Order MYXINIFORMES (Hagfishes)

v. 6.0 – 16 Sept. 2017  view/download PDF

Family MYXINIDAE Hagfishes
6 genera • 78 species


Rubicundus Fernholm, Norén, Kullander, Quattrini, Zintzen, Roberts, Mok & Kuo 2013    reddish, emphasizing reddish coloration of all species

Rubicundus eos (Fernholm 1991)    
after Eos, goddess of morning-glow, referring to its pink color

Rubicundus lakeside (Mincarone & McCosker 2004)
in honor of the Lakeside Foundation of California, for supporting Mincarone’s work

Rubicundus lopheliae (Quattrini & Fernholm 2008)
referring to Lophelia pertusa, the deep-sea, cold-water, habitat-forming coral where type was collected and observed

Rubicundus rubicundus (Kuo, Lee & Mok 2010)
reddish, referring to pink body coloration


Eptatretus Cloquet 1819    hepta, seven; tretos, perforated, referring to seven gill apertures

Eptatretus aceroi Polanco Fernandez & Fernholm 2014    in honor of marine biologist Arturo Acero Pizarro, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, for his “curiosity about, and important contributions to, the study of Colombian marine fishes”

Eptatretus alastairi Mincarone & Fernholm 2010    in honor of Alastair Graham, collection manager at CSIRO (Australia’s Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation), for help and hospitality offered to second author

Eptatretus ancon (Mok, Saavedra-Diaz & Acero P. 2001)    referring to the research vessel B/I Ancon, from which type was captured

Eptatretus astrolabium Fernholm & Mincarone 2010    of Astrolabe Bay (Papua New Guinea), only known locality, which was named in 1827 by explorer Jules Sébastien César Dumont d’Urville after his vessel L’Astrolabe

Eptatretus atami (Dean 1904)    of Atami, west coast of Sagami Bay, Japan, type locality

Eptatretus bischoffii (Schneider 1880)    in honor of Schneider’s colleague, anatomist and biologist Theodor Ludwig Wilhelm Bischoff (1807-1882)

Eptatretus bobwisneri Fernholm, Norén, Kullander, Quattrini, Zintzen, Roberts, Mok & Kuo 2013    replacement name of E. wisneri McMillan 1999, which became a junior homonym of Paramyxine wisneri Kuo, Huang & Mok 1994 when Paramyxine was subsumed into Eptatretus; the name continues to honor Robert (“Bob”) L. Wisner (1921-2005), McMillan’s colleague at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, for “invaluable” assistance with her hagfish research and other contributions to ichthyology

Eptatretus burgeri (Girard 1855)    in honor of physicist and biologist Heinrich Bürger (ca. 1804-1858), who collected type

Eptatretus caribbeaus Fernholm 1982    Caribbean, specifically the western Caribbean, only known area of occurrence

Eptatretus carlhubbsi McMillan & Wisner 1984    a “giant hagfish” named in honor of a “giant in ichthyology,” Carl L. Hubbs (1894-1979)

Eptatretus cheni (Shen & Tao 1975)    in honor of vertebrate zoologist Jianshan (“Johnson”) T. F. Chen (1897-?), Taiwan Museum (Taipei), for “important” contributions to the taxonomy of Taiwanese fishes

Eptatretus chinensis Kuo & Mok 1994    ensis, suffix denoting place: China, specifically the South China Sea off southeastern Taiwan, type locality

Eptatretus cirrhatus (Forster 1801)    having tendrils, i.e., being a species of “lamprey” with barbels

Eptatretus cryptus Roberts & Stewart 2015    hidden or secret, referring to its similar morphology to E. cirrhatus, with which it has been confused in the past

Eptatretus deani (Evermann & Goldsborough 1907)    in honor of ichthyologist Bashford Dean (1867-1928), American Museum of Natural History, for his work on the embryology of E. stoutii

Eptatretus fernholmi (Kuo, Huang & Mok 1994)    in honor of Bo Fernholm (b. 1941), Swedish Museum of Natural History, for his  contributions to hagfish biology

Eptatretus fritzi Wisner & McMillan 1990    in honor of Frithjof (Fritz) Ohre, “friend, willing, eager, and industrious volunteer” who helped the authors collect specimens

Eptatretus goliath Mincarone & Stewart 2006    giant; at 1275 mm TL and 6.2 kg, the largest known hagfish

Eptatretus gomoni Mincarone & Fernholm 2010    in honor of Martin F. Gomon (b. 1945), senior curator of fishes, Museum of Victoria (Melbourne, Australia), for his “distinguished” contributions to ichthyology

Eptatretus grouseri McMillan 1999    in honor of McMillan’s son, David “Grouser” McMillan, a Chief Engineer in the U.S. Merchant Marine, for “continued encouragement” of Mom’s hagfish studies and for his knowledge and love of ships and the sea

Eptatretus hexatrema (Müller 1836)    hexa-, six; trema, hole, referring to six gill apertures per side

Eptatretus indrambaryai Wongratana 1983    in honor of Boon Indrambarya, “one of the senior-most pioneer fisheries biologists of Thailand”

Eptatretus laurahubbsae McMillan & Wisner 1984    in honor of Laura Clark Hubbs (1893-1988), friend and co-worker, who contributed to the life and works of her husband, Carl L. Hubbs (1894-1979)

Eptatretus longipinnis Strahan 1975    longus, long; pinnis, fin, referring to well-developed ventral fin fold extending to branchial region

Eptatretus luzonicus Fernholm, Norén, Kullander, Quattrini, Zintzen, Roberts, Mok & Kuo 2013    –icus, belonging to: Luzon Island, Philippines, where single known specimen was captured [replacement name of E. fernholmi McMillan & Wisner 2004, which became a junior homonym of Paramyxine fernholmi Kuo, Huang & Mok 1994 when Paramyxine was subsumed into Eptatretus]

Eptatretus mcconnaugheyi McMillan & Wisner 1990    in honor of Ronald R. McConnaughey, who helped develop the gear used by the authors to capture type

Eptatretus mccoskeri McMillan 1999    in honor of John E. McCosker (b. 1945), California Academy of Sciences, for collecting type and for his important contributions to marine biology

Eptatretus mendozai Hensley 1985    in honor of Luis H. Mendoza, captain of boat from which type was captured, for his “experiential knowledge and academic curiosity of the sea, without whose determination and nautical wisdom” the author would never have collected type

Eptatretus menezesi Mincarone 2000    in honor of Naércio Aquino Menezes, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, for “his extensive contribution to Brazilian ichthyology”

Eptatretus minor Fernholm & Hubbs 1981    small, referring to size of mature specimens when compared to E. springeri

Eptatretus moki (McMillan & Wisner 2004)    in honor of Hin-kiu Mok (b. 1947), National Sun Yat-Sen University, Taiwan, for his many “outstanding” contributions to hagfish knowledge

Eptatretus multidens Fernholm & Hubbs 1981    multus, many; dens, tooth, referring to high tooth count

Eptatretus nanii McMillan & Wisner 1988    in honor of Alberto Nani Caputo, for his work on Chilean hagfishes, and for providing specimens

Eptatretus nelsoni (Kuo, Huang & Mok 1994)    in honor of ichthyologist Gareth J. Nelson, for his contributions to the promotion of phylogenetic systematics

Eptatretus octatrema (Barnard 1923)    octa-, eight; trema, hole, referring to eight gill apertures per side

Eptatretus okinoseanus (Dean 1904)    anus, belonging to: Okinose, Honshu Island, Japan, type locality

Eptatretus poicilus Zintzen & Roberts 2015    mottled or varicolored, referring to its distinctive mottled color pattern

Eptatretus polytrema (Girard 1855)    poly, many; trema, hole, referring to 16 gill apertures per side

Eptatretus profundus (Barnard 1923)    deep, referring to capture at 400 fathoms

Eptatretus sheni (Kuo, Huang & Mok 1994)    in honor of Shih-Chieh Shen (1902-1975), National Taiwan University, for his contributions to the knowledge of Taiwanese fishes

Eptatretus sinus Wisner & McMillan 1990    gulf, referring to its apparent restriction to the midriff area of the Gulf of California, México

Eptatretus springeri (Bigelow & Schroeder 1952)    in honor of shark expert Stewart Springer (1906-1991), “who discovered this interesting cyclostome”

Eptatretus stoutii (Lockington 1878)    in honor of Arthur B. Stout (d. 1898), surgeon and corresponding secretary of the California Academy of Sciences

Eptatretus strahani McMillan & Wisner 1984    in honor of Australian zoologist Ronald Strahan (1922-2010), for important contributions to the study of hagfishes

Eptatretus strickrotti Møller & Jones 2007    in honor of DSV Alvin pilot Bruce Strickrott, who captured this and other mobile hydrothermal vent animals with a slurp gun

Eptatretus taiwanae (Shen & Tao 1975)    of Taiwan, off the coasts of which this species occurs

Eptatretus walkeri (McMillan & Wisner 2004)    in honor of H. J. Walker, Jr., Collection Manager, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, for help in providing hagfish specimens and data, and for contributions to ichthyology

Eptatretus wayuu Mok, Saavedra-Diaz & Acero P. 2001    referring to Wayuu aborigines who live on Guajira Peninsula (Colombia), type locality

Eptatretus wisneri (Kuo, Huang & Mok 1994)    in honor of Robert L. Wisner (1921-2005), Scripps Institution of Oceanography, for his contributions to hagfish biology

Eptatretus yangi (Teng 1958)    in honor of Hung-Jia Yang, hagfish biologist with the Fisheries Research Institute (Taiwan)


Myxine Linnaeus 1758    ancient Greek word for a slimy fish: myxa, slime; -inus, one who, i.e., one who slimes or is slimy, referring to copious amounts of slime produced by M. glutinosa

Myxine affinis Günther 1870    related, presumably referring to similarity to M. glutinosa

Myxine australis Jenyns 1842    southern, referring to distribution in the Straits of Magellan

Myxine capensis Regan 1913    ensis, suffix denoting place: the cape, referring to type locality, Cape of Good Hope

Myxine circifrons Garman 1899    circi-, round; frons, face, referring to rounded labrum, or lip, between anterior narial barbels

Myxine debueni Wisner & McMillan 1995     in honor of Spanish ichthyologist and oceanographer Fernando DeBuen (1895-1962), for his “extensive work” on South American fishes

Myxine fernholmi Wisner & McMillan 1995    in honor of Bo Fernholm (b. 1941), Swedish Museum of Natural History, for his work on hagfish anatomy, physiology and systematics

Myxine formosana Mok & Kuo 2001     ana, belonging to: Formosa, or Taiwan, referring to type locality

Myxine garmani Jordan & Snyder 1901    in honor of Harvard ichthyologist-herpetologist Samuel Garman (1843-1927), for his “excellent work” on Myxine

Myxine glutinosa Linnaeus 1758    glutinous, referring to how it can turn water into slime

Myxine hubbsi Wisner & McMillan 1995    in honor of ichthyologist Carl L. Hubbs (1894-1979), “primarily for his foresight in instigating the worldwide study on hagfishes”

Myxine hubbsoides Wisner & McMillan 1995    oides, having the form of, referring to similarity to M. hubbsi

Myxine ios Fernholm 1981    acronym for Institute of Oceanographic Sciences, Wormley, Surrey, England, which supplied type

Myxine jespersenae Møller, Feld, Poulsen, Thomsen & Thormar 2005    in honor of Danish biologist Åse Jespersen (b. 1955), for her contributions to the reproductive biology of hagfishes

Myxine knappi Wisner & McMillan 1995    in honor of Smithsonian ichthyologist Leslie W. Knapp (b. 1929), for supplying the authors with study material

Myxine kuoi Mok 2002    in honor of Chien-Hsien Kuo, National Chiayi University, Taiwan, for his contributions to hagfish taxonomy

Myxine limosa Girard 1859    mud or muddy, referring to muddy ocean-bottom habitat

Myxine mccoskeri Wisner & McMillan 1995    in honor of John E. McCosker (b. 1945), California Academy of Sciences, for his work on Caribbean and Panamanian fishes, and for providing the type

Myxine mcmillanae Hensley 1991    in honor of Charmion B. McMillan (b. 1925), Scripps Institution of Oceanography, for her “fine” contributions to hagfish science

Myxine paucidens Regan 1913    paucus, few; dens, teeth, referring to 13 total teeth compared to 15-24 teeth in similar species

Myxine pequenoi Wisner & McMillan 1995    in honor of German Pequeño R., Universidad Austral de Chile, for his work on Chilean fishes and for providing type

Myxine robinsorum Wisner & McMillan 1995    orum, commemorative suffix, plural: in honor of C. Richard and Catherine Robins, University of Kansas, for their works on the marine fauna of the tropical western Atlantic

Myxine sotoi Mincarone 2001    in honor of Jules Marcelo Rosa Soto, Universidade do Vale do Itajai, for his work on Brazilian marine fauna and for encouraging Mincarone to study hagfishes

Nemamyxine Richardson 1958 nema-, thread, i.e., a thin, elongated Myxine

Nemamyxine elongata Richardson 1958    elongate, referring to its extremely slender form

Nemamyxine kreffti McMillan & Wisner 1982    in honor of Gerhard Krefft (1912-1993), Institute für Seefischerei (Hamburg), on the occasion of his 70th birthday, for his many “valuable” contributions to oceanic ichthyology; Krefft also loaned specimen to authors

Neomyxine Richardson 1953    neos, new, i.e., a new genus of Myxine

Neomyxine biniplicata (Richardson & Jowett 1951)    binus, two by two; plicata, folded, referring to paired fin-folds extending anteriorly from behind branchial apertures

Neomyxine caesiovitta Stewart & Zintzen 2015    caesio, blue gray; vitta, ribbon or band, referring to distinctive blue band along sides

Notomyxine Nani & Gneri 1951    notos, south, i.e., a southern Myxine (restricted to the Antarctic Ocean)

Notomyxine tridentiger (Garman 1899)    tri-, three; dent, teeth, referring to three united anterior oral cusps