v. 8.0 – 25 Dec. 2016  view/download PDF

Family PSILORHYNCHIDAE Mountain Carps
1 genus · 29 species

Psilorhynchus McClelland 1838    psilo-, thin or attenuated; rhynchus, snout, referring to elongated snout

Psilorhynchus amplicephalus Arunachalam, Muralidharan & Sivakumar 2007    amplus, wide or broad; cephalus, head, referring to “relatively broad head”

Psilorhynchus arunachalensis (Nebeshwar, Bagra & Das 2007)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Arunchal Pradesh, India, type locality

Psilorhynchus balitora (Hamilton 1822)    local Gangetic word meaning “sand-digger,” referring to its living among stones in rapid mountain streams, or in rivers with pure sandy bottoms, usually close to the bottom

Psilorhynchus brachyrhynchus Conway & Britz 2010    brachys, short; rhynchos, snout, referring to short snout

Psilorhynchus breviminor Conway & Mayden 2008    brevis, short; minor, small, referring to short, stout appearance

Psilorhynchus chakpiensis Shangningam & Visgwanath 2013    ensis, suffix denoting place: Chakpi River, Chindwin basin, Manipur, India, type locality

Psilorhynchus gokkyi Conway & Britz 2010    named after Gokkyi, a small village above type locality (Ayeyarwaddy River drainage, Myanmar), honoring hospitality and help extended to second author during November 2009 collection trip

Psilorhynchus gracilis Rainboth 1983    slender, referring to its shape, which immediately distinguishes it from P. balitora

Psilorhynchus hamiltoni Conway, Dittmer, Jezisek & Ng 2013    in honor of the “exceptional Scottish naturalist Francis Hamilton [or Buchanan-Hamilton] (1762-1829), a pioneer of Indian ichthyology, who spent more than 17 years surveying the freshwater fish fauna of large areas of the Indian subcontinent,” and who described two psilorhynchids in 1822

Psilorhynchus homaloptera Hora & Mukerji 1935    referring to superficial resemblance (“depressed and flattened body, general facies and build”) to hillstream loaches (Homaloptera, Balitoridae)

Psilorhynchus kaladanensis Lalramliana, Lalnuntluanga & Lalronunga 2015    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Kaladan River basin, Mizoram, India, only known area of occurrence

Psilorhynchus khopai Lalramliana, Solo, Lalronunga & Lalnuntluanga 2014    named after Khopai, a small village near Tuisi River, Mizoram, India, type locality

Psilorhynchus konemi Shangningam & Vishwanath 2016    in memory of B. D. Konem Anal, the first author’s father, who always supported his son’s research

Psilorhynchus maculatus Shangningam & Vishwanath 2013    spotted, referring to black blotches on body and caudal fin

Psilorhynchus melissa Conway & Kottelat 2010    classical Greek name of the honey bee, referring to black-and-yellow color pattern of live individuals

Psilorhynchus microphthalmus Vishwanath & Manojkumar 1995    micro-, small; ophthalmus, eye, referring to small eye diameter compared to congeners

Psilorhynchus nepalensis Conway & Mayden 2008    ensis, suffix denoting place: Nepal, where it is endemic

Psilorhynchus ngathanu Shangningam & Visgwanath 2013    local name (Anal dialect) for this species in Manipur, India

Psilorhynchus nudithoracicus Tilak & Husain 1980    nudus, bare; thoracicus, breast, referring to scaleless mid-ventral region

Psilorhynchus olliei Conway & Britz 2015    in honor of friend and colleague Oliver (Ollie) Crimmen, fish curator, Natural History Museum (London), for his “invaluable help and great company during a number of recent field trips to Myanmar”

Psilorhynchus pavimentatus Conway & Kottelat 2010    a floor of stones, referring to “paved” color pattern, with 6-7 indistinct round-to-squarish dark blotches, arranged in a longitudinal row

Psilorhynchus piperatus Conway & Britz 2010     peppered, referring to speckling on caudal fin

Psilorhynchus pseudecheneis Menon & Datta 1964    pseudo-, false; echeneis, Greek for a sucking fish (e.g., sharksuckers or remoras, Echeneis), presumably referring to how it (and all congeners) use their specialized pectoral fins, instead of a suctorial mouth, to adhere to rocks in rapid waters

Psilorhynchus rahmani Conway & Mayden 2008    in honor of A. K. Ataur Rahman, Department of Fisheries (Matshya Bhaban, Dhaka), for his contribution to the knowledge of the fishes of Bangladesh

Psilorhynchus robustus Conway & Kottelat 2007    strong or robust, referring to overall robust appearance

Psilorhynchus rowleyi Hora & Misra 1941    in honor of Maj. Guy Rowley, a shikari (big game hunter), member of expedition that collected type

Psilorhynchus sucatio (Hamilton 1822)    latinization of sukati, local Gangetic name for this species

Psilorhynchus tenura Arunachalam & Muralidharan 2008    tenuis, thin; oura, tail, referring to slender peduncle region

Psilorhynchus tysoni Conway & Pinion 2016    in honor of ichthyologist Tyson R. Roberts (b. 1940), who collected most of the type specimens and made them available for study


Gyrinocheilus Vaillant 1902    gyrinus, latinization of gyrinos, tadpole; cheilus, lip, having the “somewhat triangular appearance of the mouth of the tadpole” (translation)

Gyrinocheilus aymonieri (Tirant 1883)    in honor of linguist, archaeologist and explorer Étienne François Aymonier (1844-1929), who, while serving as a representative for the French protectorate of Cambodia, collected or helped secure type

Gyrinocheilus pennocki (Fowler 1937)    in honor of the late Charles J. Pennock (1857-1935), Kennett Square, Pennsylvania, USA, an ornithologist to whom Fowler was indebted for various North American fishes

Gyrinocheilus pustulosus Vaillant 1902    full of blisters, referring to numerous papillae on lip

14 genera/subgenera · 95 species/subspecies


Myxocyprinus Gill 1878    myxo-, suck; latinization of Greek kyprinos, carp, referring to resemblance to Carpiodes cyprinus

Myxocyprinus asiaticus (Bleeker 1864)    Asian, referring to distribution in eastern Asian, i.e., China


Cycleptus Rafinesque 1819    cycle, round; leptos, small, referring to small, round mouth

Cycleptus elongatus (Lesueur 1817)    elongate, referring to “very long” subcylindrical body

Cycleptus meridionalis Burr & Mayden 1999    southern, referring to southern distribution (Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, USA) compared to C. elongatus


Carpiodes Rafinesque 1820    oides, having the form of: carp, Cyprinus carpio

Carpiodes carpio (Rafinesque 1820)    from the Old French carpe, carp, referring to resemblance to Cyprinus carpio

Carpiodes cyprinus cyprinus (Lesueur 1817)    latinization of Greek kyprinos, carp, referring to resemblance to Cyprinus carpio

Carpiodes cyprinus hinei Trautman 1956    in honor of James Stewart Hine (1866-1930), Curator of the Division of Natural History of the Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Museum. who collected with Trautman and urged him to write his book Fishes of Ohio (1957, rev. 1982)

Carpiodes velifer (Rafinesque 1820)    velum, sail; fero, to bear, referring to tall dorsal fin

Ictiobus Rafinesque 1820    ichthyo, fish; bous, ox or cow, referring to humpbacked nape

Ictiobus bubalus (Rafinesque 1818)    Greek for buffalo, referring to humpbacked nape

Ictiobus cyprinellus (Valenciennes 1844)    diminutive of cyprinus, carp, referring to resemblance to Cyprinus carpio

Ictiobus labiosus (Meek 1904)    large-lipped, referring to thick papillose lips

Ictiobus meridionalis (Günther 1868)    southern, referring to Central American distribution

Ictiobus niger (Rafinesque 1819)    black, referring to blackish fins


Catostomus Lesueur 1817    tautonymous with Cyprinus catostomus

Subgenus Catostomus                    

Catostomus ardens Jordan & Gilbert 1881    burning, referring to “narrow, bright, rosy” lateral band on large adult males

Catostomus bernardini Girard 1856    of Rio de San Bernardino, Sonora, México, type locality

Catostomus cahita Siebert & Minckley 1986    Uto-Aztecan language spoken by Amerinds inhabiting Río Papigóchic region of Chihuahua and Sonora, México, where this sucker occurs

Catostomus catostomus catostomus (Forster 1773)    cato-, inferior; stoma, mouth, referring to its ventral position compared to terminal mouth of Cyprinus carpio

Catostomus catostomus griseus Girard 1856    gray, referring to greyish “upper regions”

Catostomus catostomus lacustris Bajkov 1927    lacustrine (belonging to a lake), referring to distribution in Annette, Patricia, Beauvert and Pyramid lakes of Jasper National Park, Alberta, Canada

Catostomus catostomus nanomyzon Mather 1886    nanus, small, referring to small size (11.4 cm) compared to other Catostomus of the Adirondacks, New York, USA; myzon, sucker

Catostomus catostomus pocatello Gilbert & Evermann 1894    named for Pocatello, Idaho, USA, just north Ross Fork of Snake River, type locality

Catostomus catostomus rostratus Tilesius 1813    beaked, referring to pointed snout (exhibited on all subspecies)

Catostomus commersonii (Lacepède 1803)    in honor of French naturalist Philibert Commerçon (also spelled Commerson, 1727-1773), whose collections were studied by Lacepède

Catostomus fumeiventris Miller 1973    fumeus, smoky; venter, belly, referring to dusky-colored abdomen

Catostomus insignis Baird & Girard 1854    marked, referring to spots formed by melanophores at junctures of scales

Catostomus latipinnis Baird & Girard 1853    latus, broad; pinnis, fin, referring to excessively developed fins, especially in old males

Catostomus leopoldi Siebert & Minckley 1986    in honor of ecologist, environmentalist and author Aldo Leopold (1887-1948), whose “Song of the Galivan” was based in part on his experiences at type locality (Arroyo Moctezuma, Chihuahua, México)

Catostomus macrocheilus Girard 1856    macro-, long; cheilus, lip, referring to its very large lips

Catostomus microps Rutter 1908    micro-, small; ops, eye, referring to smaller eye compared to the related C. occidentalis and C. snyderi

Catostomus occidentalis occidentalis Ayres 1854    western, referring to distribution in California, USA, where it is endemic

Catostomus occidentalis humboldtianus Snyder 1913    anus, belonging to: Humboldt County, California, USA, where it is endemic

Catostomus occidentalis lacusanserinus Fowler 1913    lacus, lake; anserinus, of geese, referring to Goose Lake watershed, California and Oregon, USA, where it is endemic

Catostomus occidentalis mniotiltus Snyder 1913    mnion, moss; tiltos, plucker, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to its feeding habits since it “thriv[es] especially well in deep, turbid pools where algae and diatoms are abundant”

Catostomus rimiculus Gilbert & Snyder 1898    diminutive of rima, fissure, i.e., a small fissure, referring to shallow cleft of lower lip

Catostomus snyderi Gilbert 1898    in honor of ichthyologist John Otterbein Snyder (1867-1943), Gilbert’s frequent collaborator, who first noticed this species was unnamed

Catostomus tahoensis Gill & Jordan 1878    ensis, suffix denoting place: Lake Tahoe, Nevada-California, USA, type locality (also occurs in Oregon)

Catostomus tsiltcoosensis Evermann & Meek 1898    ensis, suffix denoting place: Tsiltcoos Lake, Oregon, USA, type locality

Catostomus utawana Mather 1886    named after Utawana Lake in Blue Mountain chain (Adirondacks, New York, USA), one location where “it may probably be found”; name (pronounced oo-ta-wan’-ne) is of Onondaga origin and means “big waves” and not “sunshine” as Mather had believed

Catostomus warnerensis Snyder 1908    ensis, suffix denoting place: Warner basin, Oregon and Nevada, USA, where it is endemic

Catostomus wigginsi Herre & Brock 1936    in honor of botanist Ira L. Wiggins (1899-1987), Stanford University, who collected type and other rare Mexican fishes for the Stanford Museum

Subgenus Pantosteus Cope 1875    pantos, all; osteo, bone, probably referring to “complete union of the parietal bones, which obliterates the fontanelle so universal among the suckers”

Catostomus bondi Smith, Stewart & Carpenter 2013    in honor of the late Carl E. Bond, Oregon State University (Corvallis, Oregon, USA), for his many contributions to the science, conservation, and management of northwestern North American fishes

Catostomus clarkii clarkii Baird & Girard 1854    in honor of John H. Clark, U.S. and Mexican Boundary Survey, who collected type

Catostomus clarkii intermedius (Tanner 1942)    intermediate between C. c. clarkii and C. santaanae

Catostomus columbianus columbianus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1893)    Columbian, referring to distribution in Columbia River drainage of the Pacific Northwest, USA and British Columbia, Canada

Catostomus columbianus hubbsi Smith 1966    in honor of in honor of Carl L. Hubbs (1894-1979), for his work on western American fishes, his leadership in ichthyology, and for collecting type

Catostomus discobolus discobolus Cope 1871    diskos, disc; bolus, lump or morsel, probably referring to pendant-like upper lip

Catostomus discobolus jarrovii (Cope 1874)    in honor of surgeon-naturalist Henry C. Yarrow (1840-1929), “whose zoological explorations in various portions of the United States have been productive of many interesting results,” including helping collect type of this species (Cope latinized spelling of name since y and w are absent in classical Latin)

Catostomus jordani (Evermann 1895)    in honor of teacher and friend (and ichthyological colleague) David Starr Jordan (1851-1931), President, Stanford University

Catostomus lahontan (Rutter 1903)    referring to occurrence in Lahontan Basin, California, USA, where it is endemic [originally misspelled lahonton, corrected spelling in prevailing usage]

Catostomus nebuliferus Garman 1881    nebula, cloud; fero, carry or bear, referring to cloudy (darker) markings on body

Catostomus platyrhynchus (Cope 1874)    platy, flat; rhynchus, snout, referring to “expanded and depressed muzzle”

Catostomus plebeius Baird & Girard 1854    commonplace, referring to its (historical) abundance

Catostomus santaanae (Snyder 1908)    of the Santa Ana River, California, USA, type locality

Catostomus virescens (Cope 1875)    viridis, green; –escens, becoming, referring to olivaceous color in spirits, “decidedly green on the head”

Chasmistes Jordan 1878    chasmatos, yawning hole; –istes, adjectival suffix, i.e., one who yawns, referring to large, oblique mouth

Chasmistes brevirostris Cope 1879    brevis, short; rostrum, snout, referring to shorter snout compared to Chasmistes (=Deltistes) luxatus

Chasmistes cujus Cope 1883    latinization of couia, Pahute name for this fish

Chasmistes liorus liorus Jordan 1878    leios, smooth; ora, margin, referring to lack of papillae on lips

Chasmistes liorus mictus Miller & Smith 1981    miktos, mixed, believed to be a hybrid between C. liorus and Catostomus ardens (a belief that has been challenged)

Chasmistes muriei Miller & Smith 1981    in honor of wildlife biologist Olaus J. Murie (1889-1963), who collected only known specimen in 1927

Deltistes Seale 1896    delta, referring to gill rakers, which are shaped like the Greek letter (∆); –ister, diminutive suffix meaning resemblance, i.e., delta-like

Deltistes luxatus (Cope 1879)    dislocated or put out of joint, presumably referring to spines of premaxillary bones, which form a hump on top of snout, giving the appearance of a dislocated nose

Erimyzon Jordan 1876    eri-, very; myzon, sucker, a “free translation” of the vernacular name chubsucker

Erimyzon claviformis (Girard 1856)    clavis, bar; forma, shape, probably referring to distinct vertical bars seen on younger specimens

Erimyzon oblongus (Mitchill 1814)    oblong, referring to more elongate shape compared to E. sucetta

Erimyzon sucetta sucetta (Lacepède 1803)    latinization of the French sucet, meaning sucker

Erimyzon sucetta kennerlii (Girard 1856)    in honor of surgeon-naturalist Caleb B. Kennerly, who collected type

Erimyzon tenuis (Agassiz 1855)    slender, compared to the chubby E. oblongus

Hypentelium Rafinesque 1818    hypo-, below; pente, five, referring to “lower jaw shorter with five lobes” (a character that does not fit the genus)

Hypentelium etowanum (Jordan 1877)    anum, adjectival suffix: referring to of Etowah River, Georgia, USA, type locality

Hypentelium nigricans (Lesueur 1817)    blackish, probably referring to dark saddles

Hypentelium roanokense Raney & Lachner 1947    ensis, suffix denoting place: Roanoke River drainage, Virginia and North Carolina, USA, where it is endemic

Minytrema Jordan 1878    mini-, reduced; trema, aperture, referring to incomplete lateral line

Minytrema melanops (Rafinesque 1820)    melanos, black; ops, appearance, referring to spots on lateral scales

Moxostoma Rafinesque 1820    moxo, probably a variant spelling of myzo, to suck; stoma, mouth, referring to “fleshy, thick, or lobed sucking lips”

Moxostoma albidum (Girard 1856)    whitish, referring to greyish white coloration above and greyish silver coloration below

Moxostoma anisurum (Rafinesque 1820)    anisos, unequal; oura, tail, referring to upper lobe of tail being narrower and longer than lower (which it is not)

Moxostoma ariommum Robins & Raney 1956    ari-, a strengthening prefix; omma, eye, referring to its large eyes

Moxostoma austrinum austrinum Bean 1880    southern, referring to its Mexican distribution

Moxostoma austrinum milleri Robins & Raney 1957    in honor of Robert Rush Miller (1916-2003), University of Michigan, for his contributions to Middle American ichthyology

Moxostoma breviceps (Cope 1870)    brevis, short; ceps, head, referring to small head and mouth

Moxostoma carinatum (Cope 1870)    keeled, referring to low ridges on roof of skull

Moxostoma cervinum (Cope 1868)    of deer, referring to tawny or fawn-like coloration of lateral stripe on Thoburnia rhothoeca, which Cope confused with this species

Moxostoma collapsum (Cope 1870)    flattened sidewise, referring to compressed body

Moxostoma congestum (Baird & Girard 1854)    dense or thick, probably referring to “short and contracted shape”

Moxostoma duquesnei (Lesueur 1817)    of Fort Duquesne (now Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA) on Ohio River, type locality

Moxostoma erythrurum (Rafinesque 1818)    erythros, red; oura, tail, which accurately describes color of lower fins in some adults but not the yellowish tail

Moxostoma hubbsi Legendre 1952    in honor of ichthyologist Carl L. Hubbs (1894-1979), author of a 1930 monograph on sucker classification, and who advised Legendre on sucker taxonomy

Moxostoma lacerum (Jordan & Brayton 1877)    torn, referring to cleft lower lip

Moxostoma lachneri Robins & Raney 1956    in honor of Ernest A. Lachner (1916-1996), Associate Curator of Fishes, U.S. National Museum, “who has added much to the knowledge of catostomid fishes”

Moxostoma macrolepidotum (Lesueur 1817)    macro-, long; lepida, scale, probably referring to how dark scale bases make scales appear larger than they are

Moxostoma mascotae Regan 1907    of Río Mascota, type locality, Jalisco, México (also occurs in Nayarit)

Moxostoma pappillosum (Cope 1870)    referring to papillose (pimplelike) surface of lips

Moxostoma pisolabrum Trautman & Martin 1951    pisum, pea; labrum, lip, referring to bulbous knob on tip of upper lip

Moxostoma poecilurum Jordan 1877    poecilio, variegated; oura, tail, referring to black and red caudal fin

Moxostoma robustum (Cope 1870)    full-bodied, referring to large size

Moxostoma rupiscartes Jordan & Jenkins 1889    Latin transcription of vernacular name, jumprock: rupis, rock; skarthmos, jumper, inspired by Rupiscartes Swainson 1839 for a genus of blenniids (=Alticus) that “jump on rocks, like a lizard,” probably referring to the proclivity of some specimens to jump or break surface of water while spawning

Moxostoma valenciennesi Jordan 1885    in honor of Achille Valenciennes (1794-1865), who described this sucker in 1844 but used a preoccupied name (Catostomus [=Carpiodes] carpio Rafinesque 1820)

Thoburnia Jordan & Snyder 1917    ia, belonging to: Wilbur Wilson Thoburn, who described T. rhothoeca and taught bionomics at Stanford University (where Jordan was president)

Thoburnia atripinnis (Bailey 1959)    ater, black; pinna, fin, referring to dark blotch on dorsal fin

Thoburnia hamiltoni Raney & Lachner 1946    in honor of the authors’ friend and teacher William J. Hamilton, Jr. (1902-1990), Cornell University vertebrate zoologist, “whose stimulating suggestions and assistance over a period of ten years have been invaluable”

Thoburnia rhothoeca (Thoburn 1896)    rhothos; torrent; eco, home, referring to its preference for swift water

Xyrauchen Eigenmann & Kirsch 1889    xyron, razor; auchen, nape, referring to sharp dorsal keel

Xyrauchen texanus (Abbott 1860)    anus, belonging to: Texas (does not occur in Texas; Abbott apparently confused Colorado River of Arizona, USA [type locality] with the Colorado River of Texas)