Order MYCTOPHIFORMES (Lanternfishes)

COMMENTS
v. 1.0 – 18 Aug. 2016  view/download PDF

Family NEOSCOPELIDAE Blackchins               
3 genera · 6 species

Neoscopelus Johnson 1863    neo-, new, a new genus presumed to be allied to Scopelus (=Myctophum, Myctophidae) at the time, with a “scopeloid form of body” [Scopelus is an old name of some large-eyed fish, from scopus, to look, historically applied to lanternfishes and other pelagic or deep-sea fishes with large eyes]

Neoscopelus macrolepidotus Johnson 1863    macro-, large; lepidotus, scaled, referring to body covered with “large caducous” scales

Neoscopelus microchir Matsubara 1943    micro-, small; cheiros, hand, referring to smaller pectoral fins (15-16 rays) compared to N. macrolepidotus (18-19 rays)

Neoscopelus porosus Arai 1969    full of holes or pores, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to many photophores when viewed from below, which in the figures accompanying the description could be said to resemble holes or pores

Scopelengys Alcock 1890    engys, near, presumed at the time to be “nearly allied” to Scopelus (=Myctophum, Myctophidae) [Scopelus is an old name of some large-eyed fish, from scopus, to look, historically applied to lanternfishes and other pelagic or deep-sea fishes with large eyes]

Scopelengys clarkei Butler & Ahlstrom 1976    in honor of ichthyologist Thomas A. Clarke (1940-2013), Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, who provided additional specimens, helping to confirm it is distinct from S. tristis

Scopelengys tristis Alcock 1890    sad, mournful, or dark or dull in color or tone, perhaps referring to uniform black coloration in life

Solivomer Miller 1947    soli-, solitary, i.e., single, referring to single patch of vomerine teeth (compared to two patches on other neoscopelids)

Solivomer arenidens Miller 1947    arena, sand; dens, tooth, referring to sandpaper-like (i.e., granular) dentition


Family MYCTOPHIDAE Lanternfishes
38 genera/subgenera · 258 species

Benthosema Goode & Bean 1896   benthos, of the deep, referring to its habitat; sema, a constellation of stars, allusion not explained, probably referring to photophores, which could be said to resemble bright stars in the sky

Benthosema fibulatum (Gilbert & Cramer 1897)    fastened together with a fibula (a brooch or pin), allusion not explained, perhaps referring to how its photophores and “silvery, steel blue, iridescent” scales could resemble a jeweled and decorative brooch

Benthosema glaciale (Reinhardt 1837)    icy or frozen, presumably referring to its occurrence in the Arctic waters of Greenland (type locality)

Benthosema panamense (Tåning 1932)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Gulf of Panama, type locality

Benthosema pterotum (Alcock 1890)    finned, presumably referring to its long pectoral fins, extending to first or second anal-fin ray

Benthosema suborbitale (Gilbert 1913)    suborbital, referring to small round photophore on cheek below posterior portion of eye

Bolinichthys Paxton 1972    named after ichthyologist (and lanternfish specialist) Rolf Bolin (1901-1973), Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford University, who gave Paxton “much advice and encouragement”; ichthys, fish

Bolinichthys distofax Johnson 1975    disto-, different or to stand apart; fax, light or flame, referring to rearward displacement of the Vn photophore (in front of eye below olfactory capsule), unique among congeners

Bolinichthys indicus (Nafpaktitis & Nafpaktitis 1969)    Indian, referring to Indian Ocean, type locality (also occurs in the Atlantic)

Bolinichthys longipes (Brauer 1906)    longus, long; pes, foot, presumably referring to ventral fins, which usually reach a point behind anus

Bolinichthys nikolayi Becker 1978    in honor of Nikolai Vasil’evich Parin (1932-2012), Russian Academy of Sciences, ichthyologist and leader of the 18th cruise of the research vessel Dmitry Mendeleev, from which type was collected

Bolinichthys photothorax (Parr 1928)    photo-, light; thorax, breast, presumably referring to characteristic luminous scale, one on each side of throat

Bolinichthys pyrsobolus (Alcock 1890)    pyrsos, torch, fire or beacon; bolus, lump or morsel, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to photophores in general, or to “membranous expansion of the suboperculum which reaches considerably beyond the root of the pectoral fin”

Bolinichthys supralateralis (Parr 1928)    supra-, above; lateralis, of the side, referring to position of PLO (suprapectoral), superior SAO (supra-anal), Pol (posterolateral) and Prc (precaudal) photophores above lateral line

Centrobranchus Fowler 1904    kentron, thorn or spine; branchus, gill, referring to poorly developed gill rakers, reduced to a few small protuberances topped by slender spinules or, per Fowler, “small inconspicuous prickles”

Centrobranchus andreae (Lütken 1892)    in honor of the “tireless collector” (translation) Capt. A. F. Andréas, who collected this and other sea fishes for the University of Copenhagen Zoological Museum

Centrobranchus choerocephalus Fowler 1904    choero-, pig; cephalus, head, presumably referring to snout protruding beyond mouth (despite the name he selected, Fowler said head resembles that of an anchovy)

Centrobranchus nigroocellatus (Günther 1873)    niger, black; ocellatus, spotted, referring to “thick black ring” (translation) surrounding light organs

Ceratoscopelus Günther 1864    cerato-, hook, proposed as a subgenus of Scopelus (=Myctophum) for C. maderensis, referring to bony projection or horn on each side above eye [Scopelus is an old name of some large-eyed fish, from scopus, to look, historically applied to lanternfishes and other pelagic or deep-sea fishes with large eyes]

Ceratoscopelus maderensis (Lowe 1839)    ensis, suffix denoting place: off Madeira, eastern Atlantic, type locality (occurs in North Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea)

Ceratoscopelus townsendi (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889)    in honor of Charles H. Townsend (1859-1944), naturalist on the U.S. Fish Commission steamer Albatross, from which type was collected

Ceratoscopelus warmingii (Lütken 1892)    in honor of Danish botanist (and founding figure of ecology) Eugen Warming (1841-1924), who collected type

Diaphus Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1890    dia-, divided; phos, light, referring to how most or all photophores of D. theta are divided by a horizontal cross septum of black pigment

Diaphus adenomus Gilbert 1905    adenos, gland; omos, shoulder, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to “semicircular white glandular body between pectoral base and upper pectoral spot” at tip of opercular flap

Diaphus agassizii Gilbert 1908    in honor of Alexander Agassiz (1835-1910), Curator, Museum of Comparative Zoology (Harvard), in charge of the Albatross expedition that collected type

Diaphus aliciae Fowler 1934    in honor of American herpetologist Alice Boring (1883-1955), Yenching University, Peiping (now Beijing), China

Diaphus anderseni Tåning 1932    in honor of Tåning’s late friend, N. C. Andersen, physician on board Danish research vessel Dana “during different cruises in northern and southern seas”

Diaphus antonbruuni Nafpaktitis 1978    in honor of the late Danish marine biologist Anton Frederick Bruun (1901–1961) and the research vessel (Anton Bruun) that bore his name (and collected type)

Diaphus arabicus Nafpaktitis 1978    Arabian, referring to the Arabian Sea, only known area of occurrence at time of description (may occur more widely in the Indian Ocean)

Diaphus basileusi Becker & Prut’ko 1984    of Basileus, latinization of Basil, in honor of Basil Nafpaktitis (1929-2015), for his important investigations of myctophid systematics, especially of the genus Diaphus

Diaphus bertelseni Nafpaktitis 1966    in honor of ichthyologist Erik Bertelsen (1912-1993), Director of the Danish Marine Biological Institute, who made available funds and facilities for study at his laboratory

Diaphus brachycephalus Tåning 1928    brachys, short; cephalus, head, briefly described in a key, allusion not explained; a curious epithet since this fish’s head is actually quite large relative to its body (but the snout is very short)

Diaphus burtoni Fowler 1934    in honor of E. Milby Burton (1898-1977), Director of the Charleston Museum, South Carolina, USA, who collected local fishes for his museum and invited Fowler to study them

Diaphus chrysorhynchus Gilbert & Cramer 1897    chryso-, gold; rhynchus, snout, referring to “orange-colored” photophore that covers snout

Diaphus coeruleus (Klunzinger 1871)    blue, referring to blue-black dorsal coloration and/or “beautiful blue and silvery shimmering” luminous glands (translation)

Diaphus confusus Becker 1992    confused or unclear, reflecting the “absence of any clear dignostic trait” for this species, a word that “well described the author’s state of mind when searching for a name for this taxon” (translations)

Diaphus dahlgreni Fowler 1934    in honor of zoologist Ulric Dahlgren (1870-1946), Princeton University (New Jersey, USA), for his work on “luminous animals”

Diaphus danae Tåning 1932    in honor of the Danish research vessel Dana, from which type was collected

Diaphus dehaveni Fowler 1934    in honor of the late Isaac Norris De Haven (1847-1924), birder and sportsman (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA), for whom Fowler was “indebted for many local fishes”

Diaphus diadematus Tåning 1932    crowned, allusion not explained, presumably referring to luminous organs on head, including an “extraordinarily large” suborbital luminous organ on males, “occupying the whole space between eye and maxilla”

Diaphus diademophilus Nafpaktitis 1978    a combination of the names D. diadematus and D. termophilus, alluding to the close relationship between the three species and to the fact that in several characters this species is intermediate between the other two

Diaphus drachmanni Tåning 1932    in honor of Danish classical philologist Anders Bjørn Drachmann (1860-1935), president of the Carlsberg Foundation, which financed the Dana expedition that collected type

Diaphus dumerilii (Bleeker 1856)    in honor of August Duméril (1812-1870), herpetologist and ichthyologist, Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (Paris)

Diaphus effulgens (Goode & Bean 1896)    gleaming or phosphorescent, probably referring to luminous gland in front of head before the eye

Diaphus ehrhorni Fowler 1934    in honor of entomologist Edward M. Ehrhorn (1862-1941), Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, “with memories of many pleasant Australian days”

Diaphus faustinoi Fowler 1934    in honor of Leopoldo A. Faustino (1892-1935), geologist, mineralogist and conchologist (Bureau of Science, Manila, Philippines), “with pleasant memories of our trip to Krakatau” (or Krakatoa)

Diaphus fragilis Tåning 1928    fragile or brittle; briefly described in a key, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to deciduous scales common to most lanternfishes

Diaphus fulgens (Brauer 1904)    bright, presumably referring to suborbital luminous organ

Diaphus garmani Gilbert 1906    in honor of Harvard ichthyologist-herpetologist Samuel Garman (1843-1927)

Diaphus gigas Gilbert 1913    large, at 170 mm TL, the largest species in Gilbert’s monograph on the lanternfishes of Japan

Diaphus gracilis Kulikova 1961    slender, referring to its body form

Diaphus handi Fowler 1934    in honor of the late H. Walker Hand (Cape May, New Jersey, USA), to whom Fowler was indebted for many fishes from Cape May

Diaphus holti Tåning 1918    in honor of Irish ichthyologist Ernest William Lyons Holt (1864-1922), “the first who has ever identified a postlarva of the genus Myctophus

Diaphus hudsoni Zurbrigg & Scott 1976    named for the Canadian Coast Guard Ship Hudson, in honor of the Hudson 70 Cruise around the Americas, during which type was collected

Diaphus impostor Nafpaktitis, Robertson & Paxton 1995    imitator or pretender, referring to how it may be mistaken for D. aliciae

Diaphus jenseni Tåning 1932    in honor of Danish zoologist Adolf Severin Jensen (1866-1953), member of committee that edited the oceanographic reports of the Dana expeditions

Diaphus kapalae Nafpaktitis, Robertson & Paxton 1995    in honor of the fisheries reearch vessel Kapala, which has collected numerous specimens off the coast of New South Wales, including type of this species

Diaphus knappi Nafpaktitis 1978    in honor of Smithsonian ichthyologist Leslie W. Knapp, for providing Nafpaktitis with lanternfishes from both the Indian and Pacific Oceans

Diaphus kora Nafpaktitis, Robertson & Paxton 1995    Maori word for spark, presumably chosen because this species occurs near New Zealand

Diaphus kuroshio Kawaguchi & Nafpaktitis 1978    named for its occurrence in the Kuroshio Waters of Japan

Diaphus lobatus Nafpaktitis 1978    lobed, referring to pronounced posterodorsal lobe of its operculum

Diaphus lucidus (Goode & Bean 1896)    bright or shining, perhaps referring to luminous glands in general, or specifically to large, apparently luminous, pearl-colored spot under tip of opercular flap

Diaphus lucifrons Fowler 1934    lux, light; frons, front, referring to large antorbital luminous organ “all along front eye edge”

Diaphus luetkeni (Brauer 1904)    in honor of Danish zoologist Christian Frederik Lütken (1827-1901), whose 1892 classification of 24 lanternfish species was of “great systematic value” (translation)

Diaphus malayanus Weber 1913    anus, belonging to: Malaya, presumably referring to its occurrence in Halmahera and Banda Seas, both in the Malay Archipelago

Diaphus mascarensis Becker 1990    ensis, suffix denoting place: on the banks of the Mascarene Ridge, Indian Ocean, type locality

Diaphus meadi Nafpaktitis 1978    in honor of ichthyologist Giles W. Mead (1928-2003), who as cruise leader on the Anton Bruun Cruises 6 (Indian Ocean) and 13 (eastern South Pacific) was largely responsible for much of the material reported on by Nafpaktitis

Diaphus megalops Nafpaktitis 1978    mega-, large; ops, eye, referring to its “remarkably large eye”

Diaphus metopoclampus (Cocco 1829)    etymology not explained, presumably metopon, brow or forehead, and lampos, light or lantern, referring to prominent luminous gland on front of head before the eyes

Diaphus microps (Brauer 1904)    micro-, small; ops, eye, referring to its “very small eye” (translation)

Diaphus minax Nafpaktitis 1968    threatening, referring to the “angry looks of this fish”

Diaphus mollis Tåning 1928    soft, flabby or gelatinous; briefly described in a key, allusion not explained nor evident

Diaphus nielseni Nafpaktitis 1978    in honor of Jørgen G. Nielsen (b. 1932), Curator of Fishes, Zoological Museum of Copenhagen, to whom Nafpaktitis was most grateful for hospitality and help during the long period of his study of the Dana Collections, which are housed at Nielsen’s museum

Diaphus ostenfeldi Tåning 1932    in honor of the late Carl Hansen Ostenfeld (1873-1931), Danish botanist and chairman of the committee that edited the oceanographic reports of the Dana expeditions

Diaphus pacificus Parr 1931   icus, belonging to: the Pacific Ocean (described from the Eastern Pacific [Gulf of California] but occurring in the Central Pacific [Johnston Atoll] as well)

Diaphus pallidus Gjøsaeter 1989    pale, referring to pale, light gray color when recently caught

Diaphus parini Becker 1992    in honor of ichthyologist Nikolai Vasil’evich Parin (1932-2012), Russian Academy of Sciences, who had reservations about its identification as D. suborbitalis in the field

Diaphus parri Tåning 1932    in honor of marine biologist Albert Eide Parr (1900-1991), for his “valuable” contribution to lanternfish taxonomy

Diaphus perspicillatus (Ogilby 1898)    spectacled, referring to pair of supernumerary photophores in front of eyes

Diaphus phillipsi Fowler 1934    in honor of the late Dr. Richard J. Phillips of Philadelphia, who collected many local fishes for Fowler

Diaphus problematicus Parr 1928    problematic, reflecting Parr’s concern that this species may prove to be conspecific with D. tanakae (=malayanus)

Diaphus rafinesquii (Cocco 1838)    in honor of naturalist Constantine Samuel Rafinesque (1783-1840), who Cocco believes misidentified this species as Myctophum punctatum in 1810

Diaphus regani Tåning 1932    in honor of ichthyologist Charles Tate Regan (1878-1943), Natural History Museum (London)

Diaphus richardsoni Tåning 1932    in honor of surgeon-naturalist John Richardson (1787-1865), the first collector and writer on lanternfishes from the Indo-Pacific

Diaphus rivatoni Bourret 1985    in honor of friend and colleague for 20 years Jacques Rivaton, ORSTOM (Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique d’Outre-Mer), New Caledonia, who has devoted much effort to the identification of Diaphus from the Western Pacific

Diaphus roei Nafpaktitis 1974    in honor of Richard N. Roe, National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Southeast Fisheries Center, Pascagoula, Mississippi, USA, who provided specimens collected from the NMFS research vessel Oregon

Diaphus sagamiensis Gilbert 1913    ensis, suffix denoting place: Sagami Bay, Japan, type locality

Diaphus schmidti Tåning 1932    in honor of Danish biologist Johannes Schmidt (1877-1933), who led the Dana expedition that collected type

Diaphus signatus Gilbert 1908    marked, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to any or all of the following: a) distinct luminous dot surrounded by black pigment immediately above preocular luminous organ; b) dorsal-, anal- and caudal-fin rays finely dotted with black; c) two broad dark bars across mandibles

Diaphus similis Wisner 1974    like or resembling, referring to its similarity to D. trachops and, to a lesser degree, D. suborbitalis

Diaphus splendidus (Brauer 1904)    bright or shining, presumably a general reference to its luminous organs

Diaphus suborbitalis Weber 1913    named for it roundish suborbital luminous organ below posterior half of eye

Diaphus subtilis Nafpaktitis 1968    very fine, referring to “relatively small morphological differences, some of them difficult to define,” between this species and others of the D. rafinesquii species group

Diaphus taaningi Norman 1930    in honor of Danish lanternfish expert Åge Vedel Tåning (1890-1958), who loaned type specimens to Norman and provided information about them

Diaphus termophilus Tåning 1928    termo-, presumably a variant or misspelling of thermos, heat; philo, to love, probably referring to its occurrence within the warm waters of the Caribbean Sea and its immediate vicinity

Diaphus theta Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1890    named for how most or all photophores are divided by a horizontal cross septum of black pigment, giving them the form of the Greek letter θ, theta

Diaphus thiollierei Fowler 1934    in honor of Victor Joseph de l’Isle Thiollière (1801-1859), French civil engineer, geologist and paleoichthyologist, who reported on fishes collected by French priest and biologist Xavier Montrouzier (1820-1897) from the Woodlark Archipelago (Papua, New Guinea) in 1857

Diaphus trachops Wisner 1974    trachos, rough; ops, eye, referring to uneven surface of lower orbital margin caused by “small domed intrusions of pigmented tissue” covering minute, probably luminous, dots anterior to Vn (ventronasal) luminous organ

Diaphus umbroculus Fowler 1934    umbra, shade; oculus, eye, referring to dark antorbital luminous organ

Diaphus vanhoeffeni (Brauer 1906)    in honor of German zoologist Ernst Vanhöffen (1858-1918), who studied medusa jellies aboard the research vessel Valdivia, the first German expedition to explore the deep sea, during which type was collected

Diaphus watasei Jordan & Starks 1904    in honor of biologist Shozaburo Watasé (1862-1929), Imperial University of Tokyo, who presented type to Stanford University

Diaphus whitleyi Fowler 1934    in honor of Australian ichthyologist-malacologist Gilbert Percy Whitley (1903-1975), to whom Fowler was indebted for much assistance in his studies of Indo-Pacific fishes

Diaphus wisneri Nafpaktitis, Robertson & Paxton 1995    in honor of Robert L. Wisner (1921-2005), Scripps Institution of Oceanography, for his work on the taxonomy and distribution of myctophids

Diogenichthys Bolin 1939    Diogenes (412 or 404 BC-323 BC), a Cynic philosopher who went about in daytime with a lighted lantern looking for an honest man, allusion not explained but clearly referring to luminous organs (lanterns) of D. laternatus; ichthys, fish

Diogenichthys atlanticus (Tåning 1928)    icus, belonging to: Atlantic Ocean, proposed as an Atlantic subspecies of the Pacific D. lanternatus

Diogenichthys laternatus (Garman 1899)    atus, provided with: lanterns, i.e., luminous organs

Diogenichthys panurgus Bolin 1946    Greek for a rascal, allusion not explained nor evident

Electrona Goode & Bean 1896    full of light, presumably referring to its luminous glands in general (on top of caudal peduncle and none on head) and/or photophores on body

Electrona antarctica (Günther 1878)    ica, belonging to: Antarctic Ocean, type locality (but cosmopolitan in distribution)

Electrona carlsbergi (Tåning 1932)    in honor of the Carlsberg Laboratory, Copenhagen, research arm of the Carlsberg Foundation, which financed the Dana expedition that collected type

Electrona paucirastra Bolin 1962    paucus, few; rastrum, rake, referring to fewer number of gill rakers (21-23) compared to some congeners

Electrona risso (Cocco 1829)    in honor of Italian-French naturalist Antoine Risso (1777-1845), whose 1827 work on the fishes of Southern Europe greatly influenced Cocco [a noun in apposition, without the patronymic “i”]

Electrona subaspera (Günther 1864)    sub-, less than; asper, rough, referring to “coarsely denticulated” scales, but presumably less so than the “strongly serrated” scales of Myctophum asperum, its presumed congener at the time

Gonichthys Gistel 1850    etymology not explained, perhaps gonio-, angle, i.e., angular, possibly referring to “large, wide, diamond-shaped lateral line scales” (translation) of G. loricata (=cocco); ichthys, fish

Gonichthys barnesi Whitley 1943    in honor of taxidermist William Barnes (d. 1962), who collected fishes in New South Wales and at Lord Howe Island, and whose labors “contributed largely” to a recent reorganization of the Australian Museum’s fish collection

Gonichthys cocco (Cocco 1829)    according to Cocco (1838), “dedicated to the memory of my dear father, who died very prematurely, and whose loss will never stop bringing me to tears” (translation) [a noun in apposition, without the patronymic “i”]

Gonichthys tenuiculus (Garman 1899)    very thin or slight, referring to its compressed, elongate body, “very slender near the caudal fin”

Gonichthys venetus Becker 1964    blue or sea-colored, referring to its bluish color, well-retained in preserved specimens

Gymnoscopelus Günther 1873    gymnos, bare or naked, referring to “naked” (translation, i.e., scaleless) body of G. aphya; Scopelus, junior synonym of Myctophum, an old name of some large-eyed fish, from scopus, to look, historically applied to lanternfishes and other pelagic or deep-sea fishes with large eyes

Subgenus Gymnoscopelus

Gymnoscopelus aphya Günther 1873    Greek for a small fish or herring, probably referring to small size of type specimen (~3.2 cm)

Gymnoscopelus bolini Andriashev 1962    in honor of ichthyologist (and lanternfish specialist) Rolf Bolin (1901-1973), Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford University, whose 1959 paper on myctophids of the North Atlantic “contains numerous highly valuable new conclusions” on the taxonomy of many genera “merits special attention” (translations)

Gymnoscopelus braueri (Lönnberg 1905)    in honor of friend and fellow zoologist August Brauer (1863-1917), Berlin Zoological Museum, “whose works have made studying scopelids [lanternfishes] much easier” and who shared his views about this new species in an “amiable” way (translations)

Gymnoscopelus opisthopterus Fraser-Brunner 1949    opistho-, behind; pterus, fin, referring to its shorter tail, “which gives the dorsal and pelvic fins the appearance of being farther back than in other species of the genus”

Subgenus Nasolychnus Smith 1933    nasus, nose; lychnos, light or lamp, referring to enlarged luminous organs above and below nostrils of Myctophum florentii (=G. piabilis)

Gymnoscopelus fraseri (Fraser-Brunner 1931)    in honor of Capt. Hugh Fraser, who collected type with a net he constructed

Gymnoscopelus hintonoides Hulley 1981    oides, having the form of: resembling Hintonia candens in general appearance and color

Gymnoscopelus microlampas Hulley 1981    micro-, small; lampas, a light or lantern, referring to its “noticeably small” body photophores

Gymnoscopelus piabilis (Whitley 1931)    expiable (capable of being atoned for), allusion not explained nor evident

Hintonia Fraser-Brunner 1949    ia, belonging to: Martin Alister Campbell Hinton (1883-1961), Keeper of Zoology, Natural History Museum (London), for “friendly help and encouragement of the most practical kind”

Hintonia candens Fraser-Brunner 1949    shining or gleaming, presumably a general reference to its luminous organs and photophores

Hygophum Bolin 1939    proposed as a subgenus of Myctophus by Tåning in 1932 but not available until Bolin 1939; etymology not explained but possibly a combination of hygo– (referring to H. hygomii, which Tåning included in the subgenus) and –phum, the second half of the putative nominate genus Myctophum

Hygophum atratum (Garman 1899)    dressed in black, referring to body coloration, “lighter and silvery on the lower portions of the head and the anterior parts of the abdomen”

Hygophum benoiti (Cocco 1838)    in honor of Cocco’s friend, Italian naturalist Luigi Benoit (1804-1890), author of the (then) upcoming Ornitologia Siciliana (1840)

Hygophum bruuni Wisner 1971    in honor of Danish oceanographer Anton F. Bruun (1901-1961), and of the research vessel that bore his name, which “served to enhance greatly the knowledge of biology and hydrology of the Indian and southeastern Pacific oceans”

Hygophum hanseni (Tåning 1932)    in honor of G. Hansen, who “for about 30 years has been attached to the Danish Marine investigations,” as captain of the Thor, the first Danish research ship specially equipped for scientific work on the oceans, and later as captain of the Dana, from which type was collected

Hygophum hygomii (Lütken 1892)    in honor of Capt. Vilhelm Johannes Willaius Hygom (1818-?), Danish merchant seaman who collected marine organisms, including some of Lütken’s “Spoils of the Atlantic” (translation)

Hygophum macrochir (Günther 1864)    macro-, long; cheiros, hand, referring to long pectoral fin, which extends to anal fin

Hygophum proximum Becker 1965    near, referring to the close relationship of this Indo-Pacific species with the Atlantic H. macrochir

Hygophum reinhardtii (Lütken 1892)    in honor of the late Johannes Theodor Reinhardt (1816-1882), Danish zoologist and student of phosphorescent fishes

Hygophum taaningi Becker 1965    in honor of Danish ichthyologist Åge Vedel Tåning (1890-1958), who first noted that specimens previously identified as H. macrochir from the north Atlantic (this species) differ from those of the tropical Atlantic

Idiolychnus Nafpaktitis & Paxton 1978    idios, peculiar; lychnos, light or lamp, referring to “peculiar combination and arrangement” of luminous organs (a small dorsonasal luminous organ and well-developed sexually dimorphic luminous glands on caudal peduncle)

Idiolychnus urolampus (Gilbert & Cramer 1897)    uro-, tail; lampus, torch or lantern, presumably referring to supra- and infra-caudal luminous glands in adult males and females, respectively

Krefftichthys Hulley 1981    in honor of Gerhard Krefft (1912-1993), Institut für Seefischerei (Hamburg), for his valuable contribution to the knowledge of lanternfishes, and whose “unfailing interest and critical supervision” made Hulley’s monograph possible; ichthys, fish

Krefftichthys anderssoni (Lönnberg 1905)    in honor of Karl Andreas Andersson (1875-1968), zoologist of the Swedish Antarctic Expedition, who collected type

Lampadena Goode & Bean 1893    lampa, lantern; adenos, gland, referring to luminous glands above and below caudal penuncle of L. speculigera

Subgenus Lampadena

Lampadena anomala Parr 1928    anomalous, perhaps referring to “somewhat twisted position” in which type specimen had been preserved and/or its small pectoral fins, which may “prove to be longer in better preserved specimens”

Lampadena atlantica Maul 1969    ica, belonging to: proposed as a subspecies of the Pacific L. urophaos from the Atlantic Ocean

Lampadena chavesi Collett 1905    in honor of Major Chaves, Director of the Museum at Ponta Delgada (Azores, Portugal), who supplied type

Lampadena dea Fraser-Brunner 1949    Latin for goddess, allusion not explained nor evident

Lampadena notialis Nafpaktitis & Paxton 1968    southern, referring to occurrence at high-southern latitudes

Lampadena pontifex Krefft 1970    bridge builder, referring to how it appears to be an intermediate form (or bridge) between the northern L. speculigera and the southern L. notialis

Lampadena speculigera Goode & Bean 1896    speculum, mirror; fero-, to bear, presumably referring to “glistening mirrors” (i.e., silvery luminous glands) above and below caudal peduncle

Lampadena urophaos Paxton 1963    uro, tail; phaos, light, referring to “distinctive” luminous glands on caudal peduncle

Subgenus Dorsadena Coleman & Nafpaktitis 1972    dorsa-, dorsal; adena, gland, referring to large, elongate luminous gland immediately in front of adipose fin

Lampadena yaquinae (Coleman & Nafpaktitis 1972)    of the research vessel Yaquina, Oregon State University, from which type was collected

Subgenus Lychnophora Fraser-Brunner 1949    lychnus, light or lamp; phora, to bear, i.e., presumably referring to “remarkable” luminous glands on caudal peduncle

Lampadena luminosa (Garman 1899)    bright, presumably a general reference to its luminous organs and photophores

Lampanyctodes Fraser-Brunner 1949    oides, having the form of: this new genus is “clearly indicative of the form from which Lampanyctus [and other related genera] have derived”

Lampanyctodes hectoris (Günther 1876)    is, genitive singular of: James Hector (1834-1907), Director, Geological Survey of New Zealand, who presented type

Lampanyctus Bonaparte 1840    lampa, lantern, referring to its luminous organs; nyctos, night, possibly referring to the nocturnal migration of lanternfishes to the sea surface, but possibly also a misspelling of myctos, from Myctophum

Lampanyctus acanthurus Wisner 1974     acanthus, spiny; urus, tail, referring to unusually high number of spiny procurrent rays in caudal fin

Lampanyctus alatus Goode & Bean 1896    winged, referring to long, wing-like pectoral fins, reaching to at least middle of anal-fin base

Lampanyctus australis Tåning 1932    southern, proposed as a subspecies of L. alatus from southern waters off New Zealand, Australia and the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa

Lampanyctus bensoni (Fowler 1934)    in honor of R. Dale Benson, Jr., of Philadelphia, to whom Fowler was indebted for many collections of American fishes

Lampanyctus crocodilus (Risso 1810)    crocodile, referring to its large mouth, “rather like that of a crocodile” (translation)

Lampanyctus festivus Tåning 1928    pleasing or handsome; briefly described in a key, allusion not explained nor evident

Lampanyctus gemmifer Goode & Bean 1896    gemma, gem; fero-, to bear, presumably referring to “pearly mirror” on upper edge of caudal peduncle as long as eye, and a shorter one extending from end of anal fin to root of caudal fin

Lampanyctus hubbsi Wisner 1963    a “unique species” dedicated to the “equally unique” ichthyologist Carl L. Hubbs (1894-1979)

Lampanyctus intricarius Tåning 1928    intricate; briefly described in a key, allusion not explained nor evident

Lampanyctus iselinoides Bussing 1965    oides, having the form of: similar to L. iselini (=macdonaldi) in having two cheek photophores and short pectoral fins

Lampanyctus jordani Gilbert 1913    in honor of David Starr Jordan (1851-1931), for his “epoch-making researches on the fish-fauna of Japan” (he also obtained type in 1900)

Lampanyctus lepidolychnus Becker 1967    lepido, scale; lychnus, lamp or lantern, referring to small photophores on each scale, a diagnostic character of this species

Lampanyctus macdonaldi (Goode & Bean 1896)    in honor of Marshall McDonald (1835-1895), U.S. Commissioner of Fisheries

Lampanyctus macropterus (Brauer 1904)    macro-, long; pterus, fin, referring to long pectoral fin, extending past beginning of anal fin

Lampanyctus nobilis Tåning 1928    well-known or excellent; briefly described in a key, allusion not explained nor evident

Lampanyctus omostigma Gilbert 1908    omo-, shoulder; stigmatus, mark or spot, allusion not explained, probably referring to presence of humeral photophore

Lampanyctus parvicauda Parr 1931    parvus, small; cauda, tail; proposed as a subspecies of L. omostigma, presumably referring to smaller number (4-6) of infracaudal luminous scales compared to 9 on the nominate form

Lampanyctus photonotus Parr 1928    photo-, light; notos, back, referring to series of “simple” photophores (not “luminous scales”) along each side of back from nape to behind dorsal fin

Lampanyctus pusillus (Johnson 1890)    very small (Johnson’s specimen was 34 mm SL)

Lampanyctus reinhardti (Jordan 1921)    in honor of Hawaiian boatman Tom Reinhardt, who collected a number of “boiled” fish floating in the water, including type of this species, after a Mauna Loa eruption and lava flow in November 1919

Lampanyctus sibogae (Weber 1913)    of the ship Siboga and Indonesian expedition (1898-1899) of same name, during which type was collected

Lampanyctus simulator Wisner 1971    referring to presence of an extra photophore just above pectoral origin and its “simulation of the same organ” heretofore found exclusively on L. jordani

Lampanyctus steinbecki Bolin 1939    in honor of Bolin’s friend, American author John Steinbeck (1902-1968)

Lampanyctus tenuiformis (Brauer 1906)    tenuis, thin or slender; formis, form or shape, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to body height, the lowest recorded by Brauer among the Lampanyctus species he examined

Lampanyctus turneri (Fowler 1934)    in honor of Percy J. Turner, of Suva, Fiji, to whom Fowler was indebted for “interesting” fishes from that island country

Lampanyctus vadulus Hulley 1981    shallow, referring to its occurrence in shallower waters (50-300 m) compared to most lanternfishes

Lampichthys Fraser-Brunner 1949    lampa, lantern; ichthys, fish, literally a lanternfish

Lampichthys procerus (Brauer 1904)    tall, slender or long, probably referring to its elongate body

Lepidophanes Fraser-Brunner 1949    lepido-, scaled; phanes, visible, presumably referring to median “luminous scales” anterior to procurrent caudal-fin rays

Lepidophanes gaussi (Brauer 1906)    in honor of German mathematician and physicist Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855) and/or the ship named after him, which collected type in the first German expedition to the South Pole (1901-1903)

Lepidophanes guentheri (Goode & Bean 1896)    in honor of ichthyologist-herpetologist Albert Günther (1830-1914), author of Catalogue of the Fishes of the British Museum and the fish sections of Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H. M. S. Challenger, “monumental works, which are the foundations of ichthyological work in the last half of the nineteenth century”

Lobianchia Gatti 1904    ia, belonging to: fellow marine biologist Salvatore Lo Bianco (1860-1910), preparator, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn (Naples, Italy)

Lobianchia dofleini (Zugmayer 1911)    in honor of zoologist Franz Doflein (1873-1924), University of Munich, who recommended Zugmayer for the job of studying fishes obtained by the Princesse-Alice of Monaco (1901-1910)

Lobianchia gemellarii (Cocco 1838)    in honor of Cocco’s friend, Italian geologist Carlo Gemellaro (1787-1866), “well known for his interesting geognostic [geological] works on many places in Sicily” (translation)

Loweina Fowler 1925    ina, belonging to: eponym not identified, perhaps in honor of British biologist-clergyman Richard Thomas Lowe (1802-1874), who described several fishes, including one lanternfish, Ceratoscopelus maderensis

Loweina interrupta (Tåning 1928)    interrupted, allusion not explained, possibly referring to incomplete (or weakly developed) lateral line (a character of the genus), its external pores (perforated scales) seldom extending much beyond pelvic-fin origin

Loweina rara (Lütken 1892)    rare or thinly scattered, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to paucity of type material (Lütken made a point of mentioning that he had only four specimens)

Loweina terminata Becker 1964    bounded or limited, referring to its distribution, representing the northern limit of tropical myctophids

Metelectrona Wisner 1963    meta, change or transposition; Electrona, a myctophid genus, denoting the “evolutionary advancement expressed by the distinct elevation of two photophores of the normally unbroken anal series characteristic of the electronid fishes”

Metelectrona ahlstromi Wisner 1963    in honor of Elbert H. Ahlstrom, Southwest Fisheries Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, for his work on the Pacific sardine and other pelagic fishes of the eastern North Pacific

Metelectrona herwigi Hulley 1981    in honor of the German fisheries research vessel Walther Herwig, from which type was collected

Metelectrona ventralis (Becker 1963)    ventral, named for second VO (ventral) photophore higher than the others, a diagnostic feature of the species

Myctophum Rafinesque 1810    etymology not explained, probably a combination of myktos, nose or nostril and [l]ophus, crest or ridge, referring to “big nose [of M. punctatus] with two oblong openings separated by a ridge, and margined by another” (translation); earlier scholars suggested that myctos is a misspelling of nyctos (night) and that phus is derived from phos (light), but Rafinesque did not know that the fish’s “shiny” spot were luminous

Myctophum affine (Lütken 1892)    related, presumably referring to similarity and/or close relationship to Scopelus caninianus (=M. punctatum)

Myctophum asperum Richardson 1845    rough, referring to its “deeply toothed” scales, “the teeth being readily visible to the naked eye, and rendering the fish rough to the touch”

Myctophum aurolaternatum Garman 1899    auro, gold; laternatum, provided with lanterns, referring to golden luminous organs

Myctophum brachygnathum (Bleeker 1856)    brachys, short; gnathos, jaw, presumably referring to jaws not extending beyond posterior margin of eye

Myctophum fissunovi Becker & Borodulina 1971    in honor of G. K. Fissunov, a senior technician-oceanologist aboard the research vessel Vityaz, an “enthusiatic and unsurpassed master in the art of fishing with a cast net,” and to whom the P. P. Shirnov Institute of Oceanology owes for creating “one of the world’s largest collections of epipelagic fishes numbering many thousands of specimens” (translations)

Myctophum indicum (Day 1877)    Indian, referring to Vizagapatam, India, where a single specimen “now in bad shape” (disintegrated) was collected

Myctophum lunatum Becker & Borodulina 1978    lunate, referring to shape of luminous gland at posterodorsal edge of orbit

Myctophum lychnobium Bolin 1946    according to Bolin, “one who lives by lamplight, who turns night into day”

Myctophum nitidulum Garman 1899    diminutive of nitidus, bright, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to smaller and/or fewer luminous organs compared to other lanternfishes described by Garman in the same publication

Myctophum novaeseelandiae (Steindachner 1900)    novae, new, i.e., of New Zealand, type locality

Myctophum obtusirostre Tåning 1928    obtusus, blunt; rostris, snout, probably referring to its “very short” snout

Myctophum orientale (Gilbert 1913)    eastern, “evidently one of the most abundant species in Japanese waters”

Myctophum ovcharovi Tsarin 1993    in honor of myctophid specialist Oleg Petrovich Ovcharov, Ukranian Academy of Sciences, who first noted that M. asperum in the Indian Ocean did not approach the surface in its diurnal vertical migrations

Myctophum phengodes (Lütken 1892)    bright or shining, allusion not explained, presumably a general adjective for a lanternfish

Myctophum punctatum Rafinesque 1810    spotted, referring to “shiny silvery round dots, scattered regularly on the lower body” (translation) [note: Rafinesque did not know that these “dots” were luminous]

Myctophum selenops Tåning 1928    selene, moon; ops, eye, allusion not explained but clearly referring to its large eyes, their diameter 1.4-1.6 in length of upper jaw, 2.2-2.4 in length of head, and 7.0-7.5 in SL

Myctophum spinosum (Steindachner 1867)    thorny, referring to long spine (sometimes two) on lower extremity of each scale at anal-fin base

Nannobrachium Günther 1887    nanus, small; brachium, arm, referring to rudimentary pectoral fins of N. nigrum

Nannobrachium achirus (Andriashev 1962)    a-, without; cheiros, hand, referring to absence of “distinct” (translation) pectoral-fin rays (rudiments of two or three minute rays may be visible microscopically)

Nannobrachium atrum (Tåning 1928)    black, briefly described in a key, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to dark or dusky coloration

Nannobrachium bristori Zahuranec 2000    in honor of Zahuranec’s “good friend,” the late William B. Bristor, Jr. (d. 1999) of Washington, D.C.

Nannobrachium crypticum Zahuranec 2000    obscure or hidden, referring to its unrecognized existence (initially confused with N. atrum and N. nigrum) and relationships

Nannobrachium cuprarium (Tåning 1928)    bronze or coppery; briefly described in a key, allusion not explained nor evident

Nannobrachium fernae (Wisner 1971)    in honor of Wisner’s “good wife” Ferne, “who deserves far more than this small token of my gratitude for her long sufferance of the preoccupation and associated neglectful acts so prevalent among workers in ichthyology”

Nannobrachium gibbsi Zahuranec 2000    in honor of the late Robert H. Gibbs, Jr. (1929-1988), U.S. National Museum, for his “his many contributions to our understanding of open-ocean midwater ichthyology” and the first to recognize the distinctness of this species

Nannobrachium hawaiiensis Zahuranec 2000    ensis, suffix denoting place: Hawaiian Islands, near the center of its range, where it is abundant in surrounding midwaters

Nannobrachium idostigma (Parr 1931)    ido-, form or resemblance; stigma, mark or spot, presumably referring to humeral photophore, described as a “dot”

Nannobrachium indicum Zahuranec 2000    Indian, only species of genus evidently restricted to the Indian Ocean, where it is limited to the Equatorial Region

Nannobrachium isaacsi (Wisner 1974)    in honor of John D. Isaacs (1913-1980), Scripps Institution of Oceanography, for his development of the Isaacs-Kidd midwater trawl and many other contributions to marine science

Nannobrachium lineatum (Tåning 1928)    lined, briefly described in a key, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to higher number of lateral-line scales and/or luminous organs along lateral line compared to N. cuprarium, described in the same paper

Nannobrachium nigrum Günther 1887    black, referring to uniform black coloration

Nannobrachium phyllisae Zahuranec 2000    in honor of Zahuranec’s former wife Phyllis E. Fabian, “as a token of recognition for her many years of support, which culminated in this study”

Nannobrachium regale (Gilbert 1892)    royal or kingly, allusion not explained nor evident

Nannobrachium ritteri (Gilbert 1915)    in honor of marine biologist William Emerson Ritter (1856-1944), Marine Biological Association of San Diego (now Scripps Institution of Oceanography), who collected type

Nannobrachium wisneri Zahuranec 2000    in honor Robert L. Wisner (1921-2005), Scripps Institution of Oceanography, for his contributions to the systematics of myctophids and other oceanic fishes

Notolychnus Fraser-Brunner 1949    etymology not explained, perhaps noto-, back; lychnus, light or lamp, referring to “single deep-set, translucent supracaudal luminous gland before procurrent caudal rays in both sexes,” only on dorsal surface compared to both dorsal and ventral surfaces on the similar Lampadena and Lampanyctus

Notolychnus valdiviae (Brauer 1904)    of the Valdivia Expedition (1898-99), named for the research vessel Valdivia, the first German expedition to explore the deep sea, during which type was collected

Notoscopelus Günther 1864    notos, back, proposed as a subgenus of Scopelus (=Myctophum) with more dorsal-fin rays than anal-fin rays [Scopelus is an old name of some large-eyed fish, from scopus, to look, historically applied to lanternfishes and other pelagic or deep-sea fishes with large eyes]

Subgenus Notoscopelus

Notoscopelus caudispinosus (Johnson 1863)    cauda, tail; spinosus, spiny, referring to eight small sharp spines on upper edge of tail followed by two larger spines

Notoscopelus elongatus (Costa 1844)    elongate, probably referring to the “very elongated shape” (translation) of its scales

Notoscopelus japonicus (Tanaka 1908)    Japanese, referring to type locality, “in all probability” off Misaki, Sagami Sea, Japan

Notoscopelus kroyeri (Malm 1861)    patronym not identified but almost certainly in honor of Danish marine biologist Henrik Nikolai Krøyer (1799-1870) [often incorrectly spelled kroeyeri]

Notoscopelus resplendens (Richardson 1845)    resplendent, “brilliant objects, their large scales being resplendent with prismatic colours”

Subgenus Pareiophus Nafpaktitis 1975    etymology not explained, probably pareion, cheek; ophrys, brow, referring to patches of luminous tissue on cheeks and above eyes

Notoscopelus bolini Nafpaktitis 1975    in honor of ichthyologist (and lanternfish specialist) Rolf Bolin (1901-1973), Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford University, who “all but named” this species in his 1959 review of the genus

Parvilux Hubbs & Wisner 1964    parvus, little; lux, light, referring to “unusually small” photophores

Parvilux boschmai Hubbs & Wisner 1964    in honor of Hilbrand Boschma (1893-1976), Dutch zoologist and director of the Rijksmuseum of Natural History in Leiden, “a man who, with spirit as notably erect as his body, has ably carried on in the fine tradition of the great naturalists of Leiden” [published in a volume of papers honoring Boschma]

Parvilux ingens Hubbs & Wisner 1964    immoderately large, referring to its “relatively immense size” (160 mm SL)

Protomyctophum Fraser-Brunner 1949    protos, first, proposed as a subgenus of Electrona, “clearly the most primitive genus” of myctophids

Subgenus Protomyctophum

Protomyctophum andriashevi Becker 1963    in honor of Soviet ichthyologist Anatoly Petrovich Andriashev (1910-2009), author of a 1962 review on systematics and distribution of lanternfishes of the Southern Hemisphere

Protomyctophum bolini (Fraser-Brunner 1949)    in honor of ichthyologist (and lanternfish specialist) Rolf Bolin (1901-1973), Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford University, who discovered this species but generously insisted that Fraser-Brunner describe it

Protomyctophum choriodon Hulley 1981    choris, asunder or apart; odon, tooth, referring to evenly spaced teeth on palatine

Protomyctophum gemmatum Hulley 1981    adorned with jewels, referring to luminous caudal glands of males

Protomyctophum kolaevi Prokofiev 2004    in honor of V. F. Kolaev, who collected type in 1981 (Kolaev was probably a fishery worker for TINRO [Pacific Scientific Research Fisheries Centre]; Artém Prokofiev, pers. comm.)

Protomyctophum luciferum Hulley 1981    bearing lights, presumably a general reference to its luminous glands and photophores

Protomyctophum mcginnisi Prokofiev 2004    in honor of Richard Frank McGinnis, for his contribution (a 1982 monograph on biogeography) to the study of lanternfishes of the Southern Hemisphere

Protomyctophum normani (Tåning 1932)    in honor of ichthyologist J. R. (John Roxborough) Norman (1898-1944), British Museum (Natural History), who described the related M. tenisoni in 1930

Protomyctophum tenisoni (Norman 1930)    in honor of Lt.-Col. William Percival Cosnahan Tenison (1884-1983), British Army officer who was also a painter and scientific illustrator, and who provided the illustrations in Norman’s report

Subgenus Hierops Fraser-Brunner 1949    hieros, presumably sacred or holy (e.g., heavenly); ops, eye, referring to their “telescopic” eyes

Protomyctophum arcticum (Lütken 1892)    Arctic, probably referring to type locality, Davis Strait, Greenland

Protomyctophum beckeri Wisner 1971    in honor of ichthyologist V. E. Becker, Institute of Oceanology (Moscow), who first recognized the distinctness of this species, for his “extensive and valuable” studies on myctophid fishes collected by various Russian expeditions

Protomyctophum chilense Wisner 1971    ensis, suffix denoting place: southeastern Pacific Ocean off Chile, type locality and where it appears to be confined

Protomyctophum crockeri (Bolin 1939)    in honor of San Francisco philanthropist and self-proclaimed explorer Charles Templeton Crocker (1884-1948), who used his yacht Zaca as a research vessel and thus “played an important role in the zoological exploration of the Pacific”

Protomyctophum parallelum (Lönnberg 1905)    a Southern Atlantic (or sub-Antarctic) species whose distribution parallels that of the closely related P. arcticum from the Northern Atlantic

Protomyctophum subparallelum (Tåning 1932    sub-, somewhat, presumably referring to its resemblance to P. paralellum, both of which Tåning considered to be subspecies of P. arcticum

Protomyctophum thompsoni (Chapman 1944)    in honor of fishery biologist William Francis Thompson (1888-1965), University of Washington (Seattle, USA), for his work in economic fisheries, ichthyology and teaching

Scopelopsis Brauer 1906    opsis, like, referring to how it “agrees in most characters” (translation) with Myctophum, formerly known as Scopelus (an old name of some large-eyed fish, from scopus, to look, historically applied to lanternfishes and other pelagic or deep-sea fishes with large eyes)

Scopelopsis multipunctatus Brauer 1906    multi-, many; punctatus, spotted, presumably referring to head and body studded with minute photophores

Stenobrachius Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1890    stenos, narrow; brachium, arm, referring to “very narrow” pectoral fins of S. leucopsarus

Stenobrachius leucopsarus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1890)    leukos, white; psaros, speckled, referring to light-colored body (lighter than any other lanternfish found near San Diego, California, USA) “dotted with black”

Stenobrachius nannochir (Gilbert 1890)    nanus, small; cheiros, hand, referring to “very short and narrow” pectoral fins

Symbolophorus Bolin & Wisner 1959    symbolum, symbol or sign; fero-, to bear, referring to “very strongly angulated” SAO (supra-anal) photophore, which distinguishes it from Myctophum

Symbolophorus barnardi (Tåning 1932)    in honor of Keppel Harcourt Barnard (1887-1964), South African Museum, who raised the possibility that this species is distinct from Myctophum humboldti (=punctatum) in 1925

Symbolophorus boops (Richardson 1845)    bo, ox; ops, eye, referring to its “large round eye, which fills about half the space between the tip of the snout and edge of the gill-cover”

Symbolophorus californiensis (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889)    ensis, suffox denoting place: California, referring to type locality at Cortez Banks, off San Diego, California, USA

Symbolophorus evermanni (Gilbert 1905)    in honor of ichthyologist Barton Warren Evermann (1853-1932), United States Fish Commission, which published Gilbert’s monograph

Symbolophorus kreffti Hulley 1981    in honor of Gerhard Krefft (1912-1993), Institut für Seefischerei (Hamburg), the first to realize that specimens of Symbolophorus from near the Cape Verde Islands might be specifically distinct from S. veranyi

Symbolophorus reversus Gago & Ricord 2005    turned back, referring to “reverse-concavity form” of luminous plates on supracaudal gland of males; these plates are turned backward in position when compared to the closely related S. evermanni

Symbolophorus rufinus (Tåning 1928)    rufous or rosy; briefly described in a key, allusion not explained nor evident, perhaps referring to color of photophores in life

Symbolophorus veranyi (Moreau 1888)    in honor of French pharmacist-naturalist Jean Baptiste Vérany (1800-1865), director and co-founder of the Muséum d’histoire naturelle de Nice

Taaningichthys Bolin 1959    in honor of Danish lanternfish expert Åge Vedel Tåning (1890-1958), who discovered two of the species included in the genus, for his contributions to the knowledge of Myctophidae and for “many gracious favors” bestowed upon Bolin; ichthys, fish

Taaningichthys bathyphilus (Tåning 1928)    bathys, deep; philios, loving, i.e., lover of the deep, probably referring to depth of capture of type specimen, ~2000 meters (4000 meters of wire out)

Taaningichthys minimus (Tåning 1928)    least, probably referring to its small size, up to ~65 mm

Taaningichthys paurolychnus Davy 1972    pauros, few or small; lychnus, light or lamp, referring to absence of primary photophores and presence of limited, presumably secondary photophores

Tarletonbeania Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1890    ia, belonging to: ichthyologist Tarleton H. Bean (1846-1916), U.S. National Museum

Tarletonbeania crenularis (Jordan & Gilbert 1880)    slightly scalloped, referring to crenulate scales on sides

Tarletonbeania taylori Mead 1953    in honor of oceanographer Frederick Henry Carlyle Taylor (b. 1919), Pacific Biological Station (Namaimo, British Columbia, Canada), “whose initiative and enterprise, coupled with the material support of the three governments involved [USA, Canada, Japan], made the trawling experiments [during which type was collected] possible”

Tarletonbeania tenua Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1890    slender, referring to greatly compressed body, highest at shoulders, tapering to a very slender caudal peduncle

Triphoturus Fraser-Brunner 1949    tri-, three; photos, light; uros, tail, referring to three Prc (precaudal) photophores “equally spaced in [an] oblique line”

Triphoturus mexicanus (Gilbert 1890)    Mexican, referring to type locality, off Baja California, México (but widespread in Eastern Pacific)

Triphoturus microchir (Gilbert 1913)    micro-, small; cheiros, hand, referring to “very short and slender” pectoral fins, not reaching ventral fins

Triphoturus nigrescens (Brauer 1904)    blackish, allusion not explained nor evident, perhaps referring to body coloration in life

Triphoturus oculeum (Garman 1899)    sharp-eyed, referring to its large eyes, ¼ as long as head