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Family CARAPIDAE Pearlfishes
8 genera · 35 species


Pyramodon Smith & Radcliffe 1913    etymology not explained, perhaps pyramus, pyramid, and odon, tooth, referring to large, robust canine on head of vomer

Pyramodon lindas Markle & Olney 1990    anglicized plural of two mature women both named Linda (presumably wives) who supported the authors’ work, an allusion to the fact that holotype and paratype are both mature females

Pyramodon parini Markle & Olney 1990    in honor of Nikolai Vasil’evich Parin (1932-2012), Russian Academy of Sciences, who independently recognized the distinctiveness of this species during his studies of the Nazca and Sala y Gomez Ridge fauna, for his many contributions to oceanic ichthyology

Pyramodon punctatus (Regan 1914)    spotted, its olivaceous body “powdered with little dark spots”

Pyramodon ventralis Smith & Radcliffe 1913    ventral, distinguished from Snyderidia by the presence of ventral-fin filaments

Snyderidia Gilbert 1905    ia, belonging to: ichthyologist John Otterbein Snyder (1867-1943), who “ably assisted” Gilbert on the Hawaiian cruise during which type was collected

Snyderidia canina Gilbert 1905    referring to a pair of long, curved canines on upper jaw that close outside the mouth

Subfamily CARAPINAE Fierasfers

Carapus Rafinesque 1810    latinization of carapo, local Brazilian name for knifefishes (Gymnotiformes), reflecting Rafinesque’s belief that two groups of fishes, based on a superficial resemblance, are related

Carapus acus (Brünnich 1768)    needle, referring to its elongate, acute body

Carapus bermudensis (Jones 1874)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Bermuda, type locality (but widely distributed in western Atlantic from North Carolina south to Brazil, Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico)

Carapus dubius (Putnam 1874)    doubtful, presumably referring to Putnam’s concern that if morphological variability exhibited within this species is shared by other species in the genus, then some of them “may prove to be unworthy of specific rank”

Carapus mourlani (Petit 1934)    in honor of filmmaker Roger Mourlan, Petit’s “young companion” (translation) on expedition that collected type

Carapus sluiteri (Weber 1905)    in honor of tunicate specialist Carel Philip Sluiter (1854-1933), who discovered the only known specimen of this fish inside the body of Polycarpa aurata (variously known as the Ox Heart Ascidian, the Gold-mouth Sea Squirt or the Ink-spot Sea Squirt)

Echiodon Thompson 1837    echis, adder; odon, tooth; according to Thompson (1839), referring to two large teeth on upper jaw, “resembling serpents’ fangs”

Echiodon anchipterus Williams 1984    anchi-, near; pterus, fin, referring to position of anus near pectoral-fin base

Echiodon atopus Anderson 2005    out of place, referring to Anderson’s original expectation that the type specimen belonged to the circumglobal E. cryomargarites

Echiodon coheni Williams 1984    in honor of Daniel M. Cohen, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, for his contributions to ophidiiform systematics, and for encouragement and assistance given to Williams

Echiodon cryomargarites Markle, Williams & Olney 1983    kryos, cold, referring to its Antarctic distribution; margarites, pearl, i.e., a pearlfish

Echiodon dawsoni Williams & Shipp 1982    in honor of Charles E. Dawson (1922-1993), Gulf Coast Research Laboratory (Ocean Springs, Mississippi, USA), for his many contributions to ichthyology (he also provided specimens and radiographs to the authors)

Echiodon dentatus (Cuvier 1829)    toothed, referring to two large teeth on upper jaw

Echiodon drummondii Thompson 1837    in honor of Irish physician-naturalist -botanist James Lawson Drummond (1783-1853), who discovered the type specimen dead on a beach

Echiodon exsilium Rosenblatt 1961    an exile, referring to its geographic isolation (Gulf of California, México) from other members of the genus known at the time (North Atlantic, Mediterranean)

Echiodon neotes Markle & Olney 1990    youth, described from what appears to be a larval specimen that is not referable to any known species of the genus

Echiodon pegasus Markle & Olney 1990    named after Pegasus Bight, Auckland Islands, New Zealand, type locality

Echiodon prionodon Parmentier 2012    prion, saw; odon, tooth, referring to serrated margin on posterior edge of fangs

Echiodon pukaki Markle & Olney 1990    named for Pukaki Rise, New Zealand, type locality

Echiodon rendahli (Whitley 1941)    in honor of Hialmar Rendahl (1891-1969), zoologist and artist, who collected larval Echiodon in the Tasman Sea, which Whitley used in his description

Encheliophis Müller 1842    enchelys, ancient Greek for eel, presumably referring to eel-like shape of E. vermiculatus; ophis, snake, possibly referring to body shape and/or presumed relationship with Ophidion (Ophidiidae)

Encheliophis boraborensis (Kaup 1856)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Bora Bora Island, Society Islands (French Polynesia, South Pacific), type locality

Encheliophis chardewalli Parmentier 2004    a combination of the surnames of Michel Chardon and Pierre Vandewalle, both of the University of Liège (Belgium), for their “scientific accomplishments” in ichthyology

Encheliophis gracilis (Bleeker 1856)    slender, referring to its very compressed and elongate body

Encheliophis homei (Richardson 1846)    in honor of surgeon-naturalist Everard Home (1756-1832), for his “zeal” in collecting “objects of Natural History” along the coasts of China and Australia (possibly including type of this species)

Encheliophis sagamianus (Tanaka 1908)    anus, belonging to: Sagami Bay, Japan, type locality

Encheliophis vermicularis Müller 1842    worm-like, presumably referring to its body shape

Encheliophis vermiops Markle & Olney 1990    vermis, worm; ops, face, referring to “general appearance” of the head

Eurypleuron Markle & Olney 1990    eurys, wide; pleuron, rib, referring to expanded, plate-like parapophyses on thoracic vertebrae, a sexually dimorphic character of males of this genus

Eurypleuron owasianum (Matsubara 1953)    anus, belonging to: off the coast of Owase (also spelled Owasi), Mie Prefecture, Japan, type locality

Onuxodon Smith 1955    onyx, talon; odon, referring to recurved, sharp fangs of O. parvibrachium, “exactly resembling the sheathed claws of a cat”

Onuxodon fowleri (Smith 1955)    in honor of Henry Weed Fowler (1878-1965), Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, who misidentified this species as Jordanicus caninus (=Carapus dubius) in 1927

Onuxodon margaritiferae (Rendahl 1921)    of margarita, pearl; fero, to bear, referring to its being found in the mantle of a large pearl-bearing mussel

Onuxodon parvibrachium (Fowler 1927)    parvus, small; brachium, arm, referring to its short pectoral fins

Subfamily TETRAGONDACNINAE Square-mouthed Pearlfishes                        

Tetragondacnus Anderson & Satria 2007    tetragonos, square; dakno, to bite, referring to squarish shape of open mouth

Tetragondacnus spilotus Anderson & Satria 2007    spotted or stained, referring to large dark blotches on body

Family OPHIDIIDAE Cusk-eels
50 genera · 264 species

Subfamily BROTULINAE Bearded Cusk-eels

Brotula Cuvier 1829    brótula, Spanish name for B. barbata

Brotula barbata (Bloch & Schneider 1801)    bearded, referring to six barbels on snout and six on chin

Brotula clarkae Hubbs 1944    in honor of Frances N. Clark (1894-1987), “accomplished” fisheries researcher of the California State Fisheries Laboratory, who provided type specimens

Brotula flaviviridis Greenfield 2005    flavus, golden yellow; viridis, green, referring to its yellow-green color

Brotula multibarbata Temminck & Schlegel 1846    multi-, many; barbata, bearded, presumably referring to its having more barbels (six on snout, six on chin) compared to presumed Japanese congeners known at the time

Brotula ordwayi Hildebrand & Barton 1949    in honor of Samuel H. Ordway, Jr., (1900-1971), lawyer, conservationist and the “judicious trustee” of the New York Zoological Society

Brotula phenax Prokofiev 2007    imposter, referring to close similarity with B. multibarbata

Brotula townsendi Fowler 1900    in honor of the “celebrated naturalist and traveler” John Kirk Townsend (1809-1851), who collected type in 1834

Subfamily BROTULOTAENIINAE Prickle Cusk-eels 

Brotulotaenia Parr 1933    taenia, band or ribbon, referring to “strong compressed, ribbon-like” body of B. nigra; brotula, then placed in the family Brotulidae

Brotulotaenia brevicauda Cohen 1974    brevis, short; cauda, tail, allusion not explained nor evident, perhaps referring to how body tapers more quickly to the tail than in B. crassa and B. nigra

Brotulotaenia crassa Parr 1934    thick, fat or stout, referring to deeper body compared to B. nigra

Brotulotaenia nielseni Cohen 1974    in honor of Jørgen G. Nielsen (b. 1932), Zoological Museum of Copenhagen, for his contributions to the knowledge of ophidioid fishes

Brotulotaenia nigra Parr 1933    black, referring to “deep black” exterior, interior lining of mouth and gill cavity, peritoneum, and outer mesenteries

Subfamily OPHIDIINAE      

Cherublemma Trotter 1926    cherub, etymology not explained, perhaps referring to cherub-like profile of head (Trotter compared it to a “pug-dog’s”); lemma, according to Trotter, “a subject for discussion or doubt,” allusion not explained nor evident

Cherublemma emmelas (Gilbert 1890)    em-, within; melas, black, referring to jet-black roof of mouth, gill cavity lining and peritoneum

Chilara Jordan & Evermann 1896    modern Greek name of the species of Ophidion and Rissola (now a synonym of Ophidion)

Chilara taylori (Girard 1858)    in honor of A. S. Taylor, who collected type, probably Alexander Smith Taylor (1817-1876), a collector, author and historian of California and other western U.S. topics

Genypterus Philippi 1857   genys, chin; pterus, fin, referring to anterior position of ventral fins, inserted at chin or throat

Genypterus blacodes (Forster 1801)    blaco-, dull; –odes, having the form of, i.e., sluggish, “very voracious, but torpid and lazy, resting on the rocky bottom of the sea” (translation)

Genypterus brasiliensis Regan 1903    ensis, suffix denoting place: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, type locality

Genypterus capensis (Smith 1847)    ensis, suffix denoting place: the Cape Colony, referring to type locality at what is now South Africa

Genypterus chilensis (Guichenot 1848)    ensis, suffix denoting place: off the coast of Chile at Copiapó, type locality

Genypterus maculatus (Tschudi 1846)    spotted, referring to more or less contiguous light spots on sides [objectively invalid, preoccupied by Ophidium maculatum Rafinesque 1810; treated as valid while a petition is pending]

Genypterus tigerinus Klunzinger 1872    tiger-like, presumably referring to its color pattern, brown, mottled with black flecks

Lepophidium Gill 1895    related to Ophidion (often and incorrectly spelled Ophidium) but with lepis, scales, on head

Lepophidium aporrhox Robins 1961    Greek for broken off, referring to its “stocky proportions”

Lepophidium brevibarbe (Cuvier 1829)    brevis, short; barbus, barbel, referring to its shorter barbels compared to Brotula barbata and Parophidion vassali, its presumed congeners at the time

Lepophidium collettei Robins, Robins & Brown 2012    in honor of friend and longtime colleague Bruce B. Collette, Director, National Marine Fisheries Service Systematics Laboratory, who made special efforts to collect cusk-eels for the senior author and who collected most of the material of this species

Lepophidium crossotum Robins, Robins & Brown 2012    fringed, referring to its fringed snout

Lepophidium cultratum Robins, Robins & Brown 2012    knife-shaped, referring to its overall body shape (which isn’t much different from most other Lepophidium, Robert H. Robins, pers. comm.)

Lepophidium entomelan Robins, Robins & Brown 2012    entos, within; melan, black, referring to very dark orobranchial region and gut

Lepophidium gilmorei Robins, Robins & Brown 2012    in honor of fish ecologist R. Grant Gilmore, for helping the first author in many ways (two specimens, including holotype, were collected from the Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution’s submersibles, dives participated in by both Gilmore and the first author)

Lepophidium hubbsi Robins & Lea 1978    in honor of Carl L. Hubbs (1894-1979), “whose second scientific paper concerned a new cuskeel from the eastern Pacific, in recognition of his many contributions to ichthyology and zoogeography”

Lepophidium inca Robins & Lea 1978    proposed as a Peruvian subspecies of L. microlepis, named for the Inca tribe of Peru

Lepophidium jeannae Fowler 1941    in honor of malacologist Jeanne Sanderson Schwengel (1889-1961), who collected type while dredging for molluscs

Lepophidium kallion Robins 1959    more beautiful, referring to its distinctive color pattern in contrast to more drab congeners known at the time

Lepophidium marmoratum (Goode & Bean 1885)    marbled, referring to olive-brown marbling on upper half of body

Lepophidium microlepis (Gilbert 1890)    micro-, small; lepis, scale, referring to much smaller scales than the closely related L. prorates

Lepophidium negropinna Hildebrand & Barton 1949    negro-, black; pinna, fin, referring to black outer edge of dorsal fin black and/or blackish caudal and anal fins

Lepophidium pardale (Gilbert 1890)    leopard, referring to small black spots on dorsal outline and a series of round spots nearly as large as eye along middle of sides

Lepophidium pheromystax Robins 1960    phero– (or fero-), to bear; mystax, mustache, referring to dark streak on each maxilla

Lepophidium profundorum (Gill 1863)    of the depths, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to capture of type specimen at 54.86 m (not particularly deep as far as deepwater fishes go)

Lepophidium prorates (Jordan & Bollman 1890)    prow-bearing, referring to strong spine on tip of snout

Lepophidium robustum Robins, Robins & Brown 2012    robust, referring to its stout body

Lepophidium staurophor Robins 1959    stauros, cross; phoros, bearer, referring to cross-like marking on dorsum

Lepophidium stigmatistium (Gilbert 1890)    stigmatus, marked; histion, sail, referring to large black blotch on anterior rays of dorsal fin

Lepophidium wileyi Robins, Robins & Brown 2012    in honor of ichthyologist Edward O. Wiley (b. 1944), who welcomed the first author into the Kansas University Natural History Museum’s Ichthyology Division following his retirement from academe

Lepophidium zophochir Robins, Robins & Brown 2012    zophos, darkness; cheir, hand, referring to blackish pectoral fin

Ophidion Linnaeus 1758    an ancient name meaning small snake, presumably referring to snake- or eel-like shape of O. barbatum

Ophidion antipholus Lea & Robins 2003    from William Shakespeare’s The Comedy of Errors, alluding to the brothers Antipholus, whose identities were confused throughout the play, referring to how this species had been widely and incorrectly reported as O. beani, a junior synonym of O. holbrooki (see also O. dromio and O. puck)

Ophidion asiro (Jordan & Fowler 1902)    vernacular name for this species in Japan

Ophidion barbatum Linnaeus 1758    bearded, referring to its four chin barbels (which are, in fact, anterior ventral fins, forked into barbel-like organs)

Ophidion dromio Lea & Robins 2003    from William Shakespeare’s The Comedy of Errors, alluding to the brothers Dromio, whose identities were confused throughout the play, referring to how this species had been widely and incorrectly reported as O. beani, a junior synonym of O. holbrooki (see also O. antipholus and O. puck)

Ophidion exul Robins 1991    exile, referring to its isolated geographic position (Easter Island and Marquesas Islands)

Ophidion fulvum (Hildebrand & Barton 1949)    brown, referring to its “uniform brown” color

Ophidion galeoides (Gilbert 1890)    oides, having the form of: galeus, Greek for weasel, an ancient name for sharks perhaps alluding to what some may have perceived as a weasel-like body or pointed snout, allusion not explained nor evident

Ophidion genyopus (Ogilby 1897)    genys, chin; pous, foot, i.e., ventral or pelvic fin, referring to their insertion below anterior third of orbit

Ophidion grayi (Fowler 1948)    in honor of Capt. W. B. Gray (Marineland, Florida, USA), who collected type and sent it to Fowler

Ophidion guianense Lea & Robins 2003    ensis, suffix denoting place: Guiana, the presumed center of its distribution

Ophidion holbrookii Putnam 1874    in memory of the late John E. Holbrook (1796-1871), physician and naturalist, “to whom science is deeply indebted for the results of his labors on the reptiles of North America and on the fishes of our southern waters, and one whose memory is deeply cherished by those who were honored with his friendship” [although holbrookii is correct, prevailing usage may permit the continued use of holbrooki as the correct original spelling]

Ophidion imitator Lea 1997    from imitor, to imitate, emulate, mimic or resemble, referring to its “striking resemblance” to Lepophidium pardale and, to a lesser degree, Otophidium indefatigabile

Ophidion iris Breder 1936    named for its “unusual” iris, in which upper but not lower part is black

Ophidion josephi Girard 1858    of St. Joseph Island, Texas, USA, type locality

Ophidion lagochila (Böhlke & Robins 1959)    lagos, hare; cheilos, lip, i.e., harelip, referring to “dissected character” of snout tip and preorbital margin

Ophidion lozanoi Matallanas 1990    in honor of Luis Lozano Rey (1878-1958), University of Madrid, a “pioneer” in modern Spanish ichthyology

Ophidion marginatum DeKay 1842    margined, referring to dorsal and anal fins edged with black

Ophidion metoecus Robins 1991    Greek for sojourner or settler, presumably referring to its being known only from Isla Robinson Crusoe (=Mas a Tierra) in the Juan Fernandez Islands and Isla San Felix in the eastern Pacific off Chile

Ophidion muraenolepis Günther 1880    muraena, Latin for moray eel but used here as term for eels in general; lepis, scale, referring to extremely small scales, “not imbricate, elongate, and obliquely arranged as in an eel”

Ophidion nocomis Robins & Böhlke 1959    Native American word meaning “daughter of the moon,” referring to pallid coloration [Nookomis is the name of a grandmother in traditional stories among the indigenous Ojibwe people of North America and was made famous in Longfellow’s 1855 epic poem “The Song of Hiawatha,” in which a major female character named Nokomis falls from the moon]

Ophidion puck Lea & Robins 2003    Puck, a “tricky fairy” in the service of King Oberon in William Shakespeare’s A Midsummers Night’s Dream, one of three Shakespearean names coined in the same paper (see O. antipholus and O. dromio), indicating that these species are “part of a larger story”

Ophidion robinsi Fahay 1992    in honor of C. Richard Robins (b. 1928), University of Miami, for his many contributions to ophidiid taxonomy and his assistance “unraveling the mystery” of this species and its larvae

Ophidion rochei Müller 1845    in honor of François-Etienne Delaroche (1780-1813), Swiss physician-naturalist, who wrote about the swim-bladder anatomy of O. barbatum in 1809

Ophidion saldanhai Matallanas & Brito 1999    in honor of Portuguese ichthyologist Luiz Saldanha (1937-1997), for his “notable” scientific contributions to the knowledge of the fishes of the Eastern Atlantic

Ophidion scrippsae (Hubbs 1916)    in honor of journalist and philanthropist Ellen B. Scripps (1836-1932), “whose generous gifts to the Scripps Institution have been a great help in the study of the zoology of Southern California”

Ophidion selenops Robins & Böhlke 1959    selene, moon; ops, eye, referring to its large, silver-colored eyes

Ophidion smithi (Fowler 1934)    in honor of Andrew Smith (1797-1872), Scottish military physician, explorer, ethnologist and zoologist, author of “Zoology of South Africa” (1838-1850) and the first to describe an ophidiid from the Cape (Genypterus capensis in 1847)

Otophidium Gill 1885    oto-, ear, i.e., differing from Ophidium (alternate but incorrect spelling of Ophidion) in the presence of a sharp, concealed spine on opercle

Otophidium chickcharney Böhlke & Robins 1959    chickcharnies, legendary ghosts of the Bahamas (where it is endemic), referring to pallid coloration and appearance of its large eyes when viewed from above

Otophidium dormitator Böhlke & Robins 1959    sleeper; this name “is employed since this species was not at first distinguished from O. chickcharney

Otophidium indefatigabile Jordan & Bollman 1890    named for Indefatigable (now Santa Cruz) Island, Galápagos Islands, type locality

Otophidium omostigma (Jordan & Gilbert 1882)    omos, shoulder; stigma, mark, referring to intensely black, round blotch on scapular region, larger than pupil

Parophidion Tortonese 1954    para-, near, referring to similarity to and previous placement of P. vassali in Ophidion

Parophidion schmidti (Woods & Kanazawa 1951)    in honor of herpetologist Karl P. Schmidt (1890-1957), Chief Curator, Department of Zoology, Chicago Natural History Museum, “who took especial interest” in the plans for the [Bermuda] expedition that collected this species

Parophidion vassali (Risso 1810)    in honor of physicist Antonio Vassalli Eandi (1761-1825, also known as Anton Vassali Eandi), University of Turin, as a token of Risso’s esteem [Risso spelled the fish’s name with one “l” but in his dedication spelled Vassalli’s name with two; Risso often dropped the patronymic “i” (e.g., Notacanthus bonaparte), making the name a noun in apposition]

Raneya Robins 1961    in honor of Edward C. Raney (1909-1984), Cornell University, who introduced Robins to ichthyology

Raneya brasiliensis (Kaup 1856)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Brazil (southwestern Atlantic), type locality

Subfamily NEOBYTHITINAE          

Abyssobrotula Nielsen 1977    abyss, the deep, at 8370 m, the deepest-living fish known at the time; brotula, then placed in the family Brotulidae

Abyssobrotula galatheae Nielsen 1977    in honor of the Danish research vessel Galathea, which captured type in 1952

Abyssobrotula hadropercularis Ohashi & Nielsen 2016    hadros, bulky; opercularis, gill cover, referring to its “robust” opercle, with a strong and pointed opercular spine (compared to flat and weak opercular spine in A. galatheae)

Acanthonus Günther 1878    acanthus, spine, referring to strong spines on head and opercles; onus, presumably a latinization of onos, a name dating to Aristotle, originally referring to Phycis blennoides (Gadidae) but often applied to Merluccius merluccius (Merlucciidae) and hence used several times by Günther as a suffix for a hake-like fish [also the Greek word for ass or donkey, which explains why A. armatus is sometimes called the “Bony-eared Assfish”]

Acanthonus armatus Günther 1878    armed, referring to strong spines on head and opercles

Alcockia Goode & Bean 1896    ia, belonging to: Alfred William Alcock (1859-1933), surgeon-naturalist aboard the Indian marine-survey steamer Investigator, for “so many important additions to our knowledge of the bathybial fauna of the Indian Ocean”

Alcockia rostrata (Günther 1887)    beaked, referring to depressed snout, with its central portion slightly produced, overlapping lower jaw

Apagesoma Carter 1983    apages, flaccid; soma, body, referring to its flabby body (reduced body tissue and increased water content make it a slow swimmer, presumably an adaptation to conserve energy in its food-poor deep-sea habitat)

Apagesoma australe Nielsen, King & Møller 2008    southern, referring to southerly position of type locality (Crozet Islands, southern Indian Ocean)

Apagesoma delosommatum (Hureau, Staiger & Nielsen 1979)    delos, readily seen; ommatus, eyed, referring to very small eyes, placed forward on the head, but still “readily seen”

Apagesoma edentatum Carter 1983    toothless, referring to absence of vomerine and basibranchial tooth patches

Barathrites Zugmayer 1911    an animal of barathron, the abyss, referring to deep-sea habitat of B. iris (in Greek mythology, the Barathron was a deep pit at Athens into which living and executed criminals were cast)

Barathrites iris Zugmayer 1911    rainbow, referring to its coloration: a transparent milky color with shades of violet, yellow and blue, described by Zugmayer in a follow-up description as seeming to “blend like the colors of the spectrum” (translation)

Barathrites parri Nybelin 1957    in honor of marine biologist Albert Eide Parr (1900-1991), who misidentified this species as B. iris in 1933

Barathrodemus Goode & Bean 1883    barathron, the abyss (in Greek mythology, the Barathron was a deep pit at Athens into which living and executed criminals were cast); demos, people, i.e., a dweller of the depths, referring to deep-sea habitat of B. manatinus

Barathrodemus manatinus Goode & Bean 1883    manatee-like, referring to snout, “much dilated and swollen, … in general form resembling that of a manatee”

Barathrodemus nasutus Smith & Radcliffe 1913    large-nosed, referring to its snout, “much produced and dilated, overhanging mouth”

Bassogigas Goode & Bean 1896    bassus, deep, referring to deep-sea habitat of B. gillii (collected at 2022 m); gigas, giant, presumably referring to its size, up to 85 cm

Bassogigas gillii Goode & Bean 1896    in honor of Smithsonian zoologist Theodore Gill (1837-1914), who first recognized (and named) this genus in an unpublished manuscript

Bassogigas walkeri Nielsen & Møller 2011    in honor of H. J. Walker, Jr., Collection Manager, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, for his “invaluable help over several years” and for loaning type specimen

Bassozetus Gill 1883    bassus, deep; zetetes, seeker, presumably referring to deep-sea habitat of B. normalis, collected at 2844 m

Bassozetus compressus (Günther 1878)    referring to its “strongly compressed” head, body and tail

Bassozetus elongatus Smith & Radcliffe 1913    referring to its “slenderer, more elongate body” compared to B. robustus

Bassozetus galatheae Nielsen & Merrett 2000    in honor of the Danish research vessel Galathea, which captured paratypes in 1951

Bassozetus glutinosus (Alcock 1890)    glutinous, referring to think layer of mucous under skin

Bassozetus levistomatus Machida 1989    levis, smooth; stomatus, mouthed, referring to toothless prevomerine head and absence of median basibranchial tooth patch

Bassozetus mozambiquensis Tomiyama, Takami & Fukui 2016    ensis, suffix denoting place: Mozambique Channel, western Indian Ocean, type locality

Bassozetus multispinis Shcherbachev 1980    multi-, many; spinus, spine, referring to its high gill raker count, characteristic for this species

Bassozetus nasus Garman 1899    nose, referring to “swollen” snout, “rather high and thick, with a median ridge and a prominence behind each nostril”

Bassozetus normalis Gill 1883    normal or according to rule, allusion not explained nor evident

Bassozetus oncerocephalus (Vaillant 1888)    oncero-, swollen; cephalus, head, referring to rounded, swollen head of fresh specimens, “to the point of not showing any projections of the skull” (translation)

Bassozetus robustus Smith & Radcliffe 1913    referring to its robust body anteriorly, more robust than the type of B. compressus

Bassozetus taenia (Günther 1887)    ribbon or band, allusion not explained, presumably referring to shape of body: “the whole fish, and especially the tail, is much attenuated”

Bassozetus werneri Nielsen & Merrett 2000    in honor of Werner Schwarzhan, University of Copenhagen, for his contributions to the understanding of ophidiiform otoliths

Bassozetus zenkevitchi Rass 1955    in honor of Soviet oceanographer Lev Aleksandrovich Zenkevich (1889-1970), who led the R/V Vitiaz cruise that collected type

Bathyonus Goode & Bean 1885    bathys, deep, referring to deep-sea habitat; onus, presumably latinization of onos, a name dating to Aristotle, originally referring to Phycis blennoides (Gadidae) but often applied to Merluccius merluccius (Merlucciidae) and hence often used as a suffix for a hake-like fish [replacement name for Bathynectes Günther 1878, preoccupied in Crustacea]

Bathyonus caudalis (Garman 1899)    of the tail, referring to how caudal fin extends forward, uniting with dorsal- and anal-fin bases, ¾ as long as head

Bathyonus laticeps (Günther 1878)    latus, broad; ceps, head, presumably referring to “very wide” mouth

Bathyonus pectoralis Goode & Bean 1885    referring to pectoral fins, in which the penultimate rays extend to 13th ray of anal fin, nearly twice as long as head

Benthocometes Goode & Bean 1896    benthos, the depths; cometes, inhabitant, i.e., a “dweller of the depths,” referring to its habitat, collected as deep as 732 m

Benthocometes australiensis Nielsen 2010    ensis, suffix denoting place: off Western Australia, type locality

Benthocometes robustus (Goode & Bean 1886)    robust or heavy bodied, referring to its “short and deep” body

Dannevigia Whitley 1941    ia, belonging to: Harold Christian Dannevig (1860-1914), Director of Fisheries for Australia, who collected type [he was lost at sea when his fisheries research vessel disappeared without a trace]

Dannevigia tusca Whitley 1941    latinization of its common name, Australian Tusk; Dannevig, who collected type, said it was similar to the European Tusk [Brosme brosme, Gadiformes: Lotidae] and gave it the tusk name (tusk being a variation of cusk)

Dicrolene Goode & Bean 1883    dicro-, forked; olene, forearm, presumably referring to pectoral fins of D. introniger, in which several lower rays are separate and very much produced

Dicrolene filamentosa Garman 1899    referring to ventral-fin rays, which have the “appearance of a simple filamentary ray but [are] composed of two segmented unequal rays bound together”

Dicrolene gregoryi Trotter 1926    in honor of zoologist William K. Gregory (1876-1970), Associate in Vertebrates on the Arcturus Oceanographic Expedition, during which type was collected (Trotter was Gregory’s assistant)

Dicrolene hubrechti Weber 1913    in honor of Dutch zoologist Ambrosius Hubrecht (1853-1915), who played a significant role in the formation of the Siboga Indonesian expedition (1898-1899), during which type was collected

Dicrolene introniger Goode & Bean 1883    intro, within; niger, black, allusion not explained nor evident; usually this adjective is used to connote a dark buccal or branchial cavity, but we have not yet seen an account of this species that mentions such a character

Dicrolene kanazawai Grey 1958    in honor of ichthyologist Robert H. Kanazawa, U.S. National Museum, for his help, “over a long period of time, in supplying measurements and counts of various fishes”

Dicrolene longimana Smith & Radcliffe 1913    longus, long; manus, hand, referring to lower, separate rays of pectoral fin, which are long and filamentous

Dicrolene mesogramma Shcherbachev 1980    meso-, middle; gramme, line, referring to position of lateral line along middle (mid-side) of body vs. close to dorsal surface in other species

Dicrolene multifilis (Alcock 1889)    multi-, many; filis, thread, presumably referring to 8-10 detached and long pectoral-fin rays and/or ventral-fin rays, described as “bifid filaments”

Dicrolene nigra Garman 1899    black, color of large individuals

Dicrolene nigricaudis (Alcock 1891)    nigri-, black; caudis, tail, referring to chocolate color of posterior third of tail

Dicrolene pallidus Hureau & Nielsen 1981    pale, referring to its “clear” (translation) body coloration

Dicrolene pullata Garman 1899    clothed in dark garments, referring to its uniform black coloration

Dicrolene quinquarius (Günther 1887)    consisting of five, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to five detached rays of pectoral fin, somewhat longer than the other rays

Dicrolene tristis Smith & Radcliffe 1913    sad, mournful, or dark or dull in color or tone, presumably referring to its color in alcohol: “Tawny olive; opercular region, branchiostegals, and fins dark clove brown; peritoneum dark chestnut brown”

Dicrolene vaillanti (Alcock 1890)    in honor of Léon Vaillant (1834-1914), zoologist, Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (Paris), who misidentified this species as D. introniger in 1888

Enchelybrotula Smith & Radcliffe 1913    enchelys, ancient Greek for eel, referring to anguilliform body of E. paucidens, i.e., an eel-like brotula

Enchelybrotula gomoni Cohen 1982    in honor of Martin F. Gomon, senior curator of fishes, Museum Victoria, who first identified the types as specimens of Enchelybrotula and called Cohen’s attention to them

Enchelybrotula paucidens Smith & Radcliffe 1913    paucus, few; dens, teeth, referring to teeth in single rows on jaws, vomer and palatines (compared to multiple rows of teeth on the similar Bassogigas)

Epetriodus Cohen & Nielsen 1978    epetrion, needle; odous, tooth, referring to its sharp, needle-like teeth

Epetriodus freddyi Cohen & Nielsen 1978    in honor of ichthyologist Norman Bertram “Freddy” Marshall (1915-1996), British Museum (Natural History), for his contributions to the knowledge of deep-sea fishes

Eretmichthys Garman 1899    eretmon, oar or paddle, referring to pectoral fins, “very long and rigid, forming a long oarlike sweep, the function of which may be of sexual rather than of motor importance”; ichthys, fish

Eretmichthys pinnatus Garman 1899    winged, presumably referring to its long, oar-like pectoral fins

Glyptophidium Alcock 1889    glyptos, engraved, presumably referring to head bones of G. argenteus, “soft and cavernous, with prominent outstanding crests”; Ophidium (alternate and incorrect spelling of Ophidion), type genus of family

Glyptophidium argenteum Alcock 1889    silvery, color of head and body, with “silvery grey” fins

Glyptophidium japonicum Kamohara 1936    Japanese, described from a specimen acquired at Mimase Market, Kochi, Tosa Province (now Kochi Prefecture), Japan

Glyptophidium longipes Norman 1939    longus, long; pes, foot, referring to long ventral-fin rays, at least 1½ times length of head

Glyptophidium lucidum Smith & Radcliffe 1913    bright or shining, presumably referring to “silvery glints” on body

Glyptophidium macropus Alcock 1894    macro-, long; pous, foot, presumably referring to ventral fins, each consisting of two long rays

Glyptophidium oceanium Smith & Radcliffe 1913    the sea, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to its capture from deeper water (563 m) compared to G. lucidum (421 m)

Holcomycteronus Garman 1899    holkos, furrow, grove or track, and mykter, nose, referring to sensory papillae in groove in nostrils of H. digittatus; onus, presumably latinization of onos, a name dating to Aristotle, originally referring to Phycis blennoides (Gadidae) but often applied to Merluccius merluccius (Merlucciidae) and hence often used as a suffix for a hake-like fish

Holcomycteronus aequatoris (Smith & Radcliffe 1913)    equatorial, referring to type locality, Gulf of Tomini, Sulawesi, Indonesia, just eight minutes south of Equator

Holcomycteronus brucei (Dollo 1906)    in honor of Scottish oceanographer William Speirs Bruce (1867-1921), leader of the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition (1902-1904), during which type was collected

Holcomycteronus digittatus Garman 1899    having fingers, presumably referring to pectoral-fin rays, “very flexible, with five or six of the lower rays free for about half of their length”

Holcomycteronus profundissimus (Roule 1913)    deepest, captured at 6035 m, believed to be the deepest-known ophidiiform fish at the time

Holcomycteronus pterotus (Alcock 1890)    finned, referring to long, feathery pectoral fins, which reach anal-fin origin

Holcomycteronus squamosus (Roule 1916)    scaly, referring to its more-prounounced scales compared to H. profundissimus

Homostolus Smith & Radcliffe 1913    etymology not explained, perhaps homos, same, and stolos, voyage or expedition, referring to H. acer being “found in the same general regions” as specimens of Glyptophidium sampled during the same cruise of the fisheries steamer Albatross

Homostolus acer Smith & Radcliffe 1913    sharp, presumably referring to elongate, sharply pointed and compressed head

Hoplobrotula Gill 1863    hoplon, armor, presumably referring to three preopercular spines of H. armata, i.e., an armed (or armored) brotula

Hoplobrotula armata (Temminck & Schlegel 1846)    armed with a weapon, referring to its opercular and preopercular spines

Hoplobrotula badia Machida 1990    deep brown, referring to head and body coloration

Hoplobrotula gnathopus (Regan 1921)    gnathus, jaw; pous, foot, referring to ventral fins “inserted at middle of length of lower jaw”

Hypopleuron Smith & Radcliffe 1913    hypo-, under or beneath; pleuron, rib, presumably referring to broad and inflated parapophyses, which form a large bony case nearly enclosing cavity normally occupied by air bladder

Hypopleuron caninum Smith & Radcliffe 1913    canine, referring to a canine tooth at front of each upper jaw bone

Lamprogrammus Alcock 1891    lampros, bright; gramme, line, referring to conspicuous lateral line of L. niger, with enlarged scales, each of which bears a glandular (luminous) organ

Lamprogrammus brunswigi (Brauer 1906)    patronym not identified, probably in honor of H. Brunswig, first officer aboard the research vessel Valdivia, the first German expedition to explore the deep sea, during which type was collected

Lamprogrammus exutus Nybelin & Poll 1958    bared or stripped, referring to how yellowish-white color of type specimen may actually be an artifact of its missing dark-brown scales

Lamprogrammus fragilis Alcock 1892    fragile or brittle; provisionally proposed by Alcock, who noted that it may be conspecific with L. niger, which he described as having “fragile” tissue with deciduous scales

Lamprogrammus niger Alcock 1891    black, referring to “uniform jet-black” coloration in fresh specimens

Lamprogrammus shcherbachevi Cohen & Rohr 1993    in honor of Yuri Nikolayevich Shcherbachev (Institute of Oceanology, Academy of Sciences of the USSR), colleague, shipmate and “master of deepsea ichthyology”

Leptobrotula Nielsen 1986    leptos, thin, i.e., a thin brotula, referring to its high, compressed body

Leptobrotula breviventralis Nielsen 1986    brevis, short; ventralis, ventral, referring to its short ventral fins, shorter than diameter of orbit

Leucicorus Garman 1899    leukos, white; korys, helmet, referring to white areas (mucous channels and cavities) on head of L. lusciosus

Leucicorus atlanticus Nielsen 1975    icus, belonging to: an Atlantic species of a genus heretofore known only from the Pacific

Leucicorus lusciosus Garman 1899    dim-sighted, referring to its rudimentary eyes

Luciobrotula Smith & Radcliffe 1913    lucius, pike (Esociformes: Esox), referring to “pike-like” head of L. bartschi, i.e., a “pike brotula”

Luciobrotula bartschi Smith & Radcliffe 1913    in honor of Paul Bartsch (1871-1960), assistant curator, U.S. National Museum of Natural History, Division of Mollusks, member of the Albatross Philippine expedition that collected type

Luciobrotula brasiliensis Nielsen 2009    ensis, suffix denoting place: off Bahia, Brazil, type locality

Luciobrotula coheni Nielsen 2009    in honor of Daniel M. Cohen, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, “through many years a good friend and an inspiring colleague who has written a number of excellent papers, especially dealing with the ophidiiform fishes”

Luciobrotula corethromycter Cohen 1964    korethron, broom; mykter, nose, referring to tuft at end of nose

Luciobrotula lineata (Gosline 1954)    lined, referring to linear fleshy ridges on front of snout and lower jaw

Luciobrotula nolfi Cohen 1981    in honor of ichthyopaleontologist Dirk Nolf, who called Cohen’s attention to the fact that Luciobrotula from the eastern and western Atlantic are different and who graciously provided the information on otoliths included in Cohen’s paper

Mastigopterus Smith & Radcliffe 1913    mastigos, whip; pterus, fin, referring to pectoral fins “produced into a long, whip-like organ, without detached rays”

Mastigopterus imperator Smith & Radcliffe 1913    emporer, commander, ruler or general, allusion not explained nor evident

Monomitopus Alcock 1890    mono-, one; mitos, thread; opus, foot, referring to two ventral fin-rays of M.nigripinnis, fused to form a single filament

Monomitopus agassizii (Goode & Bean 1896)    in honor of Alexander Agassiz (1835-1910), Curator, Museum of Comparative Zoology (Harvard), and director of several deep-sea expeditions, “the leading spirit in American thalassographic research”

Monomitopus americanus (Nielsen 1971)    American, referring to its distribution on the Continental Slope of eastern South America compared to that of its two presumed congeners at the time, M. vitiazi (Australia) and Selachophidium guentheri (Africa)

Monomitopus conjugator (Alcock 1896)    one who unites, presumably referring to two ventral-fin rays, “intimately fused throughout” their length

Monomitopus garmani (Smith & Radcliffe 1913)    in honor of Harvard ichthyologist-herpetologist Samuel Garman (1843-1927), for his noteworthy contributions to our knowledge of deep-sea fishes (he also proposed the genus, Monomeropus [=Monomitopus], in which this species was originally placed)

Monomitopus kumae Jordan & Hubbs 1925    in honor of fisherman Kumakichi Aoki (affectionately known as “Kuma”), who collected type

Monomitopus longiceps Smith & Radcliffe 1913    longus, long; ceps, head, referring to its “long, robust” head, 4.21 in TL

Monomitopus magnus Carter & Cohen 1985    large, reaching 535 mm SL, the largest species in the genus

Monomitopus malispinosus (Garman 1899)    mala, cheek; spinosus, spiny, presumably referring to slender spine on opercular and two short, blunt preopercular spines

Monomitopus metriostoma (Vaillant 1888)    metrio-, moderate or temperate; stoma, body, presumably referring to how posterior half of body is “sensibly attenuated” (translation), i.e., less anguilliform, than presumed congeners at the time

Monomitopus microlepis Smith & Radcliffe 1913    micro-, small; lepis, scale, referring to its smaller scales compared to M. nigripinnis

Monomitopus nigripinnis (Alcock 1889)    nigri-, black; pinnis, fin, referring to its black fins

Monomitopus pallidus Smith & Radcliffe 1913    ashen, pale or wan, presumably referring to its lighter color compared to M. nigripinnis

Monomitopus torvus Garman 1899    wild, severe or grim, allusion not explained nor evident

Monomitopus vitiazi (Nielsen 1971)    in honor of the Soviet research vessel Vitiaz (also spelled Vityaz), from which type was collected

Neobythites Goode & Bean 1885    neo-, new, a newly described genus then presumed to be allied to Bythites (Bythitidae)

Neobythites alcocki Nielsen 2002    in honor of physician-naturalist Alfred William Alcock (1859-1933), for his many contributions to the knowledge of the fishes of the Bay of Bengal

Neobythites analis Barnard 1927    pertaining to anal fin, which on this species has a “very characteristic” black margin

Neobythites andamanensis Nielsen 2002    ensis, suffix denoting place: Andaman Sea, type locality

Neobythites australiensis Nielsen 2002    ensis, suffix denoting place: northwestern Australia, where it occurs

Neobythites bimaculatus Nielsen 1997    bi-, two; maculatus, spotted, referring to two ocelli on dorsal fin

Neobythites bimarginatus Fourmanoir & Rivaton 1979    bi-, two; marginatus, bordered, referring to distal and proximal parts of dorsal and anal fins light but with the middle part black, creating the appearance of a double edge or border

Neobythites braziliensis Nielsen 1999    ensis, suffix denoting place: off the coast of Brazil, type locality

Neobythites crosnieri Nielsen 1995    in honor of carcinologist Alain Crosnier (b. 1930), Muséum national d’Histoire (Paris), who made an “excellent” collection of fishes from off Madagascar, including type of this species

Neobythites elongatus Nielsen & Retzer 1994    referring to the elongate form of its body

Neobythites fasciatus Smith & Radcliffe 1913    banded, referring to narrow, dark russet bands on body

Neobythites fijiensis Nielsen 2002    ensis, suffix denoting place: Fiji, type locality

Neobythites franzi Nielsen 2002    in honor of Norwegian/South African ichthyologist Franz Uiblein, with whom Nielsen had “many fruitful discussions on Neobythites problems”

Neobythites gilli Goode & Bean 1885    in honor of Smithsonian zoologist Theodore Gill (1837-1914), the “Nestor [wise king] of American Ichthyology” (Goode & Bean 1896)

Neobythites javaensis Nielsen 2002    ensis, suffix denoting place: off the coast of Java, type locality

Neobythites kenyaensis Nielsen 1995    ensis, suffix denoting place: off the coast of Kenya, type locality

Neobythites longipes Smith & Radcliffe 1913    longus, long; pes, foot, referring to its elongate ventral fins, their inner rays more than twice as long as head

Neobythites longispinis Nielsen 2002    longus, long; spinis, spine, referring to its long opercular and preopercular spines

Neobythites longiventralis Nielsen 1997    longus, long; ventralis, ventral, referring to long ventral-fin rays, reaching beyond origin of anal fin

Neobythites machidai Ohashi, Nielsen & Yabe 2012    in honor of Yoshihiko Machida, professor emeritus, Kochi University, for his contributions to the taxonomy of ophidiid fishes in Japan

Neobythites macrocelli Nielsen 2002    macro-, large; ocelli, eyespots, referring to two large ocelli on dorsal fin

Neobythites macrops Günther 1887    macro-, large; ops, eye, referring to its “rather large” eye

Neobythites malayanus Weber 1913    anus, belonging to: Malaya, presumably referring to its type locality in the Lesser Sunda Islands in the Malay Archipelago

Neobythites malhaensis Nielsen 1995    ensis, suffix denoting place: Saya de Malha Bank, north of Mauritius, type locality

Neobythites marginatus Goode & Bean 1886    edged, presumably referring to narrow white margin on dorsal fin

Neobythites marianaensis Nielsen 2002    ensis, suffix denoting place: Mariana Islands, type locality

Neobythites marquesaensis Nielsen 2002    ensis, suffix denoting place: Marquesas Islands, type locality

Neobythites meteori Nielsen 1995    in honor of the German research vessel Meteor, from which type was collected

Neobythites monocellatus Nielsen 1999    mono-, one; ocellatus, having little eyes, referring to single ocellus on dorsal fin

Neobythites multidigitatus Nielsen 1999    multi-, many; digitatus, fingered, referring to large number of pectoral-fin rays (32 vs. 23-30 in Atlantic congeners)

Neobythites multiocellatus Nielsen, Uiblein & Mincarone 2009    multi-, many; ocellatus, having little eyes, referring to high number of ocelli (>2) on dorsal fin

Neobythites multistriatus Nielsen & Quéro 1991    multi-, many; striatus, striped, referring to numerous transverse stripes on body

Neobythites musorstomi Nielsen 2002    in honor of the MUSORSTOM exploratory cruises to the Indo-West Pacific region jointly sponsored by the Institut français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération (ORSTOM) and the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, which procured a “very rich” collection of fishes from the West Pacific, including type of this one

Neobythites natalensis Nielsen 1995    ensis, suffix denoting place: off the coast of KwaZuku-Natal, South Africa, type locality

Neobythites neocaledoniensis Nielsen 1997    ensis, suffix denoting place, New Caledonia, type locality

Neobythites nigriventris Nielsen 2002   nigri-, black; ventris, belly, referring to black-speckled abdomen

Neobythites ocellatus Günther 1887    having little eyes, i.e., spotted, referring to “large black white-edged ocellus anteriorly on the dorsal fin, a second larger one at some distance behind, a third is but slightly indicated”

Neobythites pallidus Nielsen 1997    pale, referring to uniformly pale, light-brown body coloration

Neobythites purus Smith & Radcliffe 1913    pure, presumably referring to unspotted dorsal fin (compared to N. macrops and N. unimaculatus)

Neobythites sereti Nielsen 2002    in honor of ichthyologist Bernard Séret, Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (Paris), for making “valuable collections” available to Nielsen

Neobythites sinensis Nielsen 2002    ensis, suffix denoting place: Sinica (China), referring to type locality in the South China Sea

Neobythites sivicola (Jordan & Snyder 1901)    sivi-, presumed latinization of Shiwo from Kuro Shiwo, Black Current; colo-, to inhabit, referring to occurrence in major Pacific Ocean current that washes the southeastern shores of Asia

Neobythites soelae Nielsen 2002    in honor of the CSIRO (Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) fisheries research vessel Soela, from which a major part of the Australian Neobythites material was caught

Neobythites somaliaensis Nielsen 1995    ensis, suffix denoting place: off the coast of Somalia, type locality (also occurs off coast of Yemen)

Neobythites steatiticus Alcock 1894    icus, belonging to: steatite (soapstone), “streaked like a fish cut in soapstone” (Alcock 1902)

Neobythites stefanovi Nielsen & Uiblein 1993    in honor of the Soviet research vessel Dmitry Stefanov, from which a major part of the type material was caught

Neobythites stelliferoides Gilbert 1890    oides, having the form of: referring to its physiognomy “strikingly like that” of the drum or croaker genus Stelliferus (=Stellifer, Sciaenidae)

Neobythites stigmosus Machida 1984    marked, referring to many irregularly shaped dark spots and worm-like short bands on body, and/or dark spots on dorsal fin and distal half of anal fin

Neobythites trifilis Kotthaus 1979    tri-, three; filum, thread, referring to left ventral fin of holotype with three thread-like rays (right ventral fin of holotype and ventral fins of 69 additional specimens all have only two rays in each ventral fin)

Neobythites unicolor Nielsen & Retzer 1994    uni-, one, i.e., one-colored, referring to uniformly yellowish coloration and lack of color markings

Neobythites unimaculatus Smith & Radcliffe 1913    uni-, one; maculatus, spotted, referring to single ocellus on dorsal fin (compared to 2-3 on N. macrops)

Neobythites vityazi Nielsen 1995    in honor of the Soviet research vessel Vityaz (also spelled Vitiaz), for significant contributions to marine biology with her many valuable collections, including type of this species

Neobythites zonatus Nielsen 1997    banded, referring to dark vertical bars on body

Neobythitoides Nielsen & Machida 2006    oides, having the form of: referring to resemblance to Neobythites

Neobythitoides serratus Nielsen & Machida 2006    referring to serrated hind margin of preopercle

Penopus Goode & Bean 1896    pene, thread; opus, foot, referring to thread-like ventral fins of P. microphthalmus

Penopus japonicus Nielsen & Ohashi 2011    Japanese, referring to its type locality (Ryukyu Trench) in Japanese waters

Penopus microphthalmus (Vaillant 1888)    micro-, small; opthalmus, eye, referring to its small eyes, almost hidden under the skin

Porogadus Goode & Bean 1885    poros, pore, referring to numerous pores on head of P. miles; gadus, cod, i.e., a “Gadus-like fish, with openings in its skin (Goode & Bean 1896)

Porogadus abyssalis Nybelin 1957    of the deep sea, collected at 5250-5300 m, the deepest occurrence of any congener then known

Porogadus atripectus Garman 1899    atri-, black; pectus, chest, referring to black chest (as are snout, lower portion of head, cheeks, belly, and linings of mouth and body cavity)

Porogadus catena (Goode & Bean 1885)    chain, referring to chain-like arrangement of mucous cavities on head

Porogadus gracilis (Günther 1878)    slender, presumably referring to compressed head, body and tail, the latter produced into a long filament

Porogadus guentheri Jordan & Fowler 1902    in honor of ichthyologist-herpetologist Albert Günther (1830-1914), British Museum (Natural History)

Porogadus longiceps Garman 1899    longus, long; ceps, head, 1/6 of total length, resembling the head of the pike (Esociformes: Esox)

Porogadus melampeplus (Alcock 1896)    melano-, black; peplus, robe or tunic, presumably referring to its uniform purple-black color

Porogadus melanocephalus (Alcock 1891)    melano-, black; cephalus, head, referring to its black head (also has a black belly)

Porogadus miles Goode & Bean 1885    soldier, but here meaning “warlike” (Goode & Bean 1896), presumably referring to numerous spines on interorbital space of head

Porogadus nudus Vaillant 1888    bare or naked, scales almost entirely absent, a few visible near branchial opening

Porogadus silus Carter & Sulak 1984    pugnose, referring to depressed snout projecting slightly over mouth

Porogadus subarmatus Vaillant 1888    sub-, less than; armatus, armed, referring to less-spinous head compared to P. nudus

Porogadus trichiurus (Alcock 1890)    trichos, hair or ray; urus, tail, referring to “long lash-like” tail

Pycnocraspedum Alcock 1889    pycnos, thick and craspedum, edge or border, allusion not explained nor evident; alternate etymology: pycnos, thick; crassus, also meaning thick; pedus, foot, referring to ventral fins of P. squamipinne covered with thick scaly skin

Pycnocraspedum armatum Gosline 1954    armed, referring to spines on preopercular border

Pycnocraspedum fulvum Machida 1984    brown, referring to its brownish-yellow body color in alcohol

Pycnocraspedum microlepis (Matsubara 1943)    micro-, small; lepis, scale, described as having ~122 in a longitudinal series

Pycnocraspedum phyllosoma (Parr 1933)    phyllon, leaf; soma, body, referring to its “leaf-like appearance accentuated by the rather wide, entirely confluent vertical fins”

Pycnocraspedum squamipinne Alcock 1889    squama, scale; pinna, fin, referring to ventral fins covered with thick scaly skin

Selachophidium Gilchrist 1903    selachos, shark, allusion not explained nor evident; Ophidium, alternate and incorrect spelling of Ophidion, type genus of family

Selachophidium guentheri Gilchrist 1903    patronym not identified but almost certainly in honor of ichthyologist-herpetologist Albert Günther (1830-1914)

Sirembo Bleeker 1857    indigenous name of S. imberbis in Japan

Sirembo amaculata (Cohen & Nielsen 1982)    a-, not; maculata, spotted, referring to its lack of spots compared to Spottobrotula mahodadi, its presumed congener at the time

Sirembo imberbis (Temminck & Schlegel 1846)    beardless, referring to absence of barbels on snout (compared to Brotula multibarbata, its presumed congener, also from Japan)

Sirembo jerdoni (Day 1888)    in honor of physician-naturalist Thomas Caverhill Jerdon (1811-1872), whose illustration of this fish (instead of an actual specimen) served as the basis for its description

Sirembo metachroma Cohen & Robins 1986    meta, change; chroma, color, referring to the apparent ontogenetic change in its color pattern

Sirembo wami Nielsen, Schwarzhans & Uiblein 2014    in honor of WAM, Western Australian Museum, where holotype is curated

Spectrunculus Jordan & Thompson 1914    etymology not explained, probably diminutive of spectrum, ghost, referring to translucent, flesh-colored body of S. radcliffei (=grandis)

Spectrunculus crassus (Vaillant 1888)    thick or fat, referring to thick head and/or inflated snout

Spectrunculus grandis (Günther 1877)    large, presumably referring to its size, described at 74.93 cm TL

Spottobrotula Cohen & Nielsen 1978    spotto, from spotte, Middle English antecedent to spot, referring to dark spots on dorsal part of body and dorsal fin of S. mahodadi, i.e., a spotted brotula

Spottobrotula mahodadi Cohen & Nielsen 1978    ancient Indian name for the Bay of Bengal, referring to type locality in the Andaman Islands

Spottobrotula mossambica Nielsen, Schwarzhans & Uiblein 2014    ica, belonging to: Mozambique Channel, type locality

Spottobrotula persica Nielsen, Schwarzhans & Uiblein 2014    ica, belonging to: Persia (ancient name of Iran), specifically, the Gulf of Iran, type locality

Tauredophidium Alcock 1890    tauredon, like a bull, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to head “armed” with strong opercular spines (akin to the horns of a bull), which Alcock (1902) said “must make the animal a formidable object to attack”; Ophidium, alternate and incorrect spelling of Ophidion, type genus of family

Tauredophidium hextii Alcock 1890    according to Alcock (1902), in honor of Rear-Admiral John Hext (1842-1924), Director of the Royal Indian Marine, for his generous support of the HMS Investigator expedition to the Arabian Sea, during which type was collected

Thalassobathia Cohen 1963    ia, belong to: thalassina, of the sea; bathys, deep, referring to its bathypelagic habitat

Thalassobathia nelsoni Lee 1974    in honor of Lee’s father, Nelson B. Lee           

Thalassobathia pelagica Cohen 1963    referring to its bathypelagic habitat

Typhlonus Günther 1878    typhlos, blind, referring to its eyes, “reduced to a minute rudiment hidden below the skin”; onus, presumably a latinization of onos, a name dating to Aristotle, originally referring to Phycis blennoides (Gadidae) but often mistakenly applied to Merluccius merluccius (Merlucciidae) and hence used several times by Günther as a suffix for a hake-like fish

Typhlonus nasus Günther 1878    nose, referring to thick protuberance on snout, projecting beyond mouth

Ventichthys Nielsen, Møller & Segonzac 2006    vent, referring to its capture at the hydrothermal vent site Oasis, South East Pacific Rise, at 2586 m; ichthys, fish

Ventichthys biospeedoi Nielsen, Møller & Segonzac 2006    in honor of the French Biospeedo expedition to the South East Pacific Rise, which launched submersible that collected type

Xyelacyba Cohen 1961    xyele, a kind of dagger; kybe, head, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to opercle and preopercle, each with a strong, grooved spine projecting to or beyond posterior margin of head

Xyelacyba myersi Cohen 1961    in honor of George S. Myers (1905-1985), Stanford University, Cohen’s teacher in ichthyology