, i.e., although this genus may resemble the closely allied Otocinclus, such an appearance is false

Pseudotocinclus juquiae Takako, Oliveira & Oyakawa 2005    of the Juquiá River basin, Brazil, type locality (derived from the Tupí yeke [juqui or jequiá in Portuguese], meaning a small fishing device used in shallow water)

Pseudotocinclus parahybae Takako, Oliveira & Oyakawa 2005    of the Paraíba do Sul River basin, Brazil, type locality (derived from a Tupí word for a useless river, or a portion of river too difficult to navigate)

Pseudotocinclus tietensis (Ihering 1907)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Rio Tietê, São Paulo, Brazil, type locality

13 genera • 119 species  

Corumbataia Britski 1997    ia, belonging to: rio Corumbataí, São Paulo, Brazil, type locality of type species, C. cuestae

Corumbataia britskii Ferreira & Ribeiro 2007    in honor of Heraldo A. Britski (Universidade de São Paulo), for his many contributions to our understanding of Hypoptopomatinae catfishes

Corumbataia cuestae Britski 1997    of a cuesta, geological term for a hill or ridge with a gentle slope on one side (<5˚) and a steep slope on the other; all specimens were collected in streams that originate in the cuesta that traverses much of São Paulo, Brazil

Corumbataia tocantinensis Britski 1997    ensis, suffix denoting place: Tocantins, principal river of the Araguaia-Tocantins River system, Brazil, type locality

Corumbataia veadeiros Carvalho 2008    named for the Chapada dos Veadeiros (Goiás, Brazil), a formation characterized by flat-topped plateaus, situated to the south of the tributaries where this catfish was discovered

Curculionichthys Roxo, Silva, Ochoa & Oliveira 2015    curculionem, elongated snout, referring to their relatively elongated snouts; ichthys, fish

Curculionichthys coxipone Roxo, Silva, Ochoa & Oliveira 2015    named for the Coxiponé indigenous people who inhabit the margins of Rio Cuiabá, near the municipality of Cuiabá in Mato Grosso, Brazil, where this catfish occurs

Curculionichthys insperatus (Britski & Garavello 2003)    unexpected, referring to “unpredictable discovery of a new species of Hisonotus [original genus] in a region where four other nominal species of the genus had already been described”

Curculionichthys itaim Roxo, Dias, Silva & Oliveira 2017    from the Tupí-Guaraní itá, stones, and im, a diminutive, i.e., a “gathering of small stones,” origin of the city name Itaituba (Pará, Brazil), where it occurs

Curculionichthys karipuna Silva, Roxo, Melo & Oliveira 2016    named for the Karipuna indigenous people who inhabit the region of the rio Oiapoque, northern Amapá, Brazil, where this catfish occurs

Curculionichthys leucofrenatus (Miranda Ribeiro 1908)    leucos, white; frenatus, bridled, referring to white stripe running from snout, through nostrils and supraorbital, forking at end of temporal shield into two parallel stripes

Curculionichthys piracanjuba (Martins & Langeani 2012)    named for the rio Piracanjuba drainage, upper rio Paraná system, central Brazil, type locality

Curculionichthys oliveirai (Roxo, Zawadzki & Troy 2014)    in honor of Claudio Oliveira (Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho, São Paulo, Brazil), for his dedication and contributions to the study of neotropical freshwater fishes

Curculionichthys paresi (Roxo, Zawadzki & Troy 2014)    named for the Paresí Indians, who used to live throughout most of Mato Grosso, Brazil, including the municipality of Santo Afonso, where this catfish occurs; the Paresí were also some of the main guides of Cândido Rondon (1865-1958), Brazilian army engineer and explorer, who visited this region at the beginning of the 20th century (authors incorrectly say 18th century)

Curculionichthys sabaji Roxo, Silva, Ochoa & Oliveira 2015    in honor of Mark Sabaj Pérez, Collection Manager of Ichthyology, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, for his dedication and contributions to study of neotropical fishes, especially those from the Rio Xingu basin (where this species occurs)

Curculionichthys sagarana Roxo, Silva, Ochoa & Oliveira 2015    a hybrid of two words, saga, of Germanic origin, meaning a heroic song, and the Tupí-Guaraní rana, meaning similarity, referring to a 1946 book by Brazilian author João Guimarães Rosa about the history of people from Minas Gerais, Brazil, living in the region of Rio das Velhas, where this catfish occurs

Curculionichthys tukana Roxo, Dias, Silva & Oliveira 2017    Tupí-Guaraní name for the rio Tocantins (rio Amazonas basin, Brazil), where it occurs; “Tocantins” means “toucan beak,” a junction of the words tukana (toucan) and tim (beak)

Epactionotus Reis & Schaefer 1998    epaktios, coastal; notos, south, referring to endemic distribution of this genus in the coastal rivers of southern Brazil

Epactionotus bilineatus Reis & Schaefer 199    bi-, two; lineatus, lined or striped, referring to conspicuous pattern of light stripes on dorsum of head and body

Epactionotus gracilis Reis & Schaefer 1998    slender, referring to its “generally slender and narrow body form”

Epactionotus itaimbezinho Reis & Schaefer 1998    named after the “magnificent” canyon Itaimbezinho, located near type locality and whose river is part of the headwaters of the rio Mampituba (Santa Catarina State, Brazil), where this catfish is endemic

Epactionotus yasi Almirón, Azpelicueta & Casciotta 2004    Guaraní word for moon (no significance; the authors simply liked the name [Adriana Almirón, pers. comm.])

Eurycheilichthys Reis & Schaefer 1993    eury, wide or broad; cheilos, lip; ichthys, fish, referring to very wide lower lip characteristic of genus [replacement name for Eurycheilus Reis & Schaefer 1992, preoccupied by a fossil cephalopod]

Eurycheilichthys apocremnus Reis 2017    apo, from; kremnos, cliff or precipice,  referring to steep landscape of type locality (a small creek with fast-flowing clear water)

Eurycheilichthys castaneus Reis 2017    brown or chestnut-colored, referring to its primarily plain dark brown color

Eurycheilichthys coryphaenus Reis 2017    koryphe, head, crown, top or highest point, referring to its distinctly elevated parieto-supraoccipital bone

Eurycheilichthys limulus Reis & Schaefer 1998    diminutive of lima, scraper or grinder, referring to patches of accessory teeth on both dentary and premaxilla

Eurycheilichthys luisae Reis 2017    in honor of Reis’ daughter Luisa, “who loves nature and occasionally assisted on weekend field trips for collecting specimens”

Eurycheilichthys pantherinus (Reis & Schaefer 1992)    like a panther, referring to its distinctive color pattern, which resembles that of the largest South American field cat, Panthera onca

Eurycheilichthys paucidens Reis 2017    paucus, few; dens, tooth, referring to small number of accessory teeth in premaxilla and dentary compared to congeners

Eurycheilichthys planus Reis 2017    flat, level or smooth, referring to its distinctly flat head and predorsal area

Eurycheilichthys vacariensis Reis 2017    –ensis, suffix denoting place: the town of Vacaria, a historical place in the highlands of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), that exemplifies the traditional Gaucho culture of the region in which this species occurs

Hisonotus Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889    etymology not explained, perhaps isos, equal; notus, back, possibly referring in some way to absence of adipose fin

Hisonotus acuen Silva, Roxo & Oliveira 2014    referring to the Xavante indigenous people of Mato Grosso, Brazil, known in anthropological literature as acuen

Hisonotus aky (Azpelicueta, Casciotta, Almirón & Koerber 2004)    Guaraní word for green, referring to its brilliant green color in life

Hisonotus alberti Roxo, Silva, Waltz & Melo 2016    in honor of James S. Albert, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, for his dedication and contributions to the studies of neotropical freshwater fishes

Hisonotus armatus Carvalho, Lehmann A., Pereira & Reis 2008    armed, referring to complete covering of odontodes on anterior tip of snout

Hisonotus bocaiuva Roxo, Silva, Oliveira & Zawadzki 2013named after Bocaiúva, Minas Gerais, Brazil, city where types were collected

Hisonotus bockmanni Carvalho & Datovo 2012    in honor of Flávio A. Bockman, Universidade de São Paulo, for guiding the authors’ studies and his contributions to the knowledge of neotropical catfishes

Hisonotus brunneus Carvalho & Reis 2011    tawny, referring to its overall brownish pigmentation

Hisonotus carreiro Carvalho & Reis 2011    named for the rio Carreiro drainage, Serafina Corrêa, Brazil, where it is endemic

Hisonotus charrua Almirón, Azpelicueta, Casciotta & Litz 2006    name of aborigines who lived along the Uruguayan coast of the Rio de la Plata, where this catfish occurs

Hisonotus chromodontus Britski & Garavello 2007    chroma, color; odontos, tooth, referring to reddish-brown tip of teeth

Hisonotus depressicauda (Miranda Ribeiro 1918)    depressus, pressed down; cauda, tail, referring to depressed caudal peduncle

Hisonotus depressinotus (Miranda Ribeiro 1918)    depressus, pressed down; notos, back, referring to depressed median groove at cervical (neck) region

Hisonotus francirochai (Ihering 1928)    in honor of Brazilian psychiatrist Francisco Franco da Rocha (1864-1933), founder, Hospital Psiquiátrico do Juqueri (Região Metropolitana de São Paulo), on the occasion of his jubilee

Hisonotus heterogaster Carvalho & Reis 2011    heteros, distinct, deviating or abnormal; gaster, belly, referring to distinctly different arrangement of abdominal plates (compared to congeners from the laguna dos Patos system, southern Brazil) formed by absent median plate series

Hisonotus hungy Azpelicueta, Almirón, Casciotta & Koerber 2007     Guaraní word for brown, referring to brownish ground color of dorsolateral body surface and pale-brown ventral surface of head and body

Hisonotus iota Carvalho & Reis 2009    Greek for anything very small, referring to its small size compared to congeners

Hisonotus laevior Cope 1894    smoother, perhaps referring to scutes “posteriorly moderately hispid, smoother anteriorly”

Hisonotus leucophrys Carvalho & Reis 2009    leucos, white; ophrys, eyebrow, referring to white longitudinal stripe above eye orbit

Hisonotus luteofrenatus Britski & Garavello 2007    luteus, yellow; frenatus, bridled, referring to yellow pair of lines running dorsally on head from tip of snout to dorsal rim of orbit

Hisonotus maculipinnis (Regan 1912)    maculatus, spotted; pinnis, fin, referring to series of dark spots on fins

Hisonotus megaloplax Carvalho & Reis 2009megalos, big; plax, plate, referring to greatly enlarged lateral abdominal plates

Hisonotus montanus Carvalho & Reis 2009    of mountains, referring to high altitudes (~850 m above sea level) where it is found

Hisonotus nigricauda (Boulenger 1891)    nigri-, black; cauda, tail, referring to “deep black” caudal fin (with outer rays spotted with white)

Hisonotus notatus Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889    marked, presumably referring to large median blackish spot on caudal fin that extends to middle caudal rays

Hisonotus notopagos Carvalho & Reis 2011    notos, south; pagos, hills, referring to hilly terrains on southernmost portions of Brazilian shield, where it is endemic

Hisonotus pachysarkos Zawadzki, Roxo & da Graça 2016    Greek for obese or paunchy, referring to swollen ventral surface of head and abdomen in large males

Hisonotus paulinus (Regan 1908)    inus, belonging to: São Paulo, Brazil, where type locality (Rio Piracicaba) is situated

Hisonotus prata Carvalho & Reis 2011    named for rio de Prata basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil, where it is endemic

Hisonotus ringueleti Aquino, Schaefer & Miquelarena 2001    in honor of Raúl A. Ringuelet (1914-1982), Museum of Natural Sciences of La Plata, Buenos Aires, whose 1967 book Los Peces de Agua Dulce de la República Argentina “set the standard for systematics research conducted during the last decades of the 20th century in the Austral region of the Neotropics”

Hisonotus taimensis (Buckup 1981)    ensis, suffix denoting place: from the region of Taim, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, type locality

Hisonotus thayeri Martins & Langeani 2016    in honor of the Thayer Expedition (1865-1866), “considered one of the most important journeys performed in Brazil,” during which this species was first collected

Hisonotus vespuccii Roxo, Silva & Oliveira 2015    in honor of Américo Vespúcio (Amerigo Vespucci in Italian, 1454-1512), navigator and explorer, to whom the 1501 discovery of the rio São Francisco in Brazil (where this catfish occurs) is attributed

Hisonotus vireo Carvalho & Reis 2011    greenish, referring to coloration in life

Microlepidogaster Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889    micro-, small; lepido-, scaled; gaster, belly, referring to minute granular plates on ventral surface

Microlepidogaster arachas Martins, Calegari & Langeani 2013    referring to the Arachás, native people who once lived in the area drained by the rio Araguari (type locality) and were exterminated by the Caiapós in 1750s; in the Tupí language Araxá means “high place where sun can be seen first,” thus Arachás were those who inhabited the highlands of southeastern Minas Gerais, Brazil

Microlepidogaster dimorpha Martins & Langeani 2011    di-, two or double; morpha, form, referring to its “accentuated” sexual dimorphism (males have wider nostrils, previously unreported in the subfamily)

Microlepidogaster discontenta Calegari, Silva & Reis 2014    dis-, not; contentus, satisfied, i.e., regretful, referring to type locality, the córrego (stream) Arrependido (Goiás, Brazil), which means regretful, a name it received after it supposedly changed direction from south to north due to headwater capture

Microlepidogaster discus Martins, Rosa & Langeani 2014    a flat circular plate, referring to first or second anterior plates of mid-ventral lateral series, which are markedly round

Microlepidogaster longicolla Calegari & Reis 2010    longus, long; collum, neck, i.e., long-necked, referring to long predorsal region resulting from posterior shift of dorsal fin

Microlepidogaster negomata Martins, Cherobim, Andrade & Langeani 2017    named for Nego Matá, a farm (fazenda) in Ribeirão Bebedouro, Minas Gerais, Brazil, type locality (Nego Matá was the nickname of the former owner of the farm)

Microlepidogaster perforata Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889    referring to perforated temporal plate

Nannoplecostomus Ribeiro, Lima & Pereira 2012    nannos, dwarf, reaching 22.2 mm SL, the smallest known loricariid; Plecostomus, former generic name (now Hypostomus) of species currently included in the family

Nannoplecostomus eleonorae Ribeira, Lima & Pereira 2012    in honor of Brazilian biospeleologist Eleonora Trajano, for her key contributions to the knowledge of the diversity of Brazilian troglobitic fishes, including fishes of the karst area of São Domingos (where this catfish occurs)

Otothyris Myers 1927    otos, ear; thyris, lattice, referring to perforate temporals, pierced by 3-4 large openings, sometimes confluent into one

Otothyris juquiae Garavello, Britski & Schaefer 1998    Juquiá, a small town on the rio Juquiá, São Paulo, Brazil, type locality, derived from name of Amazonian people and their word for a small fishing device used in shallow water

Otothyris lophophanes (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889)    lophos, mane or crest; phanes, visible, referring to three strongly spiniferous ridges on occipital

Otothyris rostrata Garavello, Britski & Schaefer 1998    beaked, referring to prominent and deeply sculptured snout

Otothyris travassosi Garavello, Britski & Schaefer 1998    in honor of the late Haroldo P. Travassos, Museu Nacional (of Brazil), for his many contributions to Brazilian ichthyology and his assistance with the authors’ studies

Otothyropsis Ribeiro, Carvalho & Melo 2005    opsis, appearance, referring to close relationship to Otothyris

Otothyropsis alicula Lippert, Calegari & Reis 2014    diminutive of ala, wing or fin, referring to short pectoral fin

Otothyropsis biamnicus Calegari, Lehmann A. & Reis 2013    bi-, two; amnicus, inhabitant of a river, referring to distribution in both the Iguaçu and Tibagi basins (Santa Catarina and Paraná states, Brazil)

Otothyropsis dialeukos Calegari, Morlis & Reis 2017    marked with white, referring to white or light-cream color of cheek

Otothyropsis marapoama Ribeiro, Carvalho & Melo 2005    named for Município de Marapoama, São Paulo, Brazil, type locality

Otothyropsis piribebuy Calegari, Lehmann A. & Reis 2011    named for the rio Piribebuy, a tributary to the rio Manduvira, rio Paraguay basin, near Lima, San Pedro, Paraguay (from the Guaraní word Piri vevui, gentle breeze, a sensation caused by the many cool rivers in the region)

Otothyropsis polyodon Calegari, Lehmann A. & Reis 2013    poly, many; odon, tooth, referring to higher number of teeth compared to congeners

Parotocinclus Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889    para-, near, presumably referring to similarity to and/or previous placement of type species, P. maculicauda, in Otocinclus

Parotocinclus amazonensis Garavello 1977    ensis, suffix denoting place: Amazonas, Brazil, where type locality (Rio Solimões) is situated

Parotocinclus arandai Sarmento-Soares, Lehmann A. & Martins-Pinheiro 2009    in honor of the authors’ colleague colleague Arion Túlio Aranda, for his talent for catching fish and knowledge of their behavior (he also helped collect type series)

Parotocinclus aripuanensis Garavello 1988    ensis, suffix denoting place: Aripuanã River basin, Brazil, where it is endemic

Parotocinclus bahiensis (Miranda Ribeiro 1918)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Bahia State, Brazil, where it is endemic to the Upper Rio Itapicuru drainage

Parotocinclus bidentatus Gauger & Buckup 2005    bi-, two; dentatus, toothed, referring to of two types of dentition: the usual series of oral teeth and an accessory patch of teeth on upper and lower jaws

Parotocinclus britskii Boeseman 1974    in honor of Heraldo A. Britski, Curator of Fishes, Museu de Zoología at São Paulo, for “hospitality and generous assistance” during Boeseman’s visit there

Parotocinclus cabessadecuia Ramos, Lima & Ramos 2017    named for Cabeça de Cuia (gourd head), a legendary creature said to attack fishermen along the banks of the rio Parnaíba in Piauí State, Brazil, where this fish occurs (cuia is a hard-shelled fruit with a gourd-like shape whose dried shell is used as bowls; the expression “gourd head” refers to a large head but it is unclear whether the authors considered this fish’s head as large)

Parotocinclus cearensis Garavello 1977    ensis, suffix denoting place: Ceará State, Brazil, where it is endemic

Parotocinclus cesarpintoi Miranda Ribeiro 1939    in honor of helminthologist Cesar Pinto, who collected and/or supplied type and photographs of it

Parotocinclus collinsae Schmidt & Ferraris 1985    in honor of entomologist Margaret S. Collins (1922-1996), Alfred Emerson Field Station, Kartabo, Guyana, who made it possible for the senior author to collect fishes in Guyana

Parotocinclus cristatus Garavello 1977    crested, presumably referring to tuft of denticles on supraoccipital bone

Parotocinclus dani Roxo, Silva & Oliveira 2016    in honor of Daniela Fernandes Roxo, the first author’s sister

Parotocinclus doceanus (Miranda Ribeiro 1918)    anus, belonging to: Rio Doce, Espírito Santo, Brazil, type locality

Parotocinclus eppleyi Schaefer & Provenzano 1993    in honor of Capt. Marion Eppley (1883-1960), founder of the Eppley Foundation for Research (New York), for its financial support of the authors’ 1989-1991 collecting efforts in Venezuela, which led to the discovery of this species

Parotocinclus fluminense Roxo, Melo, Silva & Oliveira 2017    –ensis, suffix denoting place: flumine, river, referring to the Baixada Fluminense, relative to the area surrounding the city of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) in which this species inhabits and, consequently, in honor of the population from the state of Rio de Janeiro, popularly named fluminense

Parotocinclus halbothi Lehmann A., Lazzarotto & Reis 2014    in memory of Dário Armin Halboth (1965-2003), an “excellent field biologist” and one of the first researchers to study the effects of bauxite tailings deposited in an Amazonian lake on fish communities; before his early death, he dedicated himself to describe the ecological features of the fishes living in streams of Amapá State, Brazil

Parotocinclus haroldoi Garavello 1988     in honor of ichthyologist Heraldo A. Britski (Universidade de São Paulo), who loaned specimens, revised Garavello’s manuscript, and contributed many suggestions for its improvement

Parotocinclus jequi Lehmann A., Koech Braun, Pereira & Reis 2013    from the native Tupí ye’kei, a type of fish trap, and part of the name of the Rio Jequitinhonha (“field of the river traps”) drainage, Minas Gerais, Brazil, where it is endemic

Parotocinclus jimi Garavello 1977    in honor of Brazilian herpetologist-ecologist Jorge Jim (1942-2011), who helped collect type (Julio C. Garavello, pers. comm.)

Parotocinclus jumbo Britski & Garavello 2002    Anglo-Saxon word meaning very large, referring to its unusually large size compared to congeners

Parotocinclus longirostris Garavello 1988    longus, long; rostris, snout, presumably referring to its “strongly ellipsoid” shape

Parotocinclus maculicauda (Steindachner 1877)    macula, spot; cauda, tail, referring to large spot on front part of tail (termination of dark longitudinal band on sides)

Parotocinclus minutus Garavello 1977    small, referring to small size (2-3 cm SL)

Parotocinclus muriaensis Gauger & Buckup 2005    ensis, suffix denoting place: Rio Muriaé, Paraíba do Sul River basin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, type locality

Parotocinclus planicauda Garavello & Britski 2003    planus, flat; cauda, tail, referring to “somewhat quadrangular cross section of caudal peduncle with conspicuous flat lateral surfaces”

Parotocinclus polyochrus Schaefer 1988    poly, many; ochros, pale yellow or ochre, referring to distinctive V-shaped color pattern on snout and Y-shaped color pattern on occiput

Parotocinclus prata Ribeiro, Melo & Pereira 2002    named for rio de Prata basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil, type locality

Parotocinclus robustus Lehmann A. & Reis 2012     robust, referring to its “strong and robust appearance”

Parotocinclus seridoensis Ramos, Barris-Neta, Britski & Lima 2013    ensis, suffix denoting place: semi-arid Caatinga region known as “Sertão do Seridó,” Rio Grande do Norte and Paraíba States, one of the most arid regions in northeastern Brazil, where this catfish occurs; probably derived from the native Tapuia language expression ceri-toh, “little foliage and little shade,” referring to characteristic Caatinga vegetation, mainly composed of small, thorny trees that shed their leaves in dry periods

Parotocinclus spilosoma (Fowler 1941)    spilos, blot; soma, body, referring to four transverse dark-to-blackish brown bands on pale or light-brown body

Parotocinclus spilurus (Fowler 1941)    spilos, blot; urus, tail, referring to black and dark-gray bands on caudal fin

Parotocinclus variola Lehmann A., Schvambach & Reis 2015    smallpox or spotted, referring to dark dots that cover all dorsal and ventral body surfaces

Pseudotothyris Britski & Garavello 1984    pseudo-, false, i.e., although this genus may resemble Otothyris, such an appearance is false

Pseudotothyris ignota Martins, Britski & Langeani 2014    unknown or ignored, referring to its misidentification as P. obtusa since 1911

Pseudotothyris janeirensis Britski & Garavello 1984    ensis, suffix denoting place: Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, where it is endemic

Pseudotothyris obtusa (Miranda Ribeiro 1911)    blunt or dull, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to small platelets with small (and therefore blunter or duller) spines on snout, compared to large plates with strong, recurved spines on snout of most other members of subfamily

Rhinolekos Martins & Langeani 2011    rhinos, nose or nostril; lekos, plate, referring to large plate between second infraorbital plate and nasal opening, anteriorly projected, surrounding the nostril

Rhinolekos britskii Martins, Langeani & Costa 2011    in honor of Heraldo A. Britski, Curator of Fishes, Museu de Zoología at São Paulo, for his “dedication and remarkable contributions” to the studies of hypoptopomatine catfishes and neotropical ichthyology

Rhinolekos capetinga Roxo, Ochoa, Silva & Oliveira 2015    Tupí-Guaraní word meaning white, or clear, water, an old and unused name of São João D’Aliança municipality, Goiás, Brazil, one of the paratype localities

Rhinolekos garavelloi Martins & Langeani 2011    in honor of Julio C. Garavello, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, for contributions to the studies of hypoptopomatine catfishes and neotropical ichthyology

Rhinolekos schaeferi Martins & Langeani 2011    in honor of Scott A. Schaefer (American Museum of Natural History), for his “remarkable” contributions to Hypoptopomatinae systematics

Schizolecis Britski & Garavello 1984    schizo-, to split or cleave; lekis, plate, referring to small plates bearing spines on tip of snout, identical to those on head

Schizolecis guntheri (Miranda Ribeiro 1918)    in honor of F. Günther, who collected specimens for the Museu Paulista (São Paulo), including type of this species [also spelled guentheri]

30 genera • 239 species   

Aposturisoma Isbrücker, Britski, Nijssen & Ortega 1983    apo-, from or away from, referring to superficial exterior resemblance with Sturisoma

Aposturisoma myriodon Isbrücker, Britski, Nijssen & Ortega 1983    myrios, countless; odon, tooth, referring to exceptionally high number of teeth compared to other species in subfamily

Brochiloricaria Isbrücker & Nijssen 1979    brochus, projecting, referring to protruding teeth; Loricaria, type genus of subfamily

Brochiloricaria chauliodon Isbrücker 1979    chaulios, prominent; odon, tooth, referring to its protruding teeth

Brochiloricaria macrodon (Kner 1853)    macro-, long; odon, tooth, referring to its long, protruding teeth

Crossoloricaria Isbrücker 1979    crosso-, fringe, referring to flexible filamentous expansions of surface and margin of lips; Loricaria, type genus of family

Crossoloricaria cephalaspis Isbrücker 1979    named after Cephalaspis Agassiz 1835, a fossil ostracaderm, with which it “bears a striking resemblance” (translation)

Crossoloricaria variegata (Steindachner 1879)    variegated, presumably referring to its varied color pattern, small brownish bands and spots on sides and top of head, mottled dark-purple fins (except for anal), and arrowhead-shaped spots on pelvic fins

Crossoloricaria venezuelae (Schultz 1944)    of Venezuela, referring to type locality in Lake Maracaibo drainage (also occurs in Colombia), and to the “courtesy shown [to Schultz] while collecting specimens there in 1942”

Cteniloricaria Isbrücker & Nijssen 1979    ctenos, comb, referring to fine, comb-like teeth of C. platysoma; Loricaria, type genus of subfamily

Cteniloricaria napova Covain & Fisch-Muller 2012    Trio-Wayana Amerindian word meaning “thank you,” honoring the Trio people from Sipaliwini (Suriname-Brazil border), who offered the authors this catfish

Cteniloricaria platystoma (Günther 1868)    platy, broad; stoma, mouth, its “mouth broad,” according to Günther

Dasyloricaria Isbrücker & Nijssen 1979    dasys, hairy, referring to hypertrophied odontodes that form brushes on lateral surfaces of head in mature males; Loricaria, type genus of subfamily

Dasyloricaria filamentosa (Steindachner 1878)    referring to the long, filamentous upper caudal-fin ray

Dasyloricaria latiura (Eigenmann & Vance 1912)    latus, wide; oura, tail, referring to wider tail compared to D. filamentosa

Dasyloricaria paucisquama Londoño-Burbano & Reis 2016    paucus, few; squama, scale or plate, referring to smaller number of central abdominal plates compared to congeners

Dentectus Martín Salazar, Isbrücker & Nijssen 1982    dens, teeth; tectus, covered, concealed or disguised, referring to teeth “invisible” in normally preserved specimens, but easily observed in specimens that are cleared and stained

Dentectus barbarmatus Martín Salazar, Isbrücker & Nijssen 1982    barbus, beard; armatus, furnished with weapons, referring to dermal ossifications (small scutelets) on barbels

Farlowella Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889    ella, diminutive connoting endearment: in honor of Dr. W. G. Farlow, Harvard University

Farlowella acus (Kner 1853)    needle, referring to its long, needle-like shape

Farlowella altocorpus Retzer 2006    alto-, high or deep; corpus, body, referring to its relatively high or deep body relative to most other Farlowella species

Farlowella amazonum (Günther 1864)    Amazonian, referring to type locality, Amazon River at Santarém, Pará State, Brazil (also occurs in Tocantins and La Plata River basins of Brazil and possibly Argentina)

Farlowella colombiensis Retzer & Page 1997    ensis, suffix denoting place: Colombia, where it is endemic

Farlowella curtirostra Myers 1942    curtus, short; rostra, snout, referring to its “exceptionally short” snout

Farlowella gianetii Ballen, Pastana & Peixoto 2016    in honor of Michel Donato Gianeti, collection manager at the ichthyological collection of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, for “kind assistance” provided during visits to the collection and through loan/data request management

Farlowella gracilis Regan 1904    slender, probably referring to its thin, slender body

Farlowella hahni Meinken 1937    in honor of friend and “fish connoisseur” Carlos Hahn (Corrientes, Argentina), for “many stimulating observations [via mail] on numerous fishes, from outdoors and aquaria” (translation), and for providing type from his collection

Farlowella hasemani Eigenmann & Vance 1917    in honor of John D. Haseman (d. 1969), Eigenmann’s student and field collector for the Carnegie Museum of Natural History, who collected type

Farlowella henriquei Miranda Ribeiro 1918    in honor of Capt. Henrique Silva (no other information available), who collected type

Farlowella isbruckeri Retzer & Page 1997    in honor of Isaäc J. H. Isbrücker (b. 1944), Zoölogisch Museum, Amsterdam, for his “enormous” contribution to the taxonomy of loricariid catfishes

Farlowella jauruensis Eigenmann & Vance 1917    ensis, suffix denoting place: Jauru, Mato Grosso, Brazil, type locality

Farlowella knerii (Steindachner 1882)    in honor of Steindachner’s friend and colleague, ichthyologist Rudolf Kner (1810-1869), who described F. acus and F. oxyrryncha in 1853

Farlowella mariaelenae Martín Salazar 1964    in honor of Martín Salazar’s “great companion” (translation) and wife, María Elena

Farlowella martini Fernández-Yépez 1972    in honor of ichthyologist Felipe Martin Salazar (b. 1930), who revised the Venezuelan species of this genus in 1964

Farlowella mitoupibo Ballen, Urbano-Bonilla & Zamudio 2016    from mito-upibo, the name applied by the Guahibo people of Colombia to fishes of the genus Farlowella

Farlowella nattereri Steindachner 1910    in honor of Johann Natterer (1787-1843), who explored South America and collected specimens for 18 years, including type of this species

Farlowella odontotumulus Retzer & Page 1997    odonto, tooth; tumulus, mound, referring to knobs of breeding odontodes on fourth row of lateral scutes

Farlowella oxyrryncha (Kner 1853)    oxy, sharp or pointed; rhyncha, snout, referring to its long and narrow snout

Farlowella paraguayensis Retzer & Page 1997    ensis, suffix denoting place: Río Paraguay (Paraguay and Brazil), where it appears to be endemic

Farlowella platorynchus Retzer & Page 1997    plato, broad; rynchus, snout, referring to its relatively broad snout

Farlowella reticulata Boeseman 1971    net-like, referring to reticulate pattern formed by scutes on head and anterior part of body

Farlowella rugosa Boeseman 1971    wrinkle, referring to wrinkled appearance or surface structure of latero-ventral scutes

Farlowella schreitmuelleri Ahl 1937    in honor of German aquarist Wilhelm Schreitmüller (1870-1945), who provided type

Farlowella smithi Fowler 1913    in honor of Edgar A. Smith (no other information available), who collected type

Farlowella taphorni Retzer & Page 1997    in honor of Donald C. Taphorn, Universidad Nacional Experimental de los Llanos Orientales “Ezequiel Zamora” (Guanare, Venezuela), for his contributions to neotropical ichthyology and assistance to the authors’ study

Farlowella venezuelensis Martín Salazar 1964    ensis, suffix denoting place: Venezuela, where it is endemic

Farlowella vittata Myers 1942    banded, referring to broad, deep-brown band “on each side, from rostrum, including eye, and losing itself after the dorsal and anal fins”

Farlowella yarigui Ballen & Mojica 2014    an “arbitrary combination of letters” alluding to the Parque Nacional Natural Serranía de los Yariguíes, Departamento de Santander, Colombia, in recognition of its conservation efforts in the the Eastern Colombian Andes, where this catfish occurs

Fonchiiloricaria Rodriguez, Ortega & Covain 2011    in honor of the late Fonchii Chang (1963-1999), Museo de Historia Natural (Lima, Peru), who first collected this species and recognized it as new (she died, along with her motorista, in a boat accident near Lake Rimachi, Peru; she was wearing rubber boots, which filled with water and anchored her to the bottom, where she was shocked by an electric eel, knocked unconscious and drowned); Loricaria, type genus of subfamily

Fonchiiloricaria nanodon Rodriguez, Ortega & Covain 2011    nano, reduced; odon, teeth, referring to 1-3 premaxillary teeth that are greatly reduced

Furcodontichthys Rapp Py-Daniel 1981    furco, fork, odontos, tooth, referring to its bilobed teeth “like a fork” (translation); ichthys, fish

Furcodontichthys novaesi Rapp Py-Daniel 1981    in honor of ornithologist Fernando da Costa Novaes (1927-2004), Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi (Belém, Brazil), who collected the paratypes

Harttia Steindachner 1877    ia, belonging to: Charles Frederick Hartt (1840-1878), geologist, paleontologist and naturalist, who collect many specimens that Steindachner studied during the Thayer Expedition (1865-1866) to Brazil

Harttia absaberi Oyakawa, Fichberg & Langeani 2013    in honor of geographer Aziz Nacib Ab’Sáber (1924-2012), “whose contributions represent a landmark in the knowledge of geography, ecology and geomorphology of the Brazilian territory”

Harttia carvalhoi Miranda Ribeiro 1939    in honor of Brazilian ichthyologist-herpetologist Antenor Leitão de Carvalho (1910-1985), who collected type

Harttia depressa Rapp Py-Daniel & Oliveira 2001    referring to its more depressed head and body compared to H. uatumensis

Harttia dissidens Rapp Py-Daniel & Oliveira 2001    disagreeing or dissident, i.e., different from the six other species described in the same paper (Lúcia Rapp Py-Daniel, pers. comm.)

Harttia duriventris Rapp Py-Daniel & Oliveira 2001    durus, hard; ventris, abdomen, referring to its densely plated abdomen

Harttia fluminensis Covain & Fisch-Muller 2012    ensis, suffix denoting place: flumen, Latin for river, referring to the ecology of Harttia, a genus of rheophilic fishes from the main channel of rivers

Harttia fowleri (Pellegrin 1908)    in honor of ichthyologist Henry Weed Fowler (1878-1965), Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia

Harttia garavelloi Oyakawa 1993    in honor of ichthyologist Julio Cesar Garavello, Universidade Federale de São Carlos, for his work on neotropical freshwater fishes and for providing the paratypes

Harttia gracilis Oyakawa 1993    slender, referring to thinner body size compared to congeners

Harttia guianensis Rapp Py-Daniel & Oliveira 2001    ensis, suffix denoting place: French Guiana, where it is endemic

Harttia kronei Miranda Ribeiro 1908    in honor of its discoverer, naturalist-archaeologist Ricardo Krone (1861-1917)

Harttia leiopleura Oyakawa 1993    leios, smooth; pleuro, side, referring to absence of bony plates between pectoral and ventral fins

Harttia longipinna Langeani, Oyakawa & Montoya-Burgos 2001    longa, large; pinna, fin, referring to large size of anal fin in males

Harttia loricariformis Steindachner 1877    formis, shape, referring to similar body shape (elongate, strongly depressed) to the genus Loricaria (Steindachner believed this genus was intermediate between the subfamilies Loricariinae and Hypostominae)

Harttia merevari Provenzano, Machado-Allison, Chernoff, Willink & Petry 2005    Ye-kuana name for the Caura River, Bolívar State, Venezuela, type locality

Harttia novalimensis Oyakawa 1993    ensis, suffix denoting place: Município de Nova Lima, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brazil, type locality

Harttia punctata Rapp Py-Daniel & Oliveira 2001    spotted, referring to its color pattern

Harttia rhombocephala Miranda Ribeiro 1939    rhombus, rhomboid; cephala, head, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to its less triangular (i.e., more rounded) head compared to H. carvalhoi

Harttia surinamensis Boeseman 1971    ensis, suffix denoting place: Suriname, the “territory which seems to represent its main area of distribution” (also occurs in French Guiana)

Harttia torrenticola Oyakawa 1993    torrentis, swift stream; cola, inhabitant, referring to its habitat

Harttia trombetensis Rapp Py-Daniel & Oliveira 2001    ensis, suffix denoting place: Trombetas River basin, above Cachoeira Porteira falls, Brazil, where it appears to be endemic

Harttia tuna Covain & Fisch-Muller 2012    Tri-Wayana Amerindian name meaning river and water, referring to “extreme morphological resemblance” with H. fluminensis, whose name also means river

Harttia uatumensis Rapp Py-Daniel & Oliveira 2001    ensis, suffix denoting place: Uatumã River basin, Brazil, type locality

Harttiella Boeseman 1971    diminutive of Harttia, referring to previous placement of type species, H. crassicauda, in that genus

Harttiella crassicauda (Boeseman 1953)    crassus, stout; cauda, tail, allusion not explained, possibly referring to “not emarginate, almost truncate” caudal fin

Harttiella intermedia Covain & Fisch-Muller 2012    intermediary, representing a contradiction between morphometry (similar in body shape to H. crassicauda group) and genetics (mitochondrial barcode signature typical for the H. longicauda group)

Harttiella janmoli Covain & Fisch-Muller 2012    in honor of Dutch ecologist Jan H. Mol, for his “strong, personal investment” in the knowledge and protection of Hartiella, especially in Suriname, where he recovered the highly vulnerable H. crassicauda

Harttiella longicauda Covain & Fisch-Muller 2012    longus, long; cauda, tail, referring to long and slender caudal peduncle

Harttiella lucifer Covain & Fisch-Muller 2012    named for the Lucifer Mountains, French Guiana, type locality

Harttiella parva Covain & Fisch-Muller 2012    small, referring to its size, ~25 mm SL (vs. ~30 mm SL in congeners)

Harttiella pilosa Covain & Fisch-Muller 2012    hairy, referring to short and thick odontodes on head of males, giving them a hispid appearance

Hemiodontichthys Bleeker 1862    Hemiodon (hemi-, partial; odon, tooth, referring to teeth only on lower jaw), referring to previous placement of H. acipenserinus in that genus (replaced by Reganella); ichthys, fish

Hemiodontichthys acipenserinus (Kner 1853)    sturgeon-like, referring to its superficial resemblance to sturgeons, particularly its long and narrow snout

Lamontichthys Miranda Ribeiro 1939    in honor of ichthyologist Francesca La Monte (1895-1982), who described the type species, L. filamentosus, in 1935

Lamontichthys avacanoeiro de Carvalho Paixão & Toledo-Piza 2009    named for the Avá-canoeiros, indigenous people who historically inhabited the upper rio Tocantins basin, Goiás, Brazil, type locality

Lamontichthys filamentosus (La Monte 1935)    referring to long dorsal-, pectoral- and caudal-fin filaments

Lamontichthys llanero Taphorn & Lilyestrom 1984    in honor of the people who occupy the plains (los llanos) in the Andean piedmont region of the Apure River drainage in Venezuela, where this catfish is found (also occurs in Colombia)

Lamontichthys maracaibero Taphorn & Lilyestrom 1984    in honor of the villagers living in the Lake Maracaibo basin, Venezuela, where this catfish is found (also occurs in Colombia)

Lamontichthys parakana de Carvalho Paixão & Toledo-Piza 2009    named for the Parakanã, indigenous people who historically inhabited the area of the lower rio Tocantins, Pará, Brazil, type locality

Lamontichthys stibaros Isbrücker & Nijssen 1978    Greek for strong or sturdy, referring to its “more robust appearance” compared to L. filamentosus

Limatulichthys Isbrücker & Nijssen 1979    limatulus, polished, referring to previous misidentification of L. griseus as the fish now named Pseudoloricaria laeviuscula, both of which possess smooth body scutes (Isaäc J.H. Isbrücker, pers. comm.)

Limatulichthys griseus (Eigenmann 1909)    gray or grayish, although Eigenmann described its as “Sand-colored”

Limatulichthys nasarcus Londoño-Burbano, Lefebvre & Lujan 2014    nasus, snout; arcus, bow-shaped, referring to rounded snout when compared to L. griseus

Loricaria Linnaeus 1758    ia, adjectival suffix: lorica, a cuirass or coat of mail, referring to bony plates on back and sides of L. cataphracta

Loricaria apeltogaster Boulenger 1895    a-, without; pelta, small shield; gaster, belly, “Breast and belly naked, or with small stellate shields”

Loricaria birindellii Thomas & Sabaj Pérez 2010    in honor of ichthyologist José Luís O. Birindelli, Universidade de São Paulo, who helped collect type material and “deftly commanded” the 2007 Pipe Expedition to Serra do Cachimbo, Brazil, leading to the discovery of this and many other undescribed fishes

Loricaria cataphracta Linnaeus 1758    clad in armor, referring to bony plates on back and sides

Loricaria clavipinna Fowler 1940    clavus, club; pinna, fin, referring to enlarged pectoral spin

eLoricaria coximensis Rodriguez, Cavallaro & Thomas 2012    ensis, suffix denoting place: Rio Caxim, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, type locality

Loricaria holmbergi Rodríguez & Miquelarena 2005    in honor of Argentine biologist and science-fiction novelist Eduardo Ladislao Holmberg (1852-1937), presented in a paper delivered at the occasion of the first Eduardo L. Holmberg Award in Ichthyology, 22 November 2002

Loricaria lata Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889    wide, presumably referring to greatly depressed body, wider than it is high

Loricaria lentiginosa Isbrücker 1979    freckled, referring to color pattern on top of head and snout

Loricaria luciae Thomas, Rodriguez, Carvallaro, Froehlich & Macedo Corrêa E Castro 2013    in honor of Lúcia H. Rapp Py-Daniel, Curator of Fishes, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, for her many contributions to neotropical ichthyology, particularly loricariid taxonomy and systematics

Loricaria lundbergi Thomas & Rapp Py-Daniel 2008    in honor of John G. Lundberg, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, for his leading role in the Calhamazon Project and many outstanding contributions to neotropical ichthyology

Loricaria nickeriensis Isbrücker 1979    ensis, suffix denoting place: Nickerie River system, Suriname, type locality (also occurs in French Guiana)

Loricaria parnahybae Steindachner 1907    of Rio Parnahyba, Victoria, Brazil, type locality (also occurs in French Guiana)

Loricaria piracicabae Ihering 1907    of the río Piracicaba, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil, type locality

Loricaria prolixa Isbrücker & Nijssen 1978    stretched out or long, referring to “long and flat-robust body shape”

Loricaria pumila Thomas & Rapp Py-Daniel 2008    Latin for dwarf, referring to small adult size (<80 mm SL at sexual maturity), particularly among Loricaria

Loricaria simillima Regan 1904    etymology not explained, presumably similis, like; lima, file or rasp, perhaps referring to similarity to Rineloricaria lima, its presumed congener at the time (although it should be noted that Regan made no such comparison; instead he noted that the species is similar to L. cataphracta)

Loricaria spinulifera Thomas & Rapp Py-Daniel 2008    spinula, small thorn or spine; fero, to bear, i.e., bearing little thorns, referring to conspicuous thorn-like odontodes on dorsal and lateral surfaces of head

Loricaria tucumanensis Isbrücker 1979    ensis, suffix denoting place: San Miguel de Tucúman, Argentina, type locality

Loricariichthys Bleeker 1862    Loricaria, referring to similarity to that genus (and in which type species, L. maculatus, had been described); ichthys, fish

Loricariichthys acutus (Valenciennes 1840)    sharp, referring to pointed snout

Loricariichthys anus (Valenciennes 1835)    Latin for old woman (not to be confused with the other meaning of anus, the body part); according to Valenciennes (1840), Latin cognate of vieille, old woman (velha in Portuguese, vieja in Spanish), its common name among Spanish settlers, a name it shares with several loricariid, doradid and callichthyid catfishes (e.g., Paraloricaria vetula) in Buenos Aires, Argentina, allusion not explained nor evident

Loricariichthys brunneus (Hancock 1828)    brown, referring to browish body color

Loricariichthys cashibo (Eigenmann & Allen 1942)    referring to the indigenous tribe of the region, the Cashibos, for whom the type locality, Lake Cashiboya (an oxbow lake formed in an old channel of the Ucayali River, Peru), was named

Loricariichthys castaneus (Castelnau 1855)    chestnut, referring to its “light blond” (translation) coloration

Loricariichthys chanjoo (Fowler 1940)    local name for this species in the Ucayali River basin of Peru

Loricariichthys derbyi Fowler 1915    in honor of Mr. C. F. Derby (no other information available), who collected type

Loricariichthys edentatus Reis & Pereira 2000    e-, without; dentatus, toothed, referring to absence of premaxillary teeth

Loricariichthys hauxwelli Fowler 1915    in honor of British naturalist, explorer and bird collector John Hauxwell, who collected type “many years ago”

Loricariichthys labialis (Boulenger 1895)    of the lips, referring to lower labial fold, moderately large in females and very large in males, extending to pectoral shields

Loricariichthys maculatus (Bloch 1794)    spotted, referring to dark spots irregularly distributed on body and/or dark gray spots on spines and rays (except anal fin)

Loricariichthys melanocheilus Reis & Pereira 2000    melanos, black; cheilos, lip, referring to black, large lower lip of nuptial males

Loricariichthys microdon (Eigenmann 1909)    micro-, small; odon, tooth, referring to “excessively minute” teeth

Loricariichthys nudirostris (Kner 1853)    nudus, naked or bare; rostris, snout, referring to absence of plates on tip and sides of snout below the nostrils

Loricariichthys platymetopon Isbrücker & Nijssen 1979    platys, broad; metopon, forehead, referring to broad interorbital area

Loricariichthys rostratus Reis & Pereira 2000    beaked, referring to its long rostral border

Loricariichthys stuebelii (Steindachner 1882)    in honor of German geologist-vulcanologist Alphons Stübel (1835-1904), who collected type

Loricariichthys ucayalensis Regan 1913    ensis, suffix denoting place: Río Ucayali, Peru, type locality (also endemic to Ucayali River basin)

Metaloricaria Isbrücker 1975    meta-, among; Loricaria, type genus of Loricariinae, referring to its relatively thick and few teeth, reminiscent of some of dentitions occurring in Loricariinae (Isaäc J.H. Isbrücker, pers. comm.)

Metaloricaria nijsseni (Boeseman 1976)    in honor of Han Nijssen (1935-2013), Zoölogisch Museum, Amsterdam, “as a token of esteem” for his work on South American catfishes

Metaloricaria paucidens Isbrücker 1975    paucus, few; dens, tooth, referring to comparatively low number of teeth compared to the related genera Sturisoma, Lamontichthys and Harttiella

Paraloricaria Isbrücker 1979    para-, near, referring to great similarity with Loricaria

Paraloricaria agastor Isbrücker 1979    twin, referring to similarity to Loricaria apeltogaster; also, specimens of both species shared the same bottle of alcohol for over 80 years

Paraloricaria commersonoides (Devincenzi 1943)    oides, having the form of: Hypostomus commersoni, which is similar in shape and coloration

Paraloricaria vetula (Valenciennes 1835)    according to Valenciennes (1840), Latin cognate of vieille, old woman, from its local common name, vielle à longue queue (“long-tailed old woman”), referring to its filamentous caudal-fin ray; vieille (velha in Portuguese, vieja in Spanish) is a name it shares with several loricariid, doradid and callichthyid catfishes (e.g., Loricariichthys anus) in Buenos Aires, Argentina, allusion not explained nor evident

Planiloricaria Isbrücker 1971    planus, flat, referring to depressed head; Loricaria, type genus of Loricariidae

Planiloricaria cryptodon (Isbrücker 1971)    krypton, hidden; odon, tooth, referring to “well-hidden” teeth, concealed in the “gums”

Pseudohemiodon Bleeker 1862    pseudo-, false,  i.e., although this genus may resemble Hemiodon (now Reganella), with type species P. platycephalus previously (but tentatively) placed in that genus, such an appearance is false

Pseudohemiodon amazonum (Delsman 1941)    described as an Amazonian variety (or subspecies) of Loricaria apeltogaster

Pseudohemiodon apithanos Isbrücker & Nijssen 1978    Greek for incredible, referring to variability in color pattern, unique among its numerous subfamilial relatives

Pseudohemiodon devincenzii (Señorans 1950)    in honor of Garibaldi J. Devincenzi (1882-1943), Director, Museo de Historia Natural de Montevideo (Montevideo, Uruguay), who guided Señorans through his “first forays into the field of zoology” (translation) and to whom we owe the systematic portions of the 1940 publication Album ictiológico del Uruguay

Pseudohemiodon lamina (Günther 1868)    a small plate, referring to “small and irregular” scutes covering thorax and abdomen

Pseudohemiodon laticeps (Regan 1904)    latus, broad; ceps, head, referring to head “as broad as long”

Pseudohemiodon platycephalus (Kner 1853)    platy, broad; cephalus, head, referring to its head as broad as it is long

Pseudohemiodon thorectes Isbrücker 1975    thorektes, Greek for warrior armed with a breastplate, referring to “peculiar” median row of transverse scutes between pectoral and pelvic fins on abdomen

Pseudoloricaria Bleeker 1862    pseudo-, false, i.e., although this genus may resemble Loricaria (with its only species previously placed in that genus), such an appearance is false

Pseudoloricaria laeviuscula (Valenciennes 1840)    smoother, referring to its smoother body compared to Loricariichthys acutus and L. maculatus, its presumed congeners at the time

Pterosturisoma Isbrücker & Nijssen 1978    ptero-, fin; Sturisoma, earliest established genus of the tribe Harttiini, referring to large fins of P. microps

Pterosturisoma microps (Eigenmann & Allen 1942)    micro-, small; ops, eye, referring to “minute” eye, ~12 times in length of head

Pyxiloricaria Isbrücker & Nijssen 1984    pyxis, box, referring to distinctive body shape, which is trapezoid in a transverse section along coalescing lateral body scutes; Loricaria, type genus of the family

Pyxiloricaria menezesi Isbrücker & Nijssen 1984    in honor of Naercio A. Menezes, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, for his friendly support and hospitality during the first author’s stay in Brazil

Reganella Eigenmann 1905    ella, suffix denoting endearment: in honor of ichthyologist Charles Tate Regan (1878-1943), Natural History Museum (London), for his “invaluable services” in reviewing loricariid catfishes, specifically his 1904 revision of the family [replacement name for Hemiodon Kner 1853, preoccupied by Hemiodon Swainson 1840 in Mollusca]

Reganella depressa (Kner 1853)    referring to its strongly depressed head

Rhadinoloricaria Isbrücker & Nijssen 1974    rhadinos, slender or tapering, presumably referring to acute snout of R. macromystax; Loricaria, type genus of family

Rhadinoloricaria bahuaja (Chang & Castro 1999)    named after Parque Nacional Bahuaja-Sonene, southeastern Peru, through which type locality (Río Tambopata) flows

Rhadinoloricaria condei (Isbrücker & Nijssen 1986)    in honor of zoologist Bruno Condé (1920-2004), director of l’Aquarium de Nancy, for his “his contributions and communicative interest in several fields of Zoology” (translation)

Rhadinoloricaria laani (Isbrücker & Nijssen 1988)    in honor of Louis André van der Laan, Zoölogisch Museum, Amsterdam, for providing authors with excellent photographs of fishes for many years

Rhadinoloricaria listrorhinos (Isbrücker & Nijssen 1988)    listron, shovel; rhinos, snout, referring to its relatively long snout

Rhadinoloricaria macromystax (Günther 1869)    macro-, long; mystax, moustache, referring to long barbel on upper lip, which extends beyond axil of pectoral fin

Rhadinoloricaria ommation (Isbrücker & Nijssen 1988)    small eye, referring to its relatively small eyes, diameter 9.4 times in length of head

Rhadinoloricaria rhami (Isbrücker & Nijssen 1983)    in honor of Swiss ichthyologist and aquarist Patrick de Rham, who led the authors’ expedition to Peru and helped collect the type series

Ricola Isbrücker & Nijssen 1978    anagram of lorica, curiass (piece of armor covering body from neck to waist, e.g., breastplate) or corselet, root of Loricaria, with which this genus is “very similar” in all external characters except for barbel structure and shape and number of teeth

Ricola macrops (Regan 1904)    macro-, long or large; ops, eye, presumably referring to eye diameter, which is larger than most species of Loricaria (its genus at the time) covered in Regan’s treatment of the family

Rineloricaria Bleeker 1862    rine, rasp, referring to sharp bristles on sides of snout (of males); Loricaria, genus in which type species, R. lima, had originally been described

Rineloricaria aequalicuspis Reis & Cardoso 2001    aequalis, equal; cuspis, cusps, referring to its tooth shape, which has two cusps nearly equal in size

Rineloricaria altipinnis (Breder 1925)    altus, high; pinnis, fin, referring to its “relatively high” fins

Rineloricaria anhaguapitan Ghazzi 2008    named for the devil, called Anhaguapitã in Tupí lengend, whose clash with St. Peter, in which the saint became dead birds and the devil became rain and small stones, created the Uruguay River of southern Brazil, where this catfish occurs

Rineloricaria anitae Ghazzi 2008    in honor of Anita Garibaldi (1821-1849), Brazilian wife and comrade-in-arms of Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Garibaldi, a key figure in the Ragamuffin War (Revolução Farroupilha), a failed war of secession from the Brazilian Empire (1835-1845)

Rineloricaria aurata (Knaack 2002)    golden, referring to its body coloration

Rineloricaria baliola Rodriguez & Reis 2008    Latin for chestnut or reddish brown, referring to its color pattern

Rineloricaria beni (Pearson 1924)    named for the Beni River basin, Bolivia, where it is endemic

Rineloricaria cacerensis (Miranda Ribeiro 1912)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Cáceres (a town), Mato Grosso, Rio Paraguay drainage, Brazil, type locality

Rineloricaria cadeae (Hensel 1868)    of the Rio Cadéa (also spelled Cadeia), Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, type locality

Rineloricaria capitonia Ghazzi 2008    with a large head, referring to its large triangular head (when seen from above)

Rineloricaria caracasensis (Bleeker 1862)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Caracas, Venezuela, type locality

Rineloricaria castroi Isbrücker & Nijssen 1984    in honor of ichthyologist Ricardo Macedo Corrêa e Castro, Universidade de São Paulo, who collected type

Rineloricaria catamarcensis (Berg 1895)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Catamarca Province, Argentina, where it is endemic

Rineloricaria cubataonis (Steindachner 1907)    is, genitive singular of: Cubatao River, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, type locality

Rineloricaria daraha Rapp Py-Daniel & Fichberg 2008    local spelling of rio Daraá, Amazonas, Brazil, type locality

Rineloricaria eigenmanni (Pellegrin 1908)    in honor of ichthyologist Carl H. Eigenmann (1863-1927), for his knowledge of “so many interesting forms of American fishes” (translation)

Rineloricaria fallax (Steindachner 1915)    false or deceitful; Steindachner was not sure if this species was merely similar to R. stewarti and Loricariichthys brunneus or conspecific with one of them

Rineloricaria felipponei (Fowler 1943)    in honor of Uruguayan biologist Florentino Felippone (1852-1939), who collected type

Rineloricaria formosa Isbrücker & Nijssen 1979    beautiful, which “alludes to the whole fish,” presumably referring to coloration, stripes and numerous small brown spots

Rineloricaria hasemani Isbrücker & Nijssen 1979    in honor of John D. Haseman (d. 1969), field collector in the Carnegie Museum of Natural History’s Department of Ichthyology, “who assembled perfectly preserved collections of South American fishes” (1908-1911), including type of this species

Rineloricaria henselii (Steindachner 1907)    in honor of German natural Reinhold Hensel (1826-1881), who described the “very closely related” (translation) R. strigilata in 1868

Rineloricaria heteroptera Isbrücker & Nijssen 1976    hetero-, different; ptera, fin, referring to “unexpected variability” (5 or 6) in the number of dorsal-fin rays

Rineloricaria isaaci Rodriguez & Miquelarena 2008    in honor of Isaäc J. H. Isbrücker (b. 1944), for his studies on the family Loricariidae, especially subfamily Loricariinae

Rineloricaria jaraguensis (Steindachner 1909)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Rio Jaraguá, Santa Catarina, Brazil, type locality (also endemic to Rio Jaraguá basin)

Rineloricaria jubata (Boulenger 1902)    maned or crested, presumably referring to thick band of long, hair-like bristles on each side of head of males

Rineloricaria konopickyi (Steindachner 1879)    in honor of Steindachner’s scientific illustrator Eduard Konopicky (“the best illustrations of fishes made by any artist,” said David Starr Jordan in 1905)

Rineloricaria kronei (Miranda Ribeiro 1911)    in honor of its discoverer, naturalist-archaeologist Ricardo Krone (1861-1917)

Rineloricaria lanceolata (Günther 1868)    lance-like, probably referring to how end of body tapers to a lance- or lancet-like point

Rineloricaria langei Ingenito, Ghazzi, Duboc & Abilhoa 2008    in honor of Rudolf Bruno Lange (b. 1922), one of the first curators of the zoological collections of Museu de História Natural Capão da Imbuia (MHNCI) during the 1940s, in which the ichthyological collection is included

Rineloricaria latirostris (Boulenger 1900)    latus, wide; rostris, snout, referring to its rounded snout, measuring half the length of its head

Rineloricaria lima (Kner 1853)    file or rasp, possibly referring to sharp bristles on sides of snout (of males) and/or “very rough” (translation) plates on trunk

Rineloricaria longicauda Reis 1983    longus, long; cauda, tail, referring to its long caudal peduncle

Rineloricaria maacki Ingenito, Ghazzi, Duboc & Abilhoa 2008    in honor of geologist Reinhard Maack (1892-1969), who made important contributions to the knowledge of the geology and physiography of the rio Iguaçu basin and Paraná State, Brazil, where this catfish occurs

Rineloricaria magdalenae (Steindachner 1879)   of Río Magdalena, Colombia, type locality (also occurs in Venezuela)

Rineloricaria malabarbai Rodriguez & Reis 2008    in honor of colleague Luiz Roberto Malabarba, for his many important contributions to neotropical ichthyology

Rineloricaria maquinensis Reis & Cardoso 2001    ensis, suffix denoting place: río Maquiné drainage, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, type locality

Rineloricaria melini (Schindler 1959)    in honor of Swedish herpetologist Douglas Melin, who collected type

Rineloricaria microlepidogaster (Regan 1904)    micro-, small; lepido-, scale; gaster, belly, referring to small abdominal plates, in 5-6 series between the posterior plates of the lateral series, anteriorly more numerous

Rineloricaria microlepidota (Steindachner 1907)    micro-, small, lepidota, scaled, referring to its smaller, more numerous abdominal plates compared to R. lima

Rineloricaria misionera Rodríguez & Miquelarena 2005    Spanish for missionary, referring to Misiones, the Argentinian province containing the type locality

Rineloricaria morrowi Fowler 1940    in honor of William P. Morrow, who led Peruvian expedition that collected type

Rineloricaria nigricauda (Regan 1904)    nigri-, black; cauda, tail, referring to uniformly blackish caudal fin except for its outer rays

Rineloricaria osvaldoi Fichberg & Chamon 2008    in honor of Osvaldo Takeshi Oyakawa, fish collection manager, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, and a specialist of the Loricariinae, particularly of the genus Harttia

Rineloricaria pareiacantha (Fowler 1943)    pareion, cheek; acantha, spine, referring to slender spine-like bristles on each side of head

Rineloricaria parva (Boulenger 1895)    small, referring to small size (described at 110 mm) compared to other presumed congeners (>200 mm) at the time

Rineloricaria pentamaculata Langeani & de Araujo 1994    penta– five; maculata, spotted, referring to five conspicuous dark-brown bands on body

Rineloricaria phoxocephala (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889)    phoxos, tapered; cephala, head, referring to its long, pointed head

Rineloricaria platyura (Müller & Troschel 1849)    platy, flat or broad; oura, tail, allusion not explained nor evident; upper plates of tail are described as “truncate behind” (translation)

Rineloricaria quadrensis Reis 1983    ensis, suffix denoting place: Lagoa dos Quadros, Osório, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, type locality

Rineloricaria reisi Ghazzi 2008    in honor of Roberto E. Reis (Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul), for his contributions to neotropical ichthyology and especially for his studies of loricariid catfishes

Rineloricaria rupestris (Schultz 1944)    living among rocks, referring to habitat among rocks and stones on stream bottom

Rineloricaria sanga Ghazzi 2008    local Brazilian name, derived from the Spanish zanja, a creek or small stream, referring to its type locality

Rineloricaria setepovos Ghazzi 2008    named after a 17th-century Jesuit mission, Setes Povos das Missões, mostly inhabited by Guaraní Indians, referring to region where this catfish occurs

Rineloricaria sneiderni (Fowler 1944)    in honor of Swedish ornithologist-ecologist Kjell von Sneidern (1910-2000), who collected type

Rineloricaria steinbachi (Regan 1906)    in honor of German-born explorer and collector Joseph (José) Steinbach (1856-1929), who collected type

Rineloricaria steindachneri (Regan 1904)    in honor of Austrian ichthyologist Franz Steindachner (1834-1919), who identified this catfish as R. lima in 1881

Rineloricaria stellata Ghazzi 2008    starry, referring to conspicuous dark spots on fins and lateral-line pores

Rineloricaria stewarti (Eigenmann 1909)    in honor of Douglas Stewart, Curator of Mineralogy and Assistant to the Director of the Carnegie Museum

Rineloricaria strigilata (Hensel 1868)    with small, hair-like bristles, referring to “abundant” (translation) bristles on body

Rineloricaria teffeana (Steindachner 1879)    ana, belonging to: Amazon River near Teffé (now spelled Tefé), Amazonas State, Brazil, type locality

Rineloricaria thrissoceps (Fowler 1943)    thrix, hair or bristle; ceps, head, referring to “distinctive” fine bristles or spines on sides of head

Rineloricaria tropeira Ghazzi 2008    named for the drovers (tropeiros in Portuguese) who for many years traveled via horse and mule in the region where this catfish occurs

Rineloricaria uracantha (Kner 1863)    oura, tail; acanthus, spine, referring to very thick (or spinous) uppermost ray of caudal fin

Rineloricaria wolfei Fowler 1940    in honor of Thomas W. Wolfe (also spelled Wolf in same paper), who assisted William C. Morrow in his 1937 collecting expedition to the Ucayali River basin of Peru

Rineloricaria zaina Ghazzi 2008    local Brazilian name for the matte black or dark-brown fur of horses and cattle, referring to the dark-brown color of some specimens and the dull, velvety appearance of their small odontodes

Spatuloricaria Schultz 1944    spatula, spoon, referring to spoon-shaped teeth in mature males that separate it from the only genus, Loricaria, to which Schultz believed it is closely related

Spatuloricaria atratoensis Schultz 1944    ensis, suffix denoting place: Atrato River basin, Colombia, where it appears to be endemic

Spatuloricaria caquetae (Fowler 1943)    of Caquetá, Colombia, where type locality (Río Orteguasa) is situated

Spatuloricaria curvispina (Dahl 1942)    curvis, curved; spina, thorn, referring to side of head with a “great number of strong, sharp spines [odontodes] curved backward” on mature males

Spatuloricaria euacanthagenys Isbrücker 1979    eu-, well; acanthus, spine; genys, cheek, referring to spines (odontodes) on sides of head [coined by Fowler; replacement name for Euacanthagenys caquetae Fowler 1945, secondarily preoccupied by Loricaria caquetae Fowler 1943 when Isbrücker moved the species to Spatuloricaria]

Spatuloricaria evansii (Boulenger 1892)    in honor of British geologist John William Evans (1857-1930), who obtained type during an expedition to Mato Grosso, Brazil

Spatuloricaria fimbriata (Eigenmann & Vance 1912)    fringed, referring to broad lips with “short, fleshly, marginal tentacles, the posterior papillose and with slender marginal fringes”

Spatuloricaria gymnogaster (Eigenmann & Vance 1912)    gymnos, naked or bare; gaster, belly, referring to plateless belly in juveniles, and naked belly in adults except for a “few granules on the sides and in front of the anus, and sometimes on the breast”

Spatuloricaria lagoichthys (Schultz 1944)    etymology not explained, probably named for the Lago Petroleum Corporation (Lago Maracaibo), which hosted some of Schultz’ fish-collection efforts in Venezuela; ichthys, fish

Spatuloricaria nudiventris (Valenciennes 1840)    nudus, naked or bare; ventris, belly, referring to lower part of thorax and belly naked to between ventral fins

Spatuloricaria phelpsi Schultz 1944    in honor of ornithologist-businessman William H. Phelps, Jr. (1902-1988), president of the Sociedad Venezolana de Ciencias Naturales of Caracas, “a leader in the biological sciences of Venezuela,” in appreciation of his aid while Schultz was in Caracas

Spatuloricaria puganensis (Pearson 1937)    ensis, a suffix that usually denotes place but used here to honor Señor Napoleon Puga, who aided in the author’s work along the Rio Crisnejas in Peru

Spatuloricaria tuira Fichberg, Oyakawa & de Pinna 2014    named for a Brazilian Indian woman of Mebêngôkre/Kaiapó ethnicity, who became a symbol of the resistance against construction of hydroelectric dams on the Rio Xingu, Brazil, one of two rivers where this catfish is known to occur

Sturisoma Swainson 1838    sturio, sturgeon; soma, body, referring to the sturgeon-like appearance of S. rostrata, particularly the produced snout

Sturisoma barbatum (Kner 1853)    barbeled, referring to bristles on sides of snout in males

Sturisoma brevirostre (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889)    brevis, short; rostris, snout, referring to short snout, “little longer than the rest of the head”

Sturisoma caquetae (Fowler 1945)    of the Río Caquetá drainage, Colombia, where it is endemic

Sturisoma guentheri (Regan 1904)    in honor of ichthyologist-herpetologist Albert Günther (1830-1914), who identified this catfish as S. rostratum in 1868

Sturisoma lyra (Regan 1904)    lyre, allusion not explained nor evident

Sturisoma monopelte Fowler 1914    mono, one; pelta, shield, referring to single interposed shield between ventral and anal plates

Sturisoma nigrirostrum Fowler 1940    niger, black; rostrum, snout, referring to blackish band on snout that extends through eye and along upper lateral keel back about as far as anal fin

Sturisoma robustum (Regan 1904)    robust or full-bodied, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to thicker, deeper body compared to S. lyra (as shown in illustrations published on the same plate)

Sturisoma rostratum (Spix & Agassiz 1829)    beaked, referring to long and narrow snout

Sturisoma tenuirostre (Steindachner 1910)    tenuis, thin; rostris, snout, referring to its thin snout, thinner than congeners Steindachner knew about at the time

Sturisomatichthys Isbrücker & Nijssen 1979    Sturisoma, referring to its close relationship with that genus; ichthys, fish

Sturisomatichthys aureus (Steindachner 1900)    golden, referring to shimmers of gold over entire body

Sturisomatichthys citurensis (Meek & Hildebrand 1913)    ensis, sufix denoting place: Río Cupe, Cituro, Panama, type locality

Sturisomatichthys dariensis (Meek & Hildebrand 1913)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Darién, a province in Panama, where Boca de Cupe (type locality) is situated

Sturisomatichthys festivus (Myers 1942)    Latin for pleasing or handsome, probably referring to its greatly prolonged fins (and perhaps also that young specimens are “very prettily marked”)

Sturisomatichthys frenatus (Boulenger 1902)    bridled, presumably referring to band of short hair-like bristles on each side of the head of males, from mouth to gill-cleft

Sturisomatichthys kneri (Ghazzi 2005)    patronym not identified, probably in honor of Austrian ichthyologist Rudolph Kner (1810-1869) [ms. name coined by De Filippi and published by Tortonese in 1940 but not in an available way]

Sturisomatichthys leightoni (Regan 1912)    in honor of Sir Bryan Leighton (1868-1919), who “presented” type to the British Museum (Natural History)

Sturisomatichthys panamensis (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Panama, type locality (also occurs in Colombia and Ecuador)

Sturisomatichthys tamanae (Regan 1912)    of Río Tamana, Río San Juan system, Chocó Department, Colombia, type locality