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Family DIPLOMYSTIDAE Velvet Catfishes
2 genera • 7 species

Diplomystes Bleeker 1858    diplos, double; mystax, moustache or upper lip, referring to two large barbels on upper lip (coined as a vernacular name, Diplomyste, by Duméril in 1856)

Diplomystes camposensis Arratia 1987    ensis, suffix denoting place, but in this case name is in honor of Chilean ichthyologist Hugo Campos, who encouraged Arratia to study these catfishes

Diplomystes chilensis (Molina 1782)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Chile, where it is (or was) endemic (may be extinct)

Diplomystes incognitus Arratia & Quezada-Romegialli 2017    unknown, referring to how the identity of this species was obscured by the assumption that the range of D. chilensis extended south of the Maipo Basin in Chile

Diplomystes nahuelbutaensis Arratia 1987    ensis, suffix denoting place: Codillera de Nahuelbuta, “an especial geological and ecological region” of the Cordillera de la Costa, Chile, type locality

Olivaichthys Arratia 1987    in honor of Rubén Oliva and his wife Beatriz Peñafort Oliva, who “expended much effort, patience and money” seeking diplomystid catfishes in Argentina; ichthys, fish

Olivaichthys cuyanus (Ringuelet 1965)    anus, belonging to: Cuyo, mountainous area of central-west Argentina, presumably where it occurs or is endemic

Olivaichthys mesembrinus (Ringuelet 1982)    southern, referring to distribution in southern Argentina and/or its being the most-southern member of the genus

Olivaichthys viedmensis (MacDonagh 1931)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Viedma, Río Negro Province, Argentina, near type locality

Family CETOPSIDAE Whale Catfishes
5 genera • 42 species

Subfamily HELOGENINAE Marbled Catfishes

Helogenes Günther 1863    etymology not explained and meaning not evident: perhaps helo, marsh and genes, birth (i.e., marsh-born), although these catfishes do not occur in marshes and Günther did not mention habitat; or helo-, stud, nail or tubercle and genys, jaw, chin or cheek, although we see no characters to support this translation

Helogenes castaneus (Dahl 1960)    chestnut, referring to its dominant body color, a “dark chestnut brown”

Helogenes gouldingi Vari & Ortega 1986    in honor of conservation ecologist Michael Goulding, who collected type, for his contributions to the knowledge of Amazonian fishes

Helogenes marmoratus Günther 1863    marbled, referring to blackish-brown coloration, “finely marbeled with black” (Günther 1864)

Helogenes uruyensis Fernández-Yépez 1967    ensis, suffix denoting place: Uruyén River, Venezuela, type locality (also endemic to Uruyén River basin)

Subfamily CETOPSINAE Whale Catfishes

Cetopsidium Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005    Cetopsis, type genus of family; –idium, a diminutive, referring to relatively small sizes of members of genus

Cetopsidium ferreirai Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005    in honor of Efrem J. G. Ferreira, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), collector of all known specimens of this species, for his contributions to our knowledge of the fishes of the Brazilian Amazon

Cetopsidium minutum (Eigenmann 1912)    very small, referring to length of type specimen, 22 mm long

Cetopsidium morenoi (Fernández-Yépez 1972)    in honor of José Moreno, who has collected fishes for science for over 20 years

Cetopsidium orientale (Vari, Ferraris & Keith 2003)    eastern, being the easternmost known member of the family

Cetopsidium pemon Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005    referring to the Pemon, an Amerindian tribe whose traditional territories included area of type locality in eastern Venezuela

Cetopsidium roae Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005    in honor of the collector of all known specimens of this species, Rosemary Lowe-McConnell (1921-2014), known as Ro to colleagues and friends, for her contributions to our knowledge of the fishes of Guyana and many other regions of the world

Cetopsidium soniae Vari & Ferraris 2009    in honor of Sonia Fisch-Muller, Muséum d’histoire naturelle (Geneva), who brought this species to the authors’ attention, for invaluable assistance to both authors over the years, and for contributing in “myriad ways” to their knowledge of South American fishes

Cetopsis Agassiz 1829    cetos, whale; opsis, appearance, referring to whale-like shape (i.e., robust body and smoothly curved head and body profiles) of C. candiru and C. coecutiens

Cetopsis amphiloxa (Eigenmann 1914)    amphi-, around, on both sides or double; loxus, slanting, crosswise or oblique, allusion not explained nor evident

Cetopsis arcana Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005    secret or hidden, referring to its occurrence in sinkholes

Cetopsis baudoensis (Dahl 1960)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Río Baudó, western Colombia, type locality (also endemic to Río Baudó basin)

Cetopsis caiapo Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005    referring to the Caiapo Amerindian tribe that historically inhabited the area of the rio Tocantins drainage system (Goiás, Brazil), type locality

Cetopsis candiru Spix & Agassiz 1829    vernacular name for parasitic catfishes (Trichomycteridae) in Brazil, probably referring to the voracious predatory and scavenging feeding habits of this species and C. coecutiens (attacking carrion, live fishes in nets, and on occasion humans), which contributed to the erroneous assumption that they are parasitic

Cetopsis coecutiens (Lichtenstein 1819)    blinding, i.e., becoming blind or nearing blindness, presumably referring to eyes covered by skin

Cetopsis fimbriata Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005    fringed, referring to dark pigmentation along distal portion of anal fin

Cetopsis gobioides Kner 1858    oides, having the form of: referring to its pelvic fins, which are fused like those of a goby (Gobius) [an apparent misnomer; cetopsid pelvic fins are closely positioned but they are not fused (Richard P. Vari, pers. comm.)]

Cetopsis jurubidae (Fowler 1944)    of the Río Jurubidá, Nuquí, Colombia, type locality

Cetopsis montana Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005    mountain, referring to piedmont regions of the eastern slopes of the Andean Cordilleras, which are drained by the river systems inhabited by this species

Cetopsis motatanensis (Schultz 1944)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Río Motatán, Venezuela, type locality (also occurs in Colombia)

Cetopsis oliveirai (Lundberg & Rapp Py-Daniel 1994)    in honor of José Carlos de Oliveira, Universidade Federal de Juiz de For (Brazil), for contributions to the knowledge of cetopsid catfishes

Cetopsis orinoco (Schultz 1944)    named for the Río Orinoco system, Venezuela, type locality (also occurs in Colombia)

Cetopsis othonops (Eigenmann 1912)    otho, veil; ops, eye, presumably referring to eyes covered by skin

Cetopsis parma Oliveira, Vari & Ferraris 2001    a type of small shield, referring to dark shield-like mark on lateral surface of body just above pectoral fin

Cetopsis pearsoni Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005    in honor of Nathan Everett Pearson, Indiana University, whose collecting efforts in 1921 documented the high diversity of fishes in the rio Madeira drainage basin of southeastern Peru and northeastern Bolivia

Cetopsis plumbea Steindachner 1882    lead-colored, referring to silver-white body and head

Cetopsis sandrae Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005    in honor of Sandra J. Raredon, Division of Fishes, National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C., for her assistance to the authors, particularly the first author, in this and many other projects

Cetopsis sarcodes Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005    Greek for fleshy, referring to rotund body form

Cetopsis starnesi Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005    in honor of Wayne C. Starnes, North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, who collected type along with numerous other specimens of fishes that have proved very useful in this and other studies

Cetopsis umbrosa Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005    shady, referring to dark pigmentation on dorsal and anterior portions of the snout (compared to unpigmented snout on the geographically proximate and somewhat externally similar C. montana)

Denticetopsis Ferraris 1996    dentis, tooth, referring to elevated symphyseal teeth of dentary; Cetopsis, type genus of family

Denticetopsis epa Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005    referring to the Brazilian Expedição Permanente de Amazônia, commonly cited as EPA, which collected large series of scientifically valuable fishes, including type of this species, across broad expanses of the Amazon basin

Denticetopsis iwokrama Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005    named for the Iwokrama rainforest project in the region of Guyana from which type was collected

Denticetopsis macilenta (Eigenmann 1912)    thin or lean, referring to “sides with numerous chromatophores, whose rays branch forward and backward from the center of the cell, giving a strigose effect and looking like little bundles of sticks tied in the middle, hence the name”

Denticetopsis praecox (Ferraris & Brown 1991)    precocious, referring to small size at sexual maturity (up to 52.9 mm SL)

Denticetopsis royeroi Ferraris 1996    in honor of ichthyologist Ramiro Royero, who accompanied Ferraris on all of his field work in Venezuela

Denticetopsis sauli Ferraris 1996    in honor of William G. Saul, collection manager of the Ichthyology Department of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, who participated in the collection of the type series and brought this species to the author’s attention

Denticetopsis seducta Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005    remote or apart, referring to it disjunct or scattered distribution (across a relatively wide portion of the central and western Amazon basin and possibly the southwestern portions of the río Orinoco basin) relative to congeners

Paracetopsis Bleeker 1862    para-, near, referring to similarity and/or close relationship with Cetopsis

Paracetopsis atahualpa Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005    named for Atahualpa, who reigned from 1515 to 1533 as the last ruler of the Inca Empire, which encompassed the region (northwestern Peru and southwestern Ecuador) from which this catfish was collected

Paracetopsis bleekeri Bleeker 1862    in honor of Pieter Bleeker (1819-1878), Dutch medical doctor and ichthyologist (Bleeker used a museum name coined by Guichenot, whom he credited, but since Bleeker made the name available he becomes the author of a name that honors himself)

Paracetopsis esmeraldas Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005    referring to both the Ecuadorian Province of Esmeraldas from which all specimens of the species originated and to the río Esmeraldas basin within which type was collected

Family TRICHOMYCTERIDAE Pencil Catfishes
41 genera • 297 species


Copionodon de Pinna 1992    kopion, diminutive of kope, oar; odon, tooth, referring to paddle-shaped outer row of teeth on premaxilla and dentary

Copionodon lianae Campanario & de Pinna 2000    in honor of Liana Figueiredo Mendes, for collecting the only known specimens and bringing them to the authors’ attention

Copionodon orthiocarinatus de Pinna 1992    orthius, high; carinatus, keeled, referring to “extremely large and deep” adipose fin

Copionodon pecten de Pinna 1992    Greek for comb, referring to comb-like appearnce of extraordinarily enlarged interopercular patch of odontodes

Glaphyropoma de Pinna 1992    glaphyros, excavated; poma, lid or cover, referring to smooth opercular region (odontodes absent)

Glaphyropoma rodriguesi de Pinna 1992    in honor of Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues, Universidade de São Paulo, who, along with his students, discovered and collected first-known specimens of this subfamily from a previously unsampled high-altitude region of central north-eastern Brazil

Glaphyropoma spinosum Bichuette, de Pinna & Trajano 2008    prickly or spiny, referring to its opercular odontodes, unique within the subfamily


Trichogenes Britski & Ortega 1983    combination of tricho– from Trichomycteridae and –genes from the cetopsid catfishes of Helogenes, referring to superficial resemblance to that genus (specifically, the long anal fin)

Trichogenes claviger de Pinna, Helmer, Britski & Nunes 2010    clavus, club; fero, to bear, referring to peculiar shape of hypertrophied posterior process of opercle in males

Trichogenes longipinnis Britski & Ortega 1983    longus, long; pinnis, fin, referring to long (>30 rays) Helogenes-like anal fin

Subfamily TRICHOMYCTERINAE Pencil Catfishes                                  

Bullockia Arratia, Chang, Menu-Marque & Rojas 1978    ia, belonging to: Dillman Samuel Bullock (1878-1971), an American agronomist who lived in Chile and collected many Chilean fishes

Bullockia maldonadoi (Eigenmann 1920)    in honor of Ernesto Maldonado, Director, Bosques, Pesca y Caza (Forests, Fishing and Hunting), Santiago de Chile

Eremophilus Humboldt 1805    eremos, solitary or lonely; philos, fond of, referring to “solitude in which it lives at such great heights [Bogotá, Colombia, elevation ~2640 m], and in waters that are hardly inhabited by any other living being” (translation)

Eremophilus mutisii Humboldt 1805    in honor of Spanish priest, botanist and mathematician José Celestino Mutis (1732-1808), “the famous naturalist whose rich collections are preserved in the great valley of Bogotá” (translation)

Hatcheria Eigenmann 1909    ia, belonging to: paleontologist John Bell Hatcher (1861-1904), who collected many fishes in Patagonia

Hatcheria macraei (Girard 1855)    in honor of Lieut. Archibald MacRae, part of the U.S. Naval Astronomical Expedition to the Southern Hemisphere (1849-52), who collected type

Ituglanis Costa & Bockmann 1993    itu, Tupí-Guaraní word for waterfall, referring to presence of some species in torrential waters; glanis, sheatfish (Silurus glanis), now used as a general term for catfish

Ituglanis agreste Lima, Neves & Campos-Paiva 2013    Latin for rustic, referring to semi-humid narrow strip parallel to coast in northeastern Brazil, encompassing area between Rio Grande do Norte State to middle section of rio de Contas basin in Bahia State, marking transition between two distinct biomes, the Atlantic Forest and the semi-arid Caatinga, where this catfish occurs

Ituglanis amazonicus (Steindachner 1882)    icus, belonging to: Amazon River basin of Brazil (also occurs in French Guiana)

Ituglanis apteryx Datovo 2014    a-, without; pteryx, fin, referring to absence of pelvic fins

Ituglanis australis Datovo & de Pinna 2014    southern, representing the southernmost record of the genus

Ituglanis bambui Bichuette & Trajano 2004    named for the Bambuí Group, the carbonate geological unit where this subterranean species occurs; name also honors Grupo Bambuí de Pesquisas Espeleológicas, for contributions to Brazilian speleology

Ituglanis boitata Ferrer, Donin & Malabarba 2015    from the Tupí-Guaraní boi, snake, and tata, fire, referring to its orangish coloration and snake-like swimming behavior (background: “Boitata” snake is part of several fictitious tales in the Brazilian culture popularized in Rio Grande do Sul by the writer Simões Lopes Neto)

Ituglanis boticario Rizzato & Bichuette 2015    in honor of Fundação O Boticário de Proteção à Natureza (FBPN), which financially supported the protection of the Tarimba cave system (Goiás State, Brazil), one of two cave systems in which this catfish is known to occur

Ituglanis cahyensis Sarmento-Soares, Martins-Pinheiro, Aranda & Chamon 2006    ensis, suffix denoting place: rio Cahy, a small coastal river drainage (Bahia State, Brazil), near the point where the Portuguese navigator Pedro Alvarez Cabral and his fleet landed in Brazil for the first time in the year 1500

Ituglanis eichhorniarum (Miranda Ribeiro 1912)    um, adjectival suffix: named for the water hyacinth Eichhornia azurea, between the pseudorhizomes of which the types were caught [originally misspelled with one h; since name is based on a previously described taxon, correcting the spelling is mandatory]

Ituglanis epikarsticus Bichuette & Trajano 2004    –icus, belonging to: epikarst, the kind of aquifer where this subterranean species occurs

Ituglanis goya Datovo, Aquino & Langeani 2016    named for the Goyá, “an enigmatic and pacific indigenous group that supposedly inhabited the region of the modern state of Goiás in central Brazil,” where this catfish occurs; the “Goyá were utterly exterminated by the XVIII century by the first Bandeirantes explorers from southeastern Brazil”

Ituglanis gracilior (Eigenmann 1912)    comparative of gracilis, slender, referring to its body shape

Ituglanis guayaberensis (Dahl 1960)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Guayabero River basin, Orinoco River drainage, Colombia, where it is endemic

Ituglanis herberti (Miranda Ribeiro 1940)    in honor of acarologist-ornithologist Herbert F. Berla (1912-1985), who collected type

Ituglanis ina Wosiacki, Dutra & Mendonça 2012    inã, person, a self-designation of the Karajás (Carajás) indigenous people who inhabit the Serra dos Carajása (State of Pará, Brazil), where this catfish occurs

Ituglanis laticeps (Kner 1863)    latus, wide; ceps, head, referring to its very depressed, almost quadrilateral, head

Ituglanis macunaima Datovo & Landim 2005    from the modernist Brazilian novel by Mário de Andrade (1893-1945), Macunaíma: o herói sem nenhum caráter (1928), meaning “hero without any character,” referring to the absence of any exclusive (taxonomic) character for the new species; Andrade’s Macunaíma, based in folk Amazonian indian myth, presents infantile features, an allusion to the paedomorphic characters of this catfish

Ituglanis mambai Bichuette & Trajano 2008    named for the karst region, Mambaí (State of Goiás, Brazil), where this subterranean species occurs

Ituglanis metae (Eigenmann 1917)    of the Río Meta, Barrigona, Colombia, presumably the type locality

Ituglanis nebulosus de Pinna & Keith 2003    cloudy or misty, referring to its integumentary pigmentation pattern

Ituglanis paraguassuensis Campos-Paiva & Costa 2007    ensis, suffix denoting place: rio Paraguaçu, Bahia State, Brazil, type locality

Ituglanis parahybae (Eigenmann 1918)    of Rio Parahyba at São João da Barra, Brazil, type locality

Ituglanis parkoi (Miranda Ribeiro 1944)    in honor of Polish amateur naturalist Alexandre Parko, who collected specimens for Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, including type of this catfish

Ituglanis passensis Fernández & Bichuette 2002    ensis, suffix denoting place: Passa Três cave, São Domingos, Goiás, Brazil, only known area of occurrence

Ituglanis proops (Miranda Ribeiro 1908)    pro-, before; ops, eye, referring to forward placement of eyes, close to the posterior nares

Ituglanis ramiroi Bichuette & Trajano 2004    in honor of Ramiro Hilário dos Santos, local inhabitant and guide in Terra Ronca State Park (Goiás, Brazil), who discovered this subterranean species and is an enthusiastic supporter of the protection of caves in the area

Rhizosomichthys Miles 1943    rhizo-, root; soma, body; ichthys, fish, allusion not explained, possibly referring to how this catfish’s unusual body, surrounded by rings of adipose tissue, resembles the rhizome of some unspecified plant

Rhizosomichthys totae (Miles 1942)    of Lago de Tota, Colombia, the only place this catfish, now extinct, was known to occur

Scleronema Eigenmann 1917    sclero-, hard; nema, thread, referring to large osseous base of maxillary barbel of S. operculatum

Scleronema angustirostre (Devincenzi 1942)    angustus, narrow; rostris, snout, presumably referring to flattened head, “strongly narrowed behind the jaws” (translation)

Scleronema minutum (Boulenger 1891)    minute, referring to small size (for a Trichomycterus, its original genus), up to 40 mm

Scleronema operculatum Eigenmann 191    7operculate, presumably referring to opercular flap nearly reaching base of last pectoral-fin ray

Silvinichthys Arratia 1998    in honor of Silvina Menu-Marque, Argentinian zoologist, who collected many trichomycterids; ichthys, fish

Silvinichthys bortayro Fernández & de Pinna 2005    in honor of Gonzalo Padilla Bortayro, who first collected this species and brought it to the authors’ attention [a noun in apposition, without the patronymic “i”]

Silvinichthys gualcamayo Fernández, Sanabria & Quiroga 2013    named for Río Gaulcamayo, Andean cordillera of San Juan, Argentina, type locality

Silvinichthys huachi Fernández, Sanabria, Quiroga & Vari 2014    named for Río Huertas de Huachi, Provincia de San Juan, Argentina, type locality

Silvinichthys leoncitensis Fernández, Dominino, Brancolini & Baigún 2011    ensis, suffix denoting place: Leoncito National Park, Argentina, type locality

Silvinichthys mendozensis (Arratia, Chang G., Menu-Marque & Rojas M. 1978)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Mendoza Province, Argentina, type locality

Silvinichthys pachonensis Fernández & Liotta 2016    ensis, suffix denoting place: Pachón, Provincia de San Juan, Argentina, type locality

Silvinichthys pedernalensis Fernández, Sanabria & Quiroga 2017    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Río Pedernal, Departamento Sarmiento, Argentina, type locality

Trichomycterus Valenciennes 1832    trichos, hair; mycterus, nostril, presumably referring to very short barbels of T. nigricans        

Trichomycterus aguarague Fernández & Osinaga 2006    named for Aguarague National Park, Paraná River system, Bolivia, where it is endemic

Trichomycterus albinotatus Costa 1992    albus, white; notatus, marked, referring to white marks on upper body

Trichomycterus alternatus (Eigenmann 1917)    alternating, referring to 10-14 large spots along middle of sides, frequently alternating with a series of spots above them and sometimes partly confluent with them, forming a longitudinal series or a series of irregular bars across the back

Trichomycterus alterus (Marini, Nichols & La Monte 1933)    the other or alternate, allusion not explained nor evident

Trichomycterus anhanga Dutra, Wosiacki & de Pinna 2012    named for the Amazonian Anhangá legend, a spirit that lives in the woods and protects forest life; its presence can be detected by a whistle and, thereafter, the animal that was being hunted disappears

Trichomycterus areolatus Valenciennes 1846    with areolae, referring to patches of “areolar tissue” (translation) on throat, breast and back that appear scale-like on an otherwise scaleless body

Trichomycterus argos Lezama, Triques & Santos 2012    Argos, a hundred-eyed monster, referring to its “eye-spotted” color pattern

Trichomycterus arhuaco Ardila Rodríguez 2016    named for the Arhuaco, indigenous people of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia, where this catfish occurs

Trichomycterus arleoi (Fernández-Yépez 1972)    in honor of Octavio Arleo, former collector and taxidermist for the Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Caracas, who collected this catfish with Fernández-Yépez in 1949

Trichomycterus atochae (Allen 1942)    of Río de Atocha, Bolivia, type locality

Trichomycterus auroguttatus Costa 1992    aureus, golden; guttatus, spotted, referring to golden spots (alternating with dark spots) on posterior half of body, and a row of gold spots on midline of back, behind dorsal-fin base

Trichomycterus bahianus Costa 1992    anus, belonging to: Bahia State, Brazil, where it is endemic

Trichomycterus balios Ferrer & Malabarba 2013    Greek for spotted, referring to color pattern formed by circular black blotches

Trichomycterus ballesterosi Ardila Rodríguez 2011    in honor of biologist Jesús Ballesteros Correa, University of Córdoba (Colombia), who collected type

Trichomycterus banneaui (Eigenmann 1912)    in honor of Henri Banneau, a “commercial traveler” from Paris, “familiar with all the traveled parts of South America” and “enthusiastic over fishing,” whose crew on the steamer of the Magdalena River in Colombia “secured valuable material,” and who himself “entered actively into the work of collecting” and relieved Eigenmann “entirely of the vexations of handling” his baggage

Trichomycterus barbouri (Eigenmann 1911)    in honor of Harvard herpetologist (and wealthy patron of science) Thomas Barbour (1884-1946), who obtained type in La Paz, Bolivia, from a “person who had been prospecting along the Beni River”

Trichomycterus belensis Fernández & Vari 2002    ensis, suffix denoting place: Departmento Bélen, Provincia de Catamarca, Argentina, type locality

Trichomycterus bogotensis (Eigenmann 1912)    ensis, suffix denoting place: “On the plains of Bogata” [Colombia], elevation nearly 9,000 feet, type locality

Trichomycterus bomboizanus (Tortonese 1942)    anus, belonging to: Río Bomboiza, Ecuador, type locality

Trichomycterus borellii Boulenger 1897    in honor of zoologist Alfonso Borelli (1857-1943), Università di Torino, who led three expeditions to South America and collected many animals, including type of this species

Trichomycterus boylei (Nichols 1956)    in honor of ornithologist Howarth S. Boyle, Nichols’ friend and colleague at the American Museum of Natural History, who collected type

Trichomycterus brachykechenos Ferrer & Malabarba 2013    brachys, short; kechenos, gap, referring to its short posterior cranial fontanel

Trichomycterus brasiliensis Lütken 1874    ensis, suffix denoting place: Brazil, where it is endemic

Trichomycterus brunoi Barbosa & Costa 2010    in honor of Bruno Bove de Costa, for valuable help in collecting Trichomycterus and observations in the field

Trichomycterus cachiraensis Ardila Rodríguez 2008    ensis, suffix denoting place: Municipio Cáchira, Departemento de Norte de Santandar, Colombia, type locality

Trichomycterus caipora Lima, Lazzarotto & Costa 2008    from kaa’pora, a forest-dwelling creature in Tupí mythology, a protector of wildlife with orange hair, referring to this catfish’s endemic distribution in the Atlantic Rain Forest and its orangish-yellow head

Trichomycterus caliensis (Eigenmann 1912)    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Cali, Colombia, type locality

Trichomycterus candidus (Miranda Ribeiro 1949)    latinization of Cândido, in honor of José Cândido de Melo Carvalho (1914-1994), Brazilian entomologist who collected type

Trichomycterus castroi de Pinna 1992    in honor of ichthyologist Ricardo Macedo Corrêa e Castro, Universidade de São Paulo, who collected types and made them available for study, and for his “stimulating enthusiasm” for the study of neotropical freshwater fishes

Trichomycterus catamarcensis Fernández & Vari 2000    ensis, suffix denoting place: Catamarca Province, Argentina, where it is endemic

Trichomycterus caudofasciatus Alencar & Costa 2004    caudo-, tail; fasciatus, banded, referring to four faint gray bars on caudal fin

Trichomycterus celsae Lasso & Provenzano 2003    in honor of herpetologist Josefa Celsa Señaris (b. 1965), for her “continuous and laborious assistance” (translation) in the collection of fishes in the Guyana Shield of Venezuela

Trichomycterus chaberti Durand 1968    in honor of French cave explorer Jacques Chabert, who helped collect type

Trichomycterus chapmani (Eigenmann 1912)    patronym not identified; Eigenmann mentioned a “Dr. F. M. Chapman” in a later (1942) publication, who was a traveling companion in South America; this may have been ornithologist Frank M. Chapman (1864-1945), American Museum of Natural History

Trichomycterus chiltoni (Eigenmann 1928    honor of Col. M. A. Chilton, military attaché of the American Embassy in Santiago de Chile, who toured the “Switzerland of Chile” (i.e., Chilean Lake District in southern Chile, defined by its many lakes in the Andean foothills) with Eigenmann

Trichomycterus chungaraensis Arratia 1983    ensis, suffix denoting place: streams of Chungará Lake, Chile, where it is endemic

Trichomycterus claudiae Barbosa & Costa 2010    in honor of Claudia Petean Bove, for help and companionship during trip that collected type and many other collecting trips during the last 18 years

Trichomycterus concolor Costa 1992    uniformly colored, referring to its uniform plain yellow coloration

Trichomycterus conradi (Eigenmann 1912)    in honor of Bernard S. Conrad, Georgetown, Washington, D.C. (USA), who “greatly assisted the expedition [that collected type] with advice and guidance”

Trichomycterus corduvensis Weyenbergh 1877    ensis, suffix denoting place: Córdoba (also spelled Córdova), Santa Fe, Argentina, type locality

Trichomycterus crassicaudatus Wosiacki & de Pinna 2008    crassus, thick; caudatus, tailed, referring to deep caudal peduncle, giving it a unique shape among trichomycterids

Trichomycterus cubataonis Bizerril 1994    is, genitive singular of: Rio Cubatão, Joinville, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brazil, type locality

Trichomycterus dali Rizzato, Costa, Trajano & Bichuette 2011    named for Spanish artist Salvador Dali (1904-1989), referring to his famously long moustache and this species’ very long barbels

Trichomycterus davisi (Haseman 1911)    in honor of “Dr. Davis,” possibly Walter Gould Davis (1851-1919), Argentine Meteorological Service, “who in various ways” assisted Haseman during the latter part of his collecting trip to South America

Trichomycterus diabolus Bockmann, Casatti & de Pinna 2004    of the devil, named for Morro do Diabo State Park (São Paulo, Brazil), type locality; according to local lore, the name refers to natives who formerly inhabited the region and were reputed to have killed European invaders

Trichomycterus diatropoporos Ferrer & Malabara 2013    diatropos, variable; poros, pore, referring to variable presence of pores along infraorbital sensory canal among specimens

Trichomycterus dispar (Tschudi 1846)    dissimilar, referring to its sexual dimorphism, with monochromatic males and spotted females

Trichomycterus dorsostriatum (Eigenmann 1917)    dorso-, back; striatum, stripe, presumably referring to dark band or row of spots from just above gill opening to base of upper caudal-fin lobe [appeared initially as dorsotriatum, a typographical error]

Trichomycterus duellmani Arratia & Menu-Marque 1984    in honor of herpetologist William E. Duellman (b. 1930), University of Kansas, collector of many South American fishes during 1974-1975

Trichomycterus emanueli (Schultz 1944)    in honor of Juan F. Emanuel, former governor of the district of Goajira (Venezuela), who acted as Schultz’ guide in much of his collecting in the lowlands of the Maracaibo Basin

Trichomycterus fassli (Steindachner 1915)    in honor of entomologist A. H. Fassl, who collected type, for his services to zoological research in Bolivia [Steindachner later changed spelling to fasslii, but original spelling stands]

Trichomycterus fuliginosus Barbosa & Costa 2010    sooty, referring to its color pattern

Trichomycterus gabrieli (Myers 1926)    of Sao Gabriel rapids, Rio Negro, Brazil, type locality

Trichomycterus garciamarquezi Ardila Rodríguez 2016    in honor of Nobel Prize-winning novelist Gabriel Garcia Marquez (1927-2014), who was born in the area of Colombia bordered by the rivers Tucurinca and Aracataca, where this catfish occurs

Trichomycterus gasparinii Barbosa 2013    in honor of zoologist João Luis Rosetti Gasparini, who first collected this species in 2001

Trichomycterus giarettai Barbosa & Katz 2016    in honor of herpetologist Ariovaldo A. Giaretta (Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Brazil), who collected type   

Trichomycterus giganteus Lima & Costa 2004    gigantic, referring to its large size (up to 204.0 mm SL), the biggest among congeners in southeastern Brazil

Trichomycterus goeldii Boulenger 1896    in honor of Swiss-Brazilian zoologist Émil (or Emilio) Goeldi (1859-1917), Director of the Museo Paraense and author of numerous works on the natural history of Brazil, and/or his brother Andreas Goeldi, who provided a “set of the fishes” from Organ Mountain, Brazil, “which appears to produce but six species” (including this one)

Trichomycterus gorgona Fernández & Schaefer 2005    named for Gorgona Island, Colombia, where it is known from only one stream

Trichomycterus guaraquessaba Wosiacki 2005    derived from Município de Guaraqueçaba, Paraná State, Brazil, where it occurs

Trichomycterus guianensis (Eigenmann 1909)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Guyana, referring to type locality, Aruataima Falls, upper Potaro River (also occurs in French Guiana and Venezuela)

Trichomycterus hasemani (Eigenmann 1914)    in honor of John D. Haseman (d. 1969), Eigenmann’s student and field collector for the Carnegie Museum of Natural History, who collected type

Trichomycterus heterodontus (Eigenmann 1917)    hetero-, different; dontus, tooth, referring to three series of teeth on each jaw: narrow incisors on outer row, much smaller incisors on second row, conic on the third

Trichomycterus hualco Fernández & Vari 2009    named for the Río Hualco, Provincia de La Rioja, Argentina, type locality

Trichomycterus igobi Wosiacki & de Pinna 2008    based on character in Tupí-Guraní mythology involved in the legend of the origin of the Iguaçu waterfalls (Paraná, Brazil), near where this catfish occurs

Trichomycterus iheringi (Eigenmann 1917)    in honor of Rodolpho von Ihering (1883-1939), zoologist and fish culturist, who collected part of the type series

Trichomycterus immaculatus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889)    im-, not; maculata, spotted, presumably referring to uniform blackish-brown coloration (compared to the spotted T. oroyae, described in the same paper)

Trichomycterus itacambirussu Triques & Vono 2004    latinization of Itacambiruçu, Jequitinhonha River tributary (Minas Gerais State, Brazil), type locality; composed of the Tupí-Guraní words ita, stone; kamby, milk and probably açú, large, meaning large stone producing milk

Trichomycterus itacarambiensis Trajano & de Pinna 1996    ensis, suffix denoting place: Município de Itacarambi (Minas Gerais State, Brazil), location of Olhos d’Agua cave, only known area of occurrence

Trichomycterus itatiayae Miranda Ribeiro 1906    of Itatiaia mountains, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, type locality (and where it appears to be endemic)

Trichomycterus jacupiranga Wosiacki & Oyakawa 2005    referring to type locality, Parque Estadual de Jacupiranga (Cajati, São Paulo, Brazil), from indigenous Tupí language name for a species of bird native to the region (Penelope obscura, Cracidae), commonly known as the dusky-legged guan (yaku, bird; piranga, red)

Trichomycterus jequitinhonhae Triques & Vono 2004    of the rio Jequitinhonha (Minas Gerais State, Brazil), where this catfish is endemic; name is a combination of the Tupí-Guaraní words jequi, a type of fish trap, and nhonha, an old local word meaning fish (the combination of the two words means fishes are in the trap)

Trichomycterus johnsoni (Fowler 1932)    in honor of Eldridge Reeves Fenimore Johnson (1899-1986), a Trustee of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, through whose cooperation and direction the Academy was represented in expedition that collected type

Trichomycterus kankuamo Ardila Rodríguez 2016    named for the Kankuamo, the indigenous people of the Atlinquez subdivision, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Municipio de Valledupar, Colombia, where this catfish occurs

Trichomycterus knerii Steindachner 1882    patronym not identified but clearly in honor of ichthyologist Rudolf Kner (1810-1869), who was Steindachner’s teacher and friend (and who studied trichomycterid fishes)

Trichomycterus landinga Triques & Vono 2004    local name for this catfish in Coronel Murta, Minas Gerais, Brazil, type locality

Trichomycterus latidens (Eigenmann 1917)    latus, broad or wide; dens, tooth, an odd choice for a name since Eigenmann described teeth as “thin, chisel-shaped”

Trichomycterus latistriatus (Eigenmann 1917)    latus, broad or wide; striatus, stripe, presumably referring to lateral band that widens as it extends from above opercle to middle of caudal fin

Trichomycterus laucaensis Arratia 1983    ensis, suffix denoting place: Río Lauca system, Parinacota, northern Chile, where it is endemic

Trichomycterus lewi Lasso & Provenzano 2003    in honor of zoologist Daniel Lew, who participated in expedition that collected type, for contributions to the knowledge and conservation of biodiversity in the Guyana Shield of Venezuela

Trichomycterus longibarbatus Costa 1992    longus, long; barbatus, bearded, referring to its long nasal barbels

Trichomycterus macrophthalmus Barbosa & Costa 2012    macro-, large; ophthalmos, eye, referring to its large eye, an “uncommon condition” in Trichomycterus

Trichomycterus macrotrichopterus Barbosa & Costa 2010    macro-, long; trichos, hair or ray; pterus, fin, referring to long pectoral-fin filament

Trichomycterus maculosus Barbosa & Costa 2010    spotted, referring to dark gray row of blotches horizontally elongated along lateral midline of body

Trichomycterus maldonadoi Ardila Rodríguez 2011    in honor of biologist Javier Maldonado A. Ocampo, for his dedication to Colombian ichthyology

Trichomycterus manaurensis Ardila Rodríguez 2016    –ensis, suffix denoting place: municipio de Manaure, Departamento del Cesar, Colombia, type locality

Trichomycterus maracaiboensis (Schultz 1944)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Lake Maracaibo basin, Venezuela, where it is endemic

Trichomycterus maracaya Bockmann & Sazima 2004    Tupí-Guaraní name for the Margay Wild Cat, Leopardus wiedii, referring both blotched pigmentation pattern and its predatory habits on vertebrates (tadpoles)

Trichomycterus mariamole Barbosa & Costa 2010    local name for this catfish where it was collected (Municípo de Resende, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)

Trichomycterus mboycy Wosiacki & Garavello 2004    M’Boy cy, a character in Tupí-Guaraní mythology involved in the legend of the origin of the Iguaçu waterfalls (Paraná, Brazil), near where this catfish occurs

Trichomycterus medellinensis Posada 1909    ensis, suffix denoting place: Medellin, Colombia, type locality

Trichomycterus megantoni Fernández & Chuquihuamaní 2007    of Santuario Nacional Machiguenga Megantoni (Ucayali basin, Peru), where type locality is situated

Trichomycterus meridae Regan 1903    of Merida, elevation 3500 meters, Venezuela, type locality

Trichomycterus migrans (Dahl 1960)    migratory, referring to the “mass wanderings” of ~40,000 specimens observed by Dahl, which turned the river water a milky white, apparently from their milt

Trichomycterus mimonha Costa 1992    local name for this catfish in the village of Piquete (Estado de São Paulo, Brazil), probably derived from the Tupí-Guaraní, its meaning unknown

Trichomycterus mimosensis Barbosa 2013    ensis, suffix denoting place: Mimoso do Sul, Espírito Santo, Brazil, type locality

Trichomycterus minus Fernández & Vari 2012    latinization of the Anglo-Saxon mine, referring to mining activities common in part of the Province of Catamarca, Argentina, where it is endemic

Trichomycterus mirissumba Costa 1992    local name for this catfish in the village of Maromba (Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), probably derived from the Tupí-Guaraní, its meaning unknown

Trichomycterus mondolfi (Schultz 1945)    in honor of Venezuelan biologist Egardo Mondolfi, who helped collect type and sent specimens to Schultz for study

Trichomycterus montesi Ardila Rodríguez 2016    in honor of herpetologist Andrés Camilo Montes Correa, Universidad del Magdalena, who collected type with Ardila Rodríguez

Trichomycterus motatanensis (Schultz 1944)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Motatan River system, Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela, type locality

Trichomycterus naipi Wosiacki & Garavello 2004    Naipi, a character in Tupí-Guaraní mythology involved in the legend of the origin of the Iguaçu waterfalls (Paraná, Brazil), near where this catfish occurs

Trichomycterus nietoi Ardila Rodríguez 2014    in honor of Luis Eduardo Nieto Alvarado, Universidad del Magdalena, for contributions to Colombian ichthyology

Trichomycterus nigricans Valenciennes 1832    blackish, referring to uniform black coloration

Trichomycterus nigroauratus Barbosa & Costa 2008    nigro-, black; auratus, golden, referring to black stripe along lateral midline and golden spots on snout and body

Trichomycterus nigromaculatus Boulenger 1887    nigro-, black; maculatus, referring to numerous black spots of unequal size on body

Trichomycterus novalimensis Barbosa & Costa 2010    ensis, suffix denoting place: Município de Nova Lima, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brazil, type locality

Trichomycterus ocanaensis Ardila Rodríguez 2011    ensis, suffix denoting place: municipality of Ocaña, Department of Norte de Santander, Colombia, type locality

Trichomycterus oroyae (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889)    of Rio Oroya, Pochachara, Brazil, type locality

Trichomycterus pantherinus Alencar & Costa 2004    like a panther, referring to its color pattern (small dark brown to black rounded spots on a light orangish yellow body)

Trichomycterus paolence (Eigenmann 1917)    etymology not explained; appears to be a variant or misspelling of -ense, suffix denoting place, possibly referring to São Paulo State, Brazil, where it is endemic

Trichomycterus papilliferus Wosiacki & Garavello 2004    papilla, papillae; fero, to bear, referring to large papillae on ventral surface of head and rictal barbels

Trichomycterus paquequerensis (Miranda Ribeiro 1943)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Rio Paquequer Grande, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, type locality

Trichomycterus pauciradiatus Alencar & Costa 2006    paucus, few; radiatus, rayed, referring to reduced number of pelvic-fin rays (four)

Trichomycterus payaya Sarmento-Soares, Zanata & Martins-Pinheiro 2011    named for the Payayá, an indigenous people who inhabited area south of the rio São Francisco, between upper rio Itapicuru and rio Paraguassu valleys to the Recôncavo Baiano, in northern Bahia State until the 18th century; their descendants nowadays inhabit the region of the Chapada Diamantina, where this catfish occurs

Trichomycterus perkos Datovo, Carvalho & Ferrer 2012    Greek for spotted or streaked with black marks, referring to color pattern formed by either dark stripes (small-sized specimens) or dark stripes combined with small spots (larger individuals)

Trichomycterus pirabitira Barbosa & Azevedo-Santos 2012    combination of the Tupí words pira, fish, and ybytyra, mountain, referring to the “peculiar habit” (habitat?) of the genus, whose members usually inhabit mountainous regions

Trichomycterus piratymbara Katz, Barbosa & Costa 2013    from the Tupí words pira, fish, and tymbara, to dig itself, referring its “peculiar habit” of hiding in the substrate

Trichomycterus piurae (Eigenmann 1922)    of Piura, Peru, type locality (also endemic to Piura River basin)

Trichomycterus plumbeus Wosiacki & Garavello 2004    lead-gray, referring to its grayish color

Trichomycterus poikilos Ferrer & Malabarba 2013    variegated or varicolored, referring to its intraspecific ontogenetic color-pattern variation

Trichomycterus potschi Barbosa & Costa 2003    in honor of herpetologist Sérgio Potsch, who first collected this species

Trichomycterus pradensis Sarmento-Soares, Martins-Pinheiro, Aranda & Chamon 2005    ensis, suffix denoting place: río do Prado, upstream stretch of río Jucuruçu, Bahia State, Brazil, type locality

Trichomycterus pseudosilvinichthys Fernández & Vari 2004    pseudo-, false, referring to similarity in external appearance to the trichomycterid genus Silvinichthys           

Trichomycterus punctatissimus Castelnau 1855    very spotted, referring to tiny dark brown dots fully covering body and fins

Trichomycterus punctulatus Valenciennes 1846    diminutive of punctum, spot, presumably referring to “numerous brown spots advancing on the tail and even on the back” (translation)

Trichomycterus puriventris Barbosa & Costa 2012    purus, pure; ventris, venter, referring to absence of dark pigmentation below lateral midline of body

Trichomycterus quechuorum (Steindachner 1900)    etymology not explained, probably –orum, belonging to: the Quecha indigenous people of South America, particularly of Peru, where it is endemic

Trichomycterus ramosus Fernández 2000    branched, referring to branched nasal and maxillary barbels

Trichomycterus regani (Eigenmann 1917)    in honor of ichthyologist Charles Tate Regan (1878-1943), Natural History Museum (London), who identified this species as Pygidium (=Trichomycterus) taenia in 1913

Trichomycterus reinhardti (Eigenmann 1917)    patronym not identified but probably in honor of Johannes Theodor Reinhardt (1816-1882), Danish zoologist who proposed the trichomycterid genus Stegophilus in 1859

Trichomycterus retropinnis Regan 1903    retro-, back; pinnis, fin, referring to origin of dorsal fin above or slightly behind anal opening (compared to before anal fin opening as in T. meridae, described in same paper)

Trichomycterus riojanus (Berg 1897)    anus, belonging to: Cordillera [mountain range] de La Rioja, Argentina, where it is endemic

Trichomycterus rivulatus Valenciennes 1846    of a brook, referring to its occurrence in high-elevation streams that flow into Lake Titicaca, Peru

Trichomycterus roigi Arratia & Menu-Marque 1984    in honor or Argentinean zoologist Arturo Roig, who collected type

Trichomycterus romeroi (Fowler 1941)    in honor of fish culturist Augusto Romero Padilla, Cundinamarca Department, Colombia

Trichomycterus rubbioli Bichuette & Rizzato 2012    in honor of Ezio Rubbioli, speleologist, the first explorer of Serra do Ramalho caves, who brought this species to the authors’ attention

Trichomycterus rubiginosus Barbosa & Costa 2010    rusty, referring to its predominant red or rusty color

Trichomycterus ruitoquensis Ardila Rodríguez 2007    ensis, suffix denoting place: Ruitoque, a village in the municipality of Floridablanca, Santander Department, Colombia, where Ardila Rodríguez spent his childhood and youth collecting, studying and comparing fishes in rivers and streams (and near where this catfsh occurs)

Trichomycterus sandovali Ardila Rodríguez 2006    in honor of poet Juan Sandoval Tarazona, from the author’s hometown of Floridablanca (Santander, Columbia), and namesake of the cave (Don Juan Cave) where it occurs

Trichomycterus santaeritae (Eigenmann 1918)    of Santa Rita, Brazil, type locality

Trichomycterus santanderensis Castellanos-Morales 2007    ensis, suffix denoting place; Santander Department, Colombia, where this catfish is known from the El Puente Cave in the upper Lebrija River drainage

Trichomycterus septemradiatus Katz, Barbosa & Costa 2013    septem-, seven; radiatus, rayed, referring to its seven pectoral-fin rays

Trichomycterus sketi Castellanos-Morales 2011    in honor of Slovene zoologist Boris Sket (b. 1936), who reported the existence of this species in his speleobiological investigation of the Colombian Andes (1988)

Trichomycterus spegazzinii (Berg 1897)    in honor of Italian-Argentinian botanist and mycologist Carlos Luigi Spegazzini (1858-1926), who collected type

Trichomycterus spelaeus DoNascimiento, Villarreal & Provenzano 2001    of a cave, referring to Punto Fijo Cave, upper Guasare River basin, Venezuela, only known area of occurrence

Trichomycterus spilosoma (Regan 1913)    spilos, spot; soma, body, referring to dark brown spots on body and fins

Trichomycterus stawiarski (Miranda Ribeiro 1968)    in honor of Victor Stawiarski, Director da Divisão de Extenção Cultural do Museu Nacional (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), who collected type

Trichomycterus steindachneri DoNascimiento, Prada-Pedreros & Guerrero-Kommritz 2014    in honor of “prominent” Austrian ichthyologist Franz Steindachner (1834-1919), for a lifetime of work documenting fish biodiversity, especially that from South America; his “profuse morphological descriptions mainly contributed to settle the current standard in ichthyological taxonomic works”

Trichomycterus stellatus (Eigenmann 1918)    starred or starry, presumably referring to variable number of dark spots, smaller than the eye, above lateral stripe and below it on the tail

Trichomycterus straminius (Eigenmann 1917)    straw-like, referring to uniform straw coloration in alcohol

Trichomycterus striatus (Meek & Hildebrand 1913)    striped, referring to two dark bands from upper angle of opercle to middle of caudal-fin base

Trichomycterus taczanowskii Steindachner 1882    in honor of Polish zoologist Władysław (or Ladislas) Taczanowski (1819-1890), who facilitated the shipment of specimens to Steindachner

Trichomycterus taenia Kner 1863    referring to its striking similarity in size and color to the Eurasian loach Cobitis taenia (Cobitidae)

Trichomycterus taeniops Fowler 1954    etymology not explained, probably taenia, and –ops, appearance, referring to slender and elongated body shape, similar to that of the Eurasian loach Cobitis taenia (Cobitidae) [replacement name for Pygidium tenue Fowler 1945, preoccupied by T. tenuis Weyenbergh 1877]

Trichomycterus taroba Wosiacki & Garavello 2004    Tarobá, a character in Tupí-Guaraní mythology involved in the legend of the origin of the Iguaçu waterfalls (Paraná, Brazil), near where this catfish occurs

Trichomycterus tenuis Weyenbergh 1877    thin, referring to “highly compressed” (translation) body shape

Trichomycterus tete Barbosa & Costa 2011    local name for this catfish in northeastern (Bahia) Brazil

Trichomycterus tetuanensis García-Melo, Villa-Navarro & DoNascimiento 2016    –ensis, suffix denoting place: río Tetuán, upper río Magdalena basin, Colombia, type locality

Trichomycterus therma Fernández & Miranda 2007    hot (from the Greek city of Therma, known for its hot springs), reference to its habitat in thermal water (>35°C)

Trichomycterus tiraquae (Fowler 1940)    of Tiraque, Cochabamba Department, Bolivia, type locality

Trichomycterus torcoromaensis Ardila Rodríguez 2016    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Torcoroma, a brook in the municipality of Ocaña, Department of Norte de Santander, Colombia, type locality

Trichomycterus transandianus (Steindachner 1915)    trans-, over; andianum, belonging to the Andes; proposed as a subspecies of T. taenia, referring to its type locality in the mountains of central Columbia (elevation 1800 m), compared to the western slope distribution of T. taenia in Ecuador

Trichomycterus trefauti Wosiacki 2004    in honor of herpetologist Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues (b. 1953), who discovered this species and collected type

Trichomycterus triguttatus (Eigenmann 1918)    tri-, three; guttatus, spotted, referring to three rows of spots: along middle of sides, along middle of back, and in between

Trichomycterus tropeiro Ferrer & Malabarba 2011    Portuguese for drover, named for the old drovers’ paths that connected the States of Rio Grande do Sul and São Paulo, and crossed the Municipalities of São José dos Ausentes and Cambará do Sul, where this catfish occurs

Trichomycterus tupinamba Wosiacki & Oyakawa 2005    name of indigenous tribe that lived in the eastern region of São Paulo State (Brazil), where this catfish occurs, in the 16th and early 17th centuries; Tupinamba, in Tupí language, means first or ancient, further reflecting its presumed basal relationship among congeners

Trichomycterus uisae Castellanos-Morales 2008    of UIS, acronym of Universidad Industrial de Santander (Departamento de Santander, Colombia), near where this catfish occurs and where some of the paratypes are housed

Trichomycterus unicolor (Regan 1913)    uni-, one, referring to its uniform coloration (compared to the spotted T. spilosoma, described in the same paper)

Trichomycterus variegatus Costa 1992    referring to its variegated color pattern

Trichomycterus vermiculatus (Eigenmann 1917)    referring to “irregular vermiculations” on sides and back

Trichomycterus vittatus Regan 1903    banded, referring to dark longitudinal stripe along middle of sides

Trichomycterus wapixana Henschel 2016    named for the Wapixana (also spelled Wapichan and Wapishana), a native tribe from the Serra da Lua region in western Roraima state, northern Brazil, where this catfish occurs; the Wapixana tribe was oppressed by other native tribes and by colonizers, which contributed to a “huge cultural loss”   

Trichomycterus weyrauchi (Fowler 1945)    in honor of malacologist Wolfgang K. Weyrauch (1907-1970), who collected type

Trichomycterus yuska Fernández & Schaefer 2003    native name for this catfish in northwest Argentina

Trichomycterus zonatus (Eigenmann 1918)    banded, referring to five obscure bars across back in front of dorsal fin and three similar bars behind it

Subfamily VANDELLIINAE Hematophagous Catfishes                              

Paracanthopoma Giltay 1935    para-, near, referring to similarity to Acanthopoma (Stegophilinae), both of which possess united gill membranes that are free from the isthmus

Paracanthopoma parva Giltay 1935    small, described at 25 mm

Paravandellia Miranda Ribeiro 1912    para-, near, i.e., considered between Stegophilus and Vandellia (yet described as having the general appearance of the former)

Paravandellia oxyptera Miranda Ribeiro 1912    oxy, sharp; ptera, fin, presumably referring to large, falcate pectoral fins

Paravandellia phaneronema (Miles 1943)    phanero, visible; nema, thread, referring to larger and therefore more visible lower maxillary barbels compared to Branchioica bertoni (=P. oxyptera)

Plectrochilus Miranda Ribeiro 1917    plectrum, spur, or a tool for plucking or striking a stringed instrument; chilos, lip, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to “intermaxillaries with three erect subtriangular spines, curved at the base along their length, emerging from a small pocket at the lip near the base of the barbel” (translation)

Plectrochilus diabolicus (Myers 1927)    diabolical, referring to its parasitic habits; type had burrowed through body wall and into belly of a large river catfish (Pseudoplatystoma), where it was distended with blood

Plectrochilus machadoi Miranda Ribeiro 1917in honor of Rev. F. Machado da Silva, who collected for and/or donated specimens to the Museo Urbis of Rio de Janeiro, including type of this species

Plectrochilus wieneri (Pellegrin 1909)    in honor of Charles Wiener (1851-1913), Austrian-French explorer, linguist and diplomat (“ministre plénipotentiaire”), who collected type

Vandellia Valenciennes 1846    ia, belonging to: naturalist Domenico Agostino Vandelli (1735-1816), who sent the type specimens (mixed in with other catfishes) to Lacépède in 1808

Vandellia beccarii Di Caporiacco 1935    in honor of Italian biologist Nello Beccari (1883-1957), who collected type

Vandellia cirrhosa Valenciennes 1846    curly, allusion not exlained, perhaps referring to “fleshy barbel” (translation) at corners of mouth

Vandellia sanguinea Eigenmann 1917     blood-red or bloody; a hematophagous species described as “translucent,” but Eigenmann later noted (1918) how the alimentary canal was “gorged with blood,” so perhaps it appears blood-red after having eaten

Subfamily STEGOPHILINAE Parasitic Catfishes

Acanthopoma Lütken 1892    akantha, thorn; poma, lid or covering, referring to numerous opercular and interopercular spines

Acanthopoma annectens Lütken 1892    linking or joining, hypothesized by Lütken to represent a species intermediate in form between the subfamilies Pygidiinae (=Trichomycterinae) and Stegophilinae

Apomatoceros Eigenmann 1922    a-, without; pomatos, lid or covering; ceros, horn, referring to absence of opercular spines as in Acanthopoma

Apomatoceros alleni Eigenmann 1922     in honor of zoologist William Ray Allen, Indiana University, who collected type

Haemomaster Myers 1927    haemo-, blood; master, seeker, referring to its hematophagous or parasitic habits

Haemomaster venezuelae Myers 1927    of Venezuela, referring to type locality in Orinoco River basins (also occurs in Orinoco River basin, and in Brazil)

Henonemus Eigenmann & Ward 1907    henos, one; nema, thread, referring to single maxillary barbel

Henonemus intermedius (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889)    according to Eigenmann & Eigenmann (1890), “found in a region intermediate between the localities where [H.] punctatus and [Parastegophilus] maculatus are found [combining] in a remarkable way the characters of those species”

Henonemus macrops (Steindachner 1882)    macro-, long or large; ops, eye, presumably referring to larger eyes compared to its presumed congener at the time, Ochmacanthus reinhardtii, described in the same paper

Henonemus punctatus (Boulenger 1887)    spotted, referring to numerous small brown spots on body

Henonemus taxistigmus (Fowler 1914)    taxis, row; stigmus, spot, referring to series of large dark blotches along lateral line

Henonemus triacanthopomus DoNascimiento & Provenzano 2006    tri-, three; acanthos, spine; poma, lid or covering, referring to maximum number of odontodes found in both opercles in adult specimens, apparently unique in the genus

Homodiaetus  Eigenmann & Ward 1907    according to Eigenmann (1922), “living or eating with others” (homos, same; diaeta, manner of living or diet), referring to the “known parasitic habits of some of its relatives”

Homodiaetus anisitsi Eigenmann & Ward 1907     in honor of Juan Daniel Anisits (1856-1911), National University of Paraguay, who provided Indiana University with a “well-preserved” collection of fishes, including type of this one

Homodiaetus banguela Koch 2002    Portuguese for toothless, referring to absence of teeth in the fifth ceratobranchial

Homodiaetus graciosa Koch 2002    named for Serra da Graciosa, Paraná, São Paulo, Brazil, one of the areas where it occurs

Homodiaetus passarellii (Miranda Ribeiro 1944)    in honor of A. Passarelli Filho, who collected specimens for the Museu Nacional (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), including type of this catfish

Megalocentor de Pinna & Britski 1991    megalo-, large; centor, sting or spur, referring to hypertrophied single interopercular odontode, proportionally larger than any other trichomycterid

Megalocentor echthrus de Pinna & Britski 1991    Greek for hated or hateful, referring to its parasitic habits (frequently taken from the bodies of other fishes)

Ochmacanthus Eigenmann 1912    ochma, hold; acanthus, spine, presumably referring to “claw-like erectile” opercular and preopercular spines on O. flabilliferus

Ochmacanthus alternus Myers 1927    alternating, referring to color pattern, large, irregular, blotches alternating with narrow interspaces

Ochmacanthus batrachostoma (Miranda Ribeiro 1912)    batrachus, frog; stomus, mouth, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to its very wide mouth

Ochmacanthus flabelliferus Eigenmann 1912    flabellum, fan; fero, to bear, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to “fully developed caudal rays much diverging from a narrow base,” thereby forming a fan-like tail

Ochmacanthus orinoco Myers 1927    named for the Orinoco River basin of Venezuela, type locality (also occurs in Negro River basin, and in Brazil)

Ochmacanthus reinhardtii (Steindachner 1882)    in honor of Danish zoologist Johannes Theodor Reinhardt (1816-1882), who proposed Stegophilus (original genus for this species) in 1859

Parastegophilus Miranda Ribeiro 1946    para-, near, referring to similar appearance to Stegophilus (original genus of type species, P. maculatus)

Parastegophilus maculatus (Steindachner 1879)    spotted, referring to dark violet spots on upper half of body and larger spots on back just behind dorsal fin

Parastegophilus paulensis (Miranda Ribeiro 1918)    ensis, suffix denoting place: São Paulo, Brazil, type locality

Pareiodon Kner 1855    pareion, cheek; odon, tooth, referring to small opercular and interopercular spines

Pareiodon microps Kner 1855    micro-, small, ops, eye, referring to minute eye, ~13 times in length of head

Pareiodon orinocensis (Bonilla, Machado-Allison, Silvera, Chernoff, López & Lasso 1999)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Orinoco River basin, Venezuela, where it is endemic

Pseudostegophilus Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889    pseudo-, false, referring to previous placement of type species, P. nemurus, in Stegophilus   

Pseudostegophilus haemomyzon (Myers 1942)    haemo-, blood; myzon, sucker, referring to its hematophagous or parasitic habits

Pseudostegophilus nemurus (Günther 1869)    nema-, thread; urus, tail, referring to filamentous upper lobe of caudal fin

Schultzichthys Dahl 1960    in honor of Leonard P. Schultz (1901-1986), Curator of Fishes, United States National Museum, for his contributions to the knowledge of the fishes of northern South America; ichthys, fish

Schultzichthys bondi (Myers 1942)    in honor of F. F. Bond, University of Rochester (Rochester, New York, USA), who collected type while researching mosquito-control fishes in Venezuela

Schultzichthys gracilis Dahl 1960    slender, referring to its “slender form”

Stegophilus Reinhardt 1859    stego, cover; philos, fond of, referring to its living in the gill cavity of large catfishes, where it feeds on blood in the gills

Stegophilus insidiosus Reinhardt 1859    insidious (i.e., causing harm in a way that is gradual or not easily noticed), referring to its parasitic feeding habits on the gills of large catfishes

Stegophilus panzeri (Ahl 1931)    in honor of entomologist Werner Panzer (1901-1976), graduate student and travel companion of German zoologist Hans Böker (1886-1939), the latter who collected type

Stegophilus septentrionalis Myers 1927    northern, referring to distribution compared to S. insidiosus, only known congener at the time

Subfamily TRIDENTINAE                        

Miuroglanis Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889    miurus, curtailed, perhaps referring to short, compressed and rather deep body; glanis, sheatfish (Silurus glanis), now used as a general term for catfish

Miuroglanis platycephalus Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889    platys, flat; cephalus, referring to “greatly depressed” head

Tridens Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889    tri-, three; dens, teeth, presumably referring to three “trident shaped” spines on opercle of T. melanops       

Tridens melanops Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889    melanos, black; ops, appearance, presumably referring to black spots along base of anal fin and/or dusky posterior half of caudal fun

Tridensimilis Schultz 1944    like or resembling, referring to similarity to (and previous placement of T. brevis in) Tridens

Tridensimilis brevis (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889)    short, referring to short and deep body, shorter than Tridens melanops, its presumed congener at the time

Tridensimilis venezuelae Schultz 1944     of Venezuela, where it is endemic to the Orinoco River basin

Tridentopsis Myers 1925    opsis, appearance, referring to similarity to the closely related Tridens

Tridentopsis cahuali Azpelicueta 1990    of Cahual, name of aboriginal Araucanian chief and name of private protected area in which types were collected

Tridentopsis pearsoni Myers 1925    in honor of Nathan Everett Pearson, Indiana University, who collected 6,775 fish specimens in Bolivia in 1921-1922, including type of this species

Tridentopsis tocantinsi La Monte 1939    of Rio Tocantins, Goiás State, Brazil, type locality (also endemic to Rio Tocantins basin)

Subfamily GLANAPTERYGINAE                              

Glanapteryx Myers 1927    glanis, sheatfish (Silurus glanis), now used as a general term for catfish; a-, without; pteryx, fin, described as “wholly finless excepting for small rudimentary pectoral and pelvic flaps and a caudal fringe”

Glanapteryx anguilla Myers 1927    eel, referring to its eel-like shape (type was found in a vial full of juvenile Swamp Eel, Synbranchus marmoratus)

Glanapteryx niobium de Pinna 1998    named for the naturally occurring chemical element (Nb) responsible for the high background radiation of the Morro dos Seis Lagos (Amazonas, Brazil), where this catfish is the only known fish species

Listrura de Pinna 1988    listros, shovel; oura, tail, referring to numerous accessory rays on tail, which make the caudal region shovel-shaped

Listrura boticario de Pinna & Wosiacki 2002    named for the O Boticario Foundation, which owns and maintains the private nature preserve in Guaraqueçaba (Paraná State, Brazil), where this catfish was found

Listrura camposae (Miranda Ribeiro 1957)    in honor of ichthyologist Antonia Amaral Campos, Departmento de Zoologia da Secretaria da Agricultuea do Estado se São Paulo, who collected type [originally spelled camposi; since name honors a woman, camposae reflects the correct gender]

Listrura costai Villa-Verde, Lazzarotto & Lima 2012    in honor of Wilson J. E. M. Costa, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, for significant contributions to neotropical ichthyology, including the study of trichomycterid catfishes [originally spelled camposi; since name honors a woman, camposae reflects the correct gender]

Listrura depinnai Villa-Verde, Ferrer & Malabarba 2014    in honor of Mário C. C. de Pinna, Universidade de São Paulo, for significant contributions to the knowledge of fish systematics, especially of trichomycterid catfishes

Listrura nematopteryx de Pinna 1988   nemato-, thread; pteryx, fin, referring to its extremely narrow, one-rayed, filamentous pectoral fin

Listrura picinguabae Villa-Verde & Costa 2006    of Picinguaba, São Paulo State, Brazil, type locality

Listrura tetraradiata Landim & Costa 2002    tetra, four; radiata, rays, referring to four pectoral-fin rays, diagnostic of this species

Pygidianops Myers 1944    Pygidium, former name of Trichomycterus; –ops, appearance, presumably referring to similarity with that genus, yet representing one of three genera (including Glanapteryx and Typhlobelus) that differ enough to justify a new subfamily, Glanapteryginae, which Myers proposed in the same paper

Pygidianops amphioxus de Pinna & Kirovsky 2011    referring to the cephalochordate amphioxus (a common name that applies to Recent cephalochordates in general, now mostly included in the Branchiostoma), in allusion to obvious similarities in body shape and sand-dwelling behavior

Pygidianops cuao Schaefer, Provenzano, de Pinna & Baskin 2005    named for the Río Cuao, clearwater tributary of the Río Orinoco (Amazonas, Venezuela), type locality

Pygidianops eigenmanni Myers 1944    in memory of ichthyologist Carl H. Eigenmann (1863-1927), “to whom more than to any other we are indebted for our knowledge of both the blind fishes of the caves and the fish fauna of the fresh waters of South America,” a fitting honor for this blind catfish from South America

Pygidianops magoi Schaefer, Provenzano, de Pinna & Baskin 2005    in honor of the late Francisco Mago-Leccia (1931-2004), for his participation in the discovery of this species, his innumerable contributions to the ichthyology of northern South America, and his mentorship in and enthusiasm for the study of Venezuelan fishes

Typhlobelus Myers 1944    typhlos, blind, referring to vestigial eyes of T. ternetzi, “visible as minute black dots”; belus, pointed, possibly referring to trowel-shaped snout

Typhlobelus auriculatus de Pinna & Zuanon 2013    eared, referring to conspicuously modified pseudotympanus (connected by a superficial groove to a pit entering the skull)

Typhlobelus guacamaya Schaefer, Provenzano, de Pinna & Baskin 2005    named for Guacamaya rapids on the middle Río Cuao, clearwater tributary of the Río Orinoco (Amazonas, Venezuela), type locality

Typhlobelus lundbergi Schaefer, Provenzano, de Pinna & Baskin 2005    in honor of John G. Lundberg, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, for contributions to neotropical ichthyology, and his efforts during the R/V Eastward cruises studying the demersal fishes of large rivers

Typhlobelus macromycterus Costa & Bockmann 1994    macro-, large; mycterus, nostril, referring to longer snout compared to T. ternetzi

Typhlobelus ternetzi Myers 1944    in honor of the late Carl Ternetz (1870-1928), ichthyologist and naturalist, “whose valiant labors, while collecting these fishes in a little-known and fever-laden region, were the ultimate cause of his death” 

Subfamily SARCOGLANIDINAE Psammophilous Catfishes                               

Ammoglanis Costa 1994    ammos, sand, referring to sandy bottom habitat of A. diaphanus; glanis, sheatfish (Silurus glanis), now used as a general term for catfish

Ammoglanis amapaensis Mattos, Costa & Gama 2008    ensis, suffix denoting place: Estado do Amapá, Brazil, type locality

Ammoglanis diaphanus Costa 1994    translucent, referring to its appearance in life

Ammoglanis pulex de Pinna & Winemiller 2000    Latin for flea, referring to its minute size (up to 14.9 mm SL)

Malacoglanis Myers & Weitzman 1966    malacos, soft, referring to its “soft, gelatinous consistency” in life; glanis, sheatfish (Silurus glanis), now used as a general term for catfish

Malacoglanis gelatinosus Myers & Weitzman 1966    referring to its soft, gelatinous consistency and pale, translucent, reddish brown color, which the senior author has not seen in any other living fish except possibly for certain gelatinous, translucent, cyclopterid Liparinae

Microcambeva Costa & Bockmann 1994    micro-, small, referring to size of M. barbata (up to 2.6 cm SL); cambeva, a Tupí-Guaraní word that means flattened head, referring to dorsally flattened head

Microcambeva barbata Costa & Bockmann 1994    barbeled, referring to pair of barbel-like structures on ventral surface of head, a condition then recorded only from Malacoglanis gelatinosus and one specimen of Stenoclimus sarmientoi           

Microcambeva draco Mattos & Lima 2010    dragon, referring to dragon-like “aspect” of its head

Microcambeva ribeirae Costa, Lima & Bizerril 2004    of Rio Ribeira do Iguape basin, southeastern Brazil, type locality

Sarcoglanis Myers & Weitzman 1966    sarco-, flesh, referring to soft, fleshy appearance; glanis, sheatfish (Silurus glanis), now used as a general term for catfish

Sarcoglanis simplex Myers & Weitzman 1966    simple, referring to reduced fin rays and apparent lack of interopercular spines

Stauroglanis de Pinna 1989    stauros, cross, referring to crucifix shape of single ossified basibranchial element; glanis, sheatfish (Silurus glanis), now used as a general term for catfish

Stauroglanis gouldingi de Pinna 1989    in honor of conservation ecologist Michael Goulding, who collected type, for his contributions to the knowledge of Amazonian fishes

Stenolicmus de Pinna & Starnes 1990    stenos, narrow; likmos, winnowing fan, referring to pectoral fins, narrower and with fewer rays than any other member of the subfamily

Stenolicmus ix Wosiacki, Coutinho & de Assis Montag 2011    Ix, Mayan word for jaguar, referring to color pattern of grouped patches scattered from flanks to dorsum, unique among congeners and similar to the jaguar

Stenolicmus sarmientoi de Pinna & Starnes 1990    in honor of Jaime Sarmiento, Museo Nacional de Historia Natural (Le Paz), for collecting and investigating Bolivian fishes

Family NEMATOGENYIDAE Mountain Catfishes
1 extant species

Nematogenys Girard 1855    nemato-, thread; genys, lower jaw, referring to long maxillary barbels, absent in Trichomycterus (original genus of N. inermis)

Nematogenys inermis (Guichenot 1848)    unarmed, referring to absence of opercular spines, which distinguished it from presumed congeners in Trichomycterus at time of description