Order CYPRINIFORMES: Family NEMACHEILIDAE

COMMENTS
v. 28.0 – 15 March 2017  view/download PDF

Family NEMACHEILIDAE Stone Loaches                    
47 genera • 690 species/subspecies

Aborichthys Chaudhuri 1913    Abor Hills, Arunachal Pradesh, northeast India, type locality of A. kempi (=A. boutanensis); ichthys, fish

Aborichthys boutanensis (McClelland 1842)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Boutan (now spelled Bhutan), where type locality (Mishmee Mountains) is situated (also occurs in India)

Aborichthys cataracta Arunachalam, Raja, Malaiammal & Mayden 2014    waterfall, referring to habitat where only population has been discovered and may be restricted

Aborichthys elongatus Hora 1921    referring to “greatly elongated and compressed” body form                   

Aborichthys garoensis Hora 1925    ensis, suffix denoting place: Garo Hills, Meghalaya, Assam, India, type locality                   

Aborichthys tikaderi Barman 1985    in honor of arachnologist Benoy Krishna Tikader (1928-1994), Director, Zoological Survey of India, for laboratory facilities and for encouragement

Aborichthys verticauda Arunachalam, Raja, Malaiammal & Mayden 2014    
vertica-, vertical; cauda, tail, referring to straight or slightly truncate caudal fin

Aborichthys waikhomi Kosygin 2012    in honor of ichthyologist Waikhom Vishwanath, Manipur University, for his encouragement of the author’s work on this species

Acanthocobitis Peters 1861    acanthus, spine, referring to prominent spine under eyes of A. longipinnis; cobitis, ancient name for loach, derived from the Greek kobitis, a gudgeon                      

Acanthocobitis pavonacea (McClelland 1839)    –aceus, having the nature of: pavo, peacock, referring to peacock-like ocellus, or eyespot, on caudal peduncle

Afronemacheilus Golubtsov & Prokofiev 2009    Afro-, African, i.e., Nemacheilus from Africa

Afronemacheilus abyssinicus (Boulenger 1902)    Abyssinian, referring to what is now Ethiopia, where it is endemic

Afronemacheilus kaffa Prokofiev & Golubsov 2013    named after Kaffa, historical region of Ethiopia, where type locality is situated                 

Barbatula Linck 1790     tautonymous with Cobitis barbatula                              

Barbatula altayensis Zhu 1992    ensis, suffix denoting place: near Altay City, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, type locality                     

Barbatula barbatula barbatula (Linnaeus 1758)    diminutive of barba, beard, referring to six barbels around upper jaw, larger than those on similar Cobitis taenia (Cobitidae)                      

Barbatula barbatula caucasicus (Berg 1898)    icus, belonging to: northern Caucasus region, Russia, region of Terek River basin, type locality                         

Barbatula barbatula vardarensis (Karaman 1928)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Vardar River basin, Macedonia, type locality                             

Barbatula cobdonensis (Gundriser 1973)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Kobdo (also known as Khovd) River basin, Russia, where it is endemic

Barbatula compressirostris (Warpachowski 1897)    compressus, compressed; rostris, snout, referring to “strongly compressed” (translation) snout (caused by drying of two syntype specimens, Artém Prokofiev, pers. comm.)    

Barbatula conilobus Prokofiev 2016    conus, cone; lobus, lobe, referring to conical protrusions of mental lobes of lower lip

Barbatula dgebuadzei (Prokofiev 2003)    in honor of ichthyologist Yu. Yu. Dgebaudze, who collected type     

Barbatula dsapchynensis Prokofiev 2016    ensis, suffix denoting place: Dsapchyn, old name of Zavkhan River basin, Mongolia, where it occurs

Barbatula golubtsovi (Prokofiev 2003)    in honor of ichthyologist A. S. Golubstov, who collected type

Barbatula markakulensis (Menshikov 1939)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Lake Marka-kul’, Irtysh basin, Kazakhstan, type locality

Barbatula minxianensis (Wang & Zhu 1979)    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Minxian (or Min County), Gansu Province, China, where type locality (upper drainage of Tau-He River, Yellow River system) is situated

Barbatula nuda (Bleeker 1865)    bare or naked, referring to nearly scaleless body (scales only on a caudal-fin base)

Barbatula oreas (Jordan & Fowler 1903)    of the hills, allusion not explained, presumably referring to hill-stream habitat in Hokkaido, Japan

Barbatula potaninorum (Prokofiev 2007)    –orum, commemorative suffix, plural: in honor of Grigory Nikolevich Potanin (1835-1920, who collected type) and his wife Alexandra Victorovna, both famous Central Asian explorers                     

Barbatula quignardi (Bacescu-Mester 1967)    in honor of ichthyologist Jean-Pierre Quignard, Marine Station, Sète, France, by whose courtesy the author obtained the types                

Barbatula restricta Prokoviev 2015    restricted, referring to its narrow distribution, known only from Saldan-Kol (=Dlinnoye) Lake, Altai Republic, Russia

Barbatula sawadai (Prokofiev 2007)    in honor of Yukio Sawada, Japanese ichthyologist who studied the osteology of loaches               

Barbatula sturanyi (Steindachner 1892)    in honor of Austrian malacologist Rudolf Sturany (1867-1935), who accompanied Steindachner when type was collected in Macedonia, “as a token of my sincerest affection” (translation)

Barbatula tomiana (Ruzsky 1920)    –ana, belonging to: Tom River, Siberia, type locality                               

Barbatula toni (Dybowski 1869)    etymology not explained nor evident, perhaps a misprint or misspelling of Tom, referring to Tom River, a Zeja River tributary in upper Amur drainage, not far from type locality (Artém Prokofiev, pers. comm.)                    

Barbatula zetensis (Soric 2000)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Zeta River drainage, Montenegro, type locality                                                            

Claea Kottelat 2011    replacement name for Oreias Sauvage 1874, preoccupied by two bird names; since Oreias is from the ancient Greek Oreiad, a nymph of the mountain, and each mountain was represented by its own Oreiad nymph, Kottelat selected one of the few Oreiad names not already used as a genus name as the replacement: Claea, nymph of a sacred cave on Mount Kalathion in Messina                          

Claea dabryi (Sauvage 1874)    patronym not identified, probably in honor of Pierre Dabry de Thiersant, a French counsel to China, who sent specimens to the Muséum d’Histoire naturelle de Paris                                

Claea niulanjiangensis (Chen, Lu & Mao 2006)    from Niulan River (jiang = river), Yunnan Province, China, where it is endemic                    

Draconectes Kottelat 2012    drakon, dragon; nectes, swimmer, referring to Halong Bay, where island habitat of D. narinosus occurs (Ha Long means “descending dragon” and is derived from a local legend that dragons created the landscape of the bay)          

Draconectes narinosus Kottelat 2012    large-nostriled, referring to relatively large nostrils and their wide openings, apparently unique in the family

Dzihunia Prokofiev 2001    –ia, belonging to: Dzihun, ancient Arabian name for the Amu Darya, river in Uzbekistan and Turkestan where D. amudarjensis occurs                                 

Dzihunia amudarjensis (Rass 1929)    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Amu Darya river at Termez, Uzbekistan, type locality (also occurs in Turkestan)

Dzihunia ilan (Turdakov 1936)     etymology not explained, presumably a local name for this species in Uzbekistan (Artém Prokofiev, pers. comm.)                            

Dzihunia turdakovi Prokofiev 2003    in honor of Fedor Turdakov, specialist in nemacheiline systematics and the fish fauna of Middle and Central Asia       

Eidinemacheilus Hashemzadeh Segherloo, Ghaedrahmati & Freyhof 2016    Eidi, named for Eidi Heidari, Lorestan Bureau of Environment, the ranger who protects the spring in which E. smithi occurs; nemacheilus, a nemacheiline loach

Eidinemacheilus proudlovei Freyhof, Abdullah, Ararat, Ibrahim & Geiger 2016    in honor of Graham Proudlove (University of Manchester), “a world expert on subterranean fishes, for his continuous efforts documenting the diversity of troglomorphic fishes”

Eidinemacheilus smithi (Greenwood 1976)    in honor of writer, explorer and television personality Anthony Smith (b. 1926), who took “great pains (some of them physical)” in collecting (“not without considerable difficulty”) type           

Eonemachilus Berg 1938    eos, dawn, allusion not explained; since eos is often used as a prefix for fossil and primitive fishes, perhaps Berg considered the type species (E. nigromaculatus), with its anterior mouth (for which it “deserved to be separated into a distinct genus”), as a primitive or basal Nemacheilus

Eonemachilus longidorsalis (Li, Tao & Lu 2000)    longus, long; dorsalis, of the back, referring to long dorsal fin, longest ray opposite end of anal fin base

Eonemachilus nigromaculatus (Regan 1904)    nigro-, black; maculatus, spotted, referring to blackish spots or marblings on back and sides

Eonemachilus yangzonghaiensis (Cao & Zhu 1989)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Yangzong-hai Lake, Yunnan Province, China, type locality

Hedinichthys Rendahl 1933    named for geographer and explorer Sven Hedin (1865-1952), who led expedition to China that collected specimens of H. yarkadensis in 1927-28; ichthys, fish

Hedinichthys grummorum Prokofiev 2010    orum, commemorative suffix, plural: in honor of the Central-Asian explorers, the brothers Grigorii Efimovich (1860-1936) and Vladimir Efimovich Grumm-Grzhimailo (1864-1928), who collected type in 1891   

Hedinichthys macropterus (Herzenstein 1888)    macro-, long; pterus, fin, referring to longer fins compared to H. yarkadensis

Hedinichthys minutus (Li 1966)    small, referring to shorter body length (34.6-52.6 mm) compared to Triplophysa stolickai (54.0-109.8 mm)

Hedinichthys yarkandensis (Day 1877)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Yarkand region of China, type locality (also occurs in India)

Heminoemacheilus Zhu & Cao 1987    hemi-, partial, presumably referring to incomplete lateral line, which disappears behind pectoral fin; noemacheilus, a nemacheiline loach

Heminoemacheilus hyalinus Lan, Yang & Chen 1996    glassy or transparent, referring to translucency of skin

Heminoemacheilus parvus Zhu & Zhu 2015    small, presumably referring to slender shape compared to H. hyalinus and/or shorter TL (43.6 mm) compared to congeners (52-99 mm) [originally spelled parva; should be parvus since Heminoemacheilus is masculine]

Heminoemacheilus zhengbaoshani Zhu & Cao 1987    in honor of Zheng Baoshan, for his contributions to Chinese ichthyology

Homatula Nichols 1925    combination of Homaloptera (“which it suggests”) and Barbatula (“for the present considered a subgenus of Barbatula”)

Homatula acuticephala (Zhou & He 1993)    acutus, sharp; cephala, head, referring to pointed, cone-shaped head

Homatula anguillioides (Zhu & Wang 1985)    –oides, having the form of: anguilla, eel, referring to cylindrical and elongated body

Homatula berezowskii (Günther 1896)     in honor of Russian explorer M. Berezowski, who traveled to China in 1892-94 and collected type

Homatula change Endruweit 2015    named for Change E, lunar goddess in Chinese mythology, said to be of incredible beauty, presumably referring to this loach’s coloration in life

Homatula disparizona Min, Yang & Chen 2013    dispar, dissimilar; zona, band, referring to “very” variable color pattern, with anterior bars that join dorsally and posterior stripes that sometimes enclose a series of pale ovoid blotches along midlateral line

Homatula erhaiensis (Zhu & Cao 1988)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Erhai Lake, Yunnan Province, China, where it is endemic

Homatula laxiclathra Gu & Zhang 2012     laxus, wide; clathrus, barred, referring to wider vertical bars on caudal peduncle compared to H. berezowskii, H. longidorsalis and H. variegata

Homatula longidorsalis (Yang, Chen & Kottelat 1994)     longus, long; dorsalis, dorsal fin, referring to nine branched dorsal fin rays, compared to eight rays in most specimens of H. variegata

Homatula nanpanjiangensis (Min, Chen & Yang 2010)    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Nanpanjiang River drainage, Yunnan Province, China, where it is endemic

Homatula oligolepis (Cao & Zhu 1989)    oligo-, few; lepis, scale, referring to scaleless body except for caudal-fin base

Homatula potanini (Günther 1896)    in honor of Grigory Nikolayaevich Potanin (1835-1920), Russian explorer of Inner Asia, who collected type

Homatula pycnolepis Hu & Zhang 2010    pycnos, dense; lepis, scale, referring to densely scaled predorsal body

Homatula variegata (Dabry de Thiersant 1874)    variegated, presumably referring to slightly wavy bands across a yellow-brown mottled body

Homatula wujiangensis (Ding & Deng 1990)    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Wujiang River, Sichuan Province, China, type locality

Homatula wuliangensis Min, Yang & Chen 2012    ensis, suffix denoting place: Baimushan River in the Wuliang Mountains, Jingdong County, Yunnan Province, China, where it is endemic

Indoreonectes Rita & Bănărescu 1978    Indo-, India, described as an Indian subgenus of Oreonectes

Indoreonectes evezardi (Day 1872)    in honor of Col. George C. Evezard, Bombay Staff Corps, who assisted in procuring the single type specimen

Indoreonectes keralensis (Rita & Nalbant 1978)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Kerala State, India, where it is endemic

Indotriplophysa Prokofiev 2010    Triplophysa from Indo, referring to Indus River system (India and China), where several species occur

Indotriplophysa choprai (Hora 1934)    in honor of Dr. B. N. Chopra, who led expedition that collected type, and who provided information and suggestions useful in the preparation of Hora’s report

Indotriplophysa crassicauda (Herzenstein 1888)    crassus, wide; cauda, tail, referring to deeper caudal peduncle compared to I. leptosoma

Indotriplophysa eugeniae (Prokofiev 2002)    in honor of Russian ichthyologist Eugenia K. Sytchevskaya, who helped and supported Prokofiev and critically perused his manuscript

Indotriplophysa leptosoma (Herzenstein 1888)    leptos, thin; soma, body, referring to thin, tapering body

Indotriplophysa tenuicauda (Steindachner 1866)    tenuis, thin or slender; cauda, tail, referring to narrower caudal peduncle compared to Triplophysa stolickai

Indotriplophysa tenuis (Day 1877)    thin, referring to more elongate body compared to Triplophysa ladacensis

Indotriplophysa yasinensis (Alcock 1898)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Yasin River, Ladakh, India, type locality (also occurs in Pakistan)

Iskandaria Prokofiev 2009    ia, belonging to: Iskandar, Arabian nickname of Alexander the Macedonian, conqueror of Middle Asia, referring to distribution in Uzbekistan

Iskandaria kuschakewitschi kuschakewitschi (Herzenstein 1890)    in memory of A. A. Kushakewitsch, traveler and explorer through Middle Asia

Iskandaria kuschakewitschi badamensis (Turdakov 1948)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Badam River, Kazakhstan, type locality [sometimes spelled badameusis, presumably a typo]

Iskandaria pardalis (Turdakov 1941)    like a leopard, referring to brown spots and speckles on body

Labiatophysa Prokofiev 2010    labiatus, large-lipped, referring to deeply furrowed and papillated lips of type species, L. labiata; –physa-, suffix for Triplophysa, originally proposed as a subgenus of Triplophysa

Labiatophysa herzensteini (Berg 1909)     patronym not identified but clearly in honor of Russian ichthyologist Solomon Markovich Herzenstein (1854-1894), who described many Middle-Asian loaches

Labiatophysa kaznakowi (Prokofiev 2004)    in honor of Russian naturalist Alexsandr N. Kaznakov (1872-1933), who helped collect type in 1899

Labiatophysa labiata (Kessler 1874)     lipped, referring to deeply furrowed and papillated lips

Labiatophysa microphthalma (Kessler 1879)    micro-, small; opthalmus, eye, presumably referring to eye size, described as fitting 8-9 times in length of head

Labiatophysa nasalis (Kessler 1876)     nasal, referring to anterior nares produced as “nearly barbel-like semitubules” (translation)

Lefua Herzenstein 1888     named for Lefu (Ilistaya) River, Khanka Lake basin, Amur River drainage, Russia, type locality of L. pleskei

Lefua costata (Kessler 1876)    ribbed, probably referring to “sharply expressed intermuscular furrows” (translation) along lateral line

Lefua echigonia Jordan & Richardson 1907    ia, belonging to: Echigo, a province in Japan, type locality

Lefua hoffmanni Herre 1932    in honor of William E. Hoffmann, Director of the Lingnan Natural History Survey and Museum, who accompanied Herre on his field trips in China and collected some of the type series

Lefua nikkonis (Jordan & Fowler 1903)    is, genitive singular of: Nikkon, Japan, near where it occurs

Lefua pleskei (Herzenstein 1888)    in honor of zoologist Fedor (also spelled Theodor) Dmitrievich Pleske (1858-1932), who collected type

Lefua sayu (Herre & Lin 1936)    Chinese name for this species, from sa, sand, and yu, loach

Mesonoemacheilus Bănărescu & Nalbant 1982    meson, middle, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to its affinities lying in the middle between several nemacheiline genera, and/or to well-marked roundish spot in middle of caudal base of M. herrei (compared to dark vertical bar at base of caudal in Schistura)

Mesonoemacheilus guentheri (Day 1867)    in honor of ichthyologist and herpetologist Albert Günther (1830-1914)

Mesonoemacheilus herrei Nalbant & Bănărescu 1982     in honor of the late Albert W. Herre (1868-1962), ichthyologist-lichenologist, who collected type in 1941

Mesonoemacheilus menoni (Zacharias & Minimol 1999)     in honor of ichthyologist A. G. K. Menon (1921-2002), for help, comments and suggestions on the authors’ paper

Mesonoemacheilus pambarensis (Rema Devi & Indra 1994)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Pambar River at border of Chinnar Sanctuary, Western Ghats, Kerala, India, type locality

Mesonoemacheilus periyarensis (Madhusoodana Kurup & Radhakrishnan 2005)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Lake Periyar, Kerala, India, where it is endemic

Mesonoemacheilus petrubanarescui (Menon 1984)    in honor of Petru M. Bănărescu (1921-2009), Institute of Biology, Bucharest, for his “outstanding” contributions to the knowledge of cobitid systematics

Mesonoemacheilus pulchellus (Day 1873)    diminutive of pulcher, beautiful, “a beautiful little Loach” with two rows of canary-colored spots on sides and orange spots on a yellow dorsal fin

Mesonoemacheilus remadevae Shaji 2002    in honor of K. Rema Devi, Zoological Survey of India, Chennai, for her contributions to the studies of freshwater fishes [orginally spelled remadevii; since name honors a woman, remadevae reflects the correct gender]

Mesonoemacheilus triangularis triangularis (Day 1865)    triangular, allusion not explained, presumably referring to V-shaped bands on sides

Mesonoemacheilus triangularis tambaraparniensis (Menon 1987)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Tambaraparni basin near Courtalam, Tamil Nadu, India, where it is endemic

Micronemacheilus Rendahl 1944    micro-, small, probably referring to small size of M. cruciatus, 17.5-25.0 mm; noemacheilus, a nemacheiline loach

Micronemacheilus cruciatus Rendahl 1944    cross-shaped, referring to dark longitudinal band and numerous dark horizontal stripes that cross it

Nemacheilus Bleeker 1863    nema, thread; cheilus, lip, referring to six filamentous barbels around mouth

Nemacheilus anguilla Annandale 1919    eel, presumably referring to “elongate, shallow and somewhat compressed” body shape

Nemacheilus arenicolus Kottelat 1998    arena, sand; colere, to inhabit, referring to sandy substrate habitat

Nemacheilus banar Freyhof & Serov 2001    named for the “friendly people” of the Ba Nar ethnic community, Kontum Province, Viêt Nam, type locality

Nemacheilus binotatus Smith 1933    bi-, two; notatus, marked, referring to two short vertical bars on body over distal half of pectoral fins

Nemacheilus chrysolaimos (Valenciennes 1846)    chrysos, gold; laimos, mouth, referring to golden color of barbels

Nemacheilus cleopatra Freyhof & Serov 2001    named for the “brilliant” Queen of Egypt (69 BC-30 BC), comparing her “legendary beauty” to this loach’s “elegant and beautiful” appearance

Nemacheilus corica (Hamilton 1822)    latinization of Khorika, Bengali vernacular for this species

Nemacheilus elegantissimus Chin & Samat 1992     most beautiful, referring to its graceful appearance in life

Nemacheilus fasciatus (Valenciennes 1846)    banded, referring to a “score of small transversal black stripes down the back which vanish under the belly” (translation)

Nemacheilus jaklesii (Bleeker 1852)     in honor of friend and colleague P. Jakles, Surgeon Lieutenant Colonel, Dutch East Indian Army, who collected type

Nemacheilus kaimurensis Husain & Tilak 1998     ensis, suffix denoting place: Kaimur Range, Uttar Pradesh, India, type locality

Nemacheilus kapuasensis Kottelat 1984    ensis, suffix denoting place: Kapuas River drainage, Kalimantan Barat, Sarawak, type locality

Nemacheilus lactogeneus Roberts 1989    lactis, milk; –geneus, producing, referring to milk-white coloration in life

Nemacheilus longipectoralis Popta 1905    longus, long, referring to elongated pectoral fins, extending beyond ventral-fin base

Nemacheilus longipinnis Ahl 1922    longus, long; pinnis, fin, referring to long dorsal fin rays, the first ray longer than length of head

Nemacheilus longistriatus Kottelat 1990    longus, long; striatus, furrowed or grooved (i.e., striped), referring to longitudinal black stripe

Nemacheilus marang Hadiaty & Kottelat 2010    named after the type locality, Sungai Marang, East Kalimantan, Indonesia

Nemacheilus masyae Smith 1933    in honor of ichthyologist and illustrator Luang Masya Chitrakarn (1896-1965, also known as Prasop Teeranunt), Siamese Department of Fisheries, for his interest and zeal in the study of Thai fishes and his skill in portraying them with pen and brush (he also helped collect type)

Nemacheilus monilis Hora 1921    string of beads, referring to “peculiar moniliform band of black pigment on either side”

Nemacheilus olivaceus Boulenger 1894    olive-colored, referring to yellow-brown coloration

Nemacheilus ornatus Kottelat 1990    ornate or embellished, referring to black stripes and blotches on a yellowish background

Nemacheilus pallidus Kottelat 1990    pale or pallid, referring to yellowish body

Nemacheilus papillos Tan & Kottelat 2009     papilla, bud; os, mouth, referring to strongly papillated lips

Nemacheilus paucimaculatus Bohlen & Šlechtová 2011    pauci-, few; maculata, blotched, referring to low number of lateral and dorsal blotches compared to most congeners in the N. fasciatus species group

Nemacheilus pfeifferae (Bleeker 1853)    in honor of Ida Laura Pfeiffer (1797-1858), Austrian traveler and travel writer, who collected type

Nemacheilus platiceps Kottelat 1990    platus, flat; ceps, head, referring to depressed head with flat interorbital area

Nemacheilus saravacensis Boulenger 1894    ensis, suffix denoting place: Sarawak state, Borneo, East Malaysia, type locality

Nemacheilus selangoricus Duncker 1904    icus, belonging to: Selangor, one of the Federated Malay States, type locality

Nemacheilus spiniferus Kottelat 1984    spina, spine; fero, to bear, referring to spine-like extension on posterior portion of lateral line and caudal peduncle scales

Nemacheilus stigmofasciatus Arunachalam & Muralidharan 2009    stigma-, blotch; fasciatus, banded, referring to regularly sized blotches alternating with bands on sides

Nemacheilus tebo Hadiaty & Kottelat 2009    referring to Lake Tebo drainage, East Kalimantan, Borneo, Indonesia, where it is endemic

Nemacheilus troglocataractus Kottelat & Géry 1989     trogle, hole, referring to cave habitat; cataracta, waterfall, translation of Nam Tok, Thai word for waterfall and name of both cave where it occurs and nearest populated town

Nemacheilus tuberigum Hadiaty & Siebert 2001    tuber, swelling; [man]gus, large, referring to comparatively large tubercles on either side of lateral line on anterior part of caudal peduncle

Nemachilichthys Day 1878     Nemachil-, abridgement of Nemacheilus; ichthys, fish, i.e., a fish similar to Nemacheilus

Nemachilichthys ruppelli (Sykes 1839)     in honor of naturalist and explorer Eduard Rüppell (1794-1884), who looked over Sykes’ drawing and shared his opinions on the genera of fishes [Sykes misspelled the name as “rupelli”; since he correctly spelled Rüppell’s name elsewhere in his paper, the spelling of the epithet should be emended (add the missing “p”), but since he did not place an umlaut over the “u” the spelling should not additionally be emended to “rueppelli” as many have done]

Neonoemacheilus Zhu & Guo 1985    neo-, new, i.e., a new genus close to Nemacheilus

Neonoemacheilus assamensis (Menon 1987)     ensis, suffix denoting place: Assam, India, type locality

Neonoemacheilus labeosus (Kottelat 1982)    thick-lipped, referring to very thick lips, feebly but regularly pleated

Neonoemacheilus mengdingensis Zhu & Guo 1989    ensis, suffix denoting place: near Mending, Gengmaxian County, Yunnan Province, China, type locality

Neonoemacheilus morehensis Arunkumar 2000    ensis, suffix denoting place: only member of genus known from Moreh area of Yu-River system, Manipur, India

Neonoemacheilus peguensis (Hora 1929)     ensis, suffix denoting place: Pegu Yoma hills, east of the Irrawaddy River, Myanmar, type locality

Oreonectes Günther 1868    oreos, mountain; nekton, swimmer, referring to type locality of O. platycephalus from near the top of Hong Kong Mountains, China, 15,000 feet above sea level

Oreonectes acridorsalis Lan 2013    acri-, misspelling of arcus, bow; dorsalis, dorsal, referring to its back, which arches up to the dorsal fin, then downward to the tail

Oreonectes anophthalmus Zheng 1981    an-, without; ophthalmus, referring to its blindness

Oreonectes barbatus Gan 2013     bearded, referring to its thin barbels, the thinnest in the genus

Oreonectes daqikongensis Deng, Wen, Xiao & Zhou 2016    –ensis, suffix denoting place: known only from a karst cave in Daqikong area, Libo County, Guizhou Province, China

Oreonectes donglanensis Wu 2013     –ensis, suffix denoting place: Donglan County, Guangxi Province, China, type locality

Oreonectes duanensis Lan 2013    ensis, suffix denoting place: Du’an County, Guangxi Province, China, where Chen Jiang Town (type locality) is situated

Oreonectes elongatus Tang, Zhao & Zhang 2012    elongate, being the most elongate member of its genus

Oreonectes furcocaudalis Zhu & Cao 1987    furcatus, forked; cauda, tail, referring to forked caudal fin

Oreonectes guananensis Yang, Wei, Lan & Yang 2011    ensis, suffix denoting place: a cave in Guan’an village, Huanjiang County, Guangxi Province, China, type locality

Oreonectes luochengensis Yang, Wu, Wei & Yang 2011    ensis, suffix denoting place: Luocheng, Guangxi Province, China, type locality

Oreonectes macrolepis Huang, Du, Chen & Yang 2009    macro-, large; lepis, scale, referring to larger visible scales compared to O. furcocaudalis and O. microphthalmus

Oreonectes microphthalmus Du, Chen & Yang 2008    micro-, small; opthalmus, eye, referring to its degenerate eyes, which are merely a small dot of black pigment

Oreonectes platycephalus Günther 1868    platy, flat; cephalus, head, referring to “much depressed” head

Oreonectes polystigmus Du, Chen & Yang 2008    poly, many; stigma, mark, referring to numerous dark brown spots on body

Oreonectes retrodorsalis Lan, Yang & Chen 1995    retro-, back; dorsalis, of the back, referring to posterior placement of dorsal fin, dorsal fin insertion closer to caudal-fin base than to tip of snout

Oreonectes shuilongensis Deng, Xiao, Hou & Zhou 2016    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Shuilong Township, Sandu County, Guizhou Province, China, type locality

Oreonectes translucens Zhang, Zhao & Zhang 2006    transparent, referring to its semitransparent appearance in life

Oxynoemacheilus Bănărescu & Nalbant 1966    oxy, sharp, probably referring to pointed snout, i.e., Nemacheilus with pointed snouts

Oxynoemacheilus anatolicus Erk’akan, Özeren & Nalbant 2008   Anatolian, referring to type locality (inlet of Karamanli Dam lake, Burdur) in southwestern region of Turkey

Oxynoemacheilus angorae (Steindachner 1897)    of Angora, historic name of Ankara, Turkey, referring to Turkish distribution

Oxynoemacheilus araxensis (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1978)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Araxes basin, eastern Turkey, type locality

Oxynoemacheilus argyrogramma (Heckel 1847)    argyros, silver; gramme, line, presumably referring to silvery lateral line (“linea laterali argentea”)

Oxynoemacheilus atili Erk’akan 2012    in honor of Mr. Ahmet Tuncay Atil (no other information provided)

Oxynoemacheilus banarescui (Delmastro 1982)    in honor of Petru M. Bănărescu (1921-2009), Institute of Biology, Bucharest, “illustrious” (translation) ichthyologist and naturalist

Oxynoemacheilus bergianus (Derjavin 1934)    –anus, belonging to: the “great and famous” (translation) ichthyologist Lev (also Leo) Semyonovich Berg (1876-1950)

Oxynoemacheilus brandtii (Kessler 1877)    in honor of German naturalist Johann Friedrich von Brandt (1802-1879), who provided four of the five specimens Kessler used in his description

Oxynoemacheilus bureschi (Drensky 1928)    in honor of entomologist Ivan Yosifov Buresch (also spelled Buresh, 1885-1980), dubbed by others the “patriarch of Bulgarian biology,” who, through his influence and connections to Tsar Boris III, made it possible for Drensky to collect specimens throughout Bulgaria

Oxynoemacheilus ceyhanensis (Erk’akan, Nalbant & Özeren 2007)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Ceyhan basin, Turkey, presumably referring to where it occurs

Oxynoemacheilus chomanicus Kamangar, Prokofiev, Ghaderi & Nalbant 2014    –icus, belonging to: Choman River basin, Kurdistan, Iran, where it is endemic

Oxynoemacheilus cinicus (Erk’akan, Nalbant & Özeren 2007)     icus, belonging to: Cin Stream, Turkey, type locality and only known area of occurrence

Oxynoemacheilus cyri (Berg 1910)    of the upper Kura River (Cyrus in Latin), Turkey, type locality

Oxynoemacheilus ercisianus (Erk’akan & Kuru 1986)     ana, belonging to: Ercis stream, Lake Van basin, Turkey, type locality

Oxynoemacheilus erdali (Erk’akan, Nalbant & Özeren 2007)     in honor of Erdal Erk’akan, presumably a relative of the senior author

Oxynoemacheilus eregliensis (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1978)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Eregli, southwestern central Turkey, type locality

Oxynoemacheilus euphraticus (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1978)    icus, belonging to: Euphrates River basin (Turkey), type locality (also occurs in same river basin in Iran and Iraq)

Oxynoemacheilus evreni (Erk’akan, Nalbant & Özeren 2007)    in honor of Evren Erk’akan, presumably a relative of the senior author

Oxynoemacheilus frenatus frenatus (Heckel 1843)    bridle, referring to black stripe that extends from eye to eye across the snout

Oxynoemacheilus frenatus afrenatus (Battagil 1941)    a-, without; frenatus, bridle, referring to absence of stripe across snout as seen on nominate subspecies

Oxynoemacheilus galilaeus (Günther 1864)    –eus, adjectival suffix: referring to Sea of Galilee (Lake Tiberias), Israel, type locality

Oxynoemacheilus germencicus (Erk’akan, Nalbant & Özeren 2007)    icus, belonging to: Germencik, Turkey, type locality

Oxynoemacheilus gyndes Freyhof & Abdullah 2017    ancient Greek name for the Sirvan River, referring to distribution in Sirvan River drainage, Iraqi Kurdistan

Oxynoemacheilus hamwii (Krupp & Schneider 1991)     in honor of the late Adel Hamwi, Professor of Zoology, University of Damascus, for contributions to Syrian zoology and for helping the authors in the field

Oxynoemacheilus hanae Freyhof & Abdullah 2017    in honor of Hana A. Raza, who works for Nature Iraq in Sulaymaniyah, who accompanied the senior author during fieldwork in Iraqi Kurdistan

Oxynoemacheilus insignis (Heckel 1843)    conspicuous, probably referring to black-marble body color pattern

Oxynoemacheilus kaynaki Freyhof 2016    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Karun River, one of two Iranian rivers (the other is the River Jarahi) where it occurs

Oxynoemacheilus kaynaki Erk’akan, Özeren & Nalbant 2008    in honor of Hüseyin Kaynak, father of senior author

Oxynoemacheilus kiabii Golzarianpour, Abdoli & Freyhof 2011    in honor of zoologist Bahram H. Kiabi, Shahid Beheshti University, for his contribution to the conservation of Iranian vertebrates, especially fishes

Oxynoemacheilus kosswigi (Erk’akan & Kuru 1986)    in honor of Turkish zoologist and geneticist Curt Kosswig (1903-1982)

Oxynoemacheilus kurdistanicus Kamangar, Prokofiev, Ghaderi & Nalbant 2014    –anus, belonging to: Kurdistan, Iran, where it is endemic

Oxynoemacheilus lenkoranensis (Abdurakhmanov 1962)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Lenkoran, Azerbaijan, type locality

Oxynoemacheilus leontinae (Lortet 1883)     etymology not explained, perhaps “of a lion,” referring to loach’s high, rounded head, which may resemble a lion’s mane (note that Heckel named O. panthera and O. tigris after big cats in 1843, perhaps setting a nomenclatural precedent that Lortet chose to follow)

Oxynoemacheilus longipinnis (Coad & Nalbant 2005)     longus, long; pinnis, fin, referring to long paired fins, dorsal with 10 branched rays and caudal well forked

Oxynoemacheilus mediterraneus (Erk’akan, Nalbant & Özeren 2007)    referring to distribution in Mediterranean basin of Turkey

Oxynoemacheilus merga (Krynicki 1840)    sickle, presumably referring to crescent-shaped caudal fin

Oxynoemacheilus mesudae Erk’akan 2012    in honor of Erk’akan’s mother, Mesude Kaynak

Oxynoemacheilus namiri (Krupp & Schneider 1991)    of namir, Arabic word for tiger, referring to color pattern that usually consists of dark crossbars

Oxynoemacheilus oxianus (Kessler 1877)    anus, belonging to: Oxua River, ancient name for Amu Darya, Uzbekistan, type locality

Oxynoemacheilus panthera (Heckel 1843)    referring to leopard-like pattern of spots and markings on body

Oxynoemacheilus parvinae Sayyadzadeh, Eagderi & Esmaeili 2016    in honor of the “famous Persian poet of Iran,” Parvin E’tesami (1907-1941)

Oxynoemacheilus paucilepis (Erk’akan, Nalbant & Özeren 2007)    pauci-, few; lepis, scale, referring to “distribution of the scales on its body” (although said distribution is not specified in description)

Oxynoemacheilus persa (Heckel 1847)    Persia, referring to distribution in Iran, where it is endemic

Oxynoemacheilus phoxinoides (Erk’akan, Nalbant & Özeren 2007)    oides, having the form of: referring to color pattern similarity with the cyprinid genus Phoxinus

Oxynoemacheilus pindus (Economidis 2005)    referring to the Pindus range, the “back bone of Greece” and source of Aoos River drainage, where it occurs

Oxynoemacheilus samantica (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1978)    ica, belonging to: Samanti River drainage, southern Turkey, type locality

Oxynoemacheilus seyhanensis (Bănărescu 1968)    ensis, suffix denoting place: upper Seyhan River basin, Turkey, where it appears to be endemic

Oxynoemacheilus seyhanicola (Erk’akan, Nalbant & Özeren 2007)     cola, dweller or inhabitant, referring to Seyhan River basin, Turkey, where it appears to be endemic

Oxynoemacheilus simavicus (Balik & Bănărescu 1978)    icus, belonging to: Simav, a stream in Balikesir, Turkey, type locality

Oxynoemacheilus theophilii Stoumboudi, Kottelat & Barbieri 2006    in honor of Theophilus Chatzimichael (1873-1934), a prominent folk painter from Lesbos Island, Greece, where it is endemic

Oxynoemacheilus tigris (Heckel 1843)    tiger, probably referring to tiger-like stripes on yellowish-white body

Oxynoemacheilus tongiorgii (Nalbant & Bianco 1998)    in honor of friend and colleague Paolo Tongiorgi, University of Modena, co-editor of the Italian Journal of Zoology, for his help in the final editing of the special volume in which this description appeared

Oxynoemacheilus zagrosensis Kamangar, Prokofiev, Ghaderi & Nalbant 2014    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Zagros Mountains, which occur in Kurdistan, Iran, where it is endemic

Paracanthocobitis Grant 2007    para-, alongside or beside, originally proposed as a subgenus of Acanthocobitis

Paracanthocobitis abutwebi Singer & Page 2015    in honor of Abu Tweb Abu Ahmed (University of Dhaka), for his contributions to the study of hillstream fishes of Bangladesh

Paracanthocobitis adelaideae Singer & Page 2015    in honor of Adelaide Singer, daughter of the first author, born during this study

Paracanthocobitis aurea (Day 1872)    golden, presumably referring to fins and barbels a “deep orange colour”

Paracanthocobitis botia (Hamilton 1822)    etymology not explained, possibly derived from balli-potiah, an Assamese name for this species; several aquarium websites state that Botia is an “Asian” word for warrior or soldier (perhaps alluding to suborbital spine) but do not provide a source

Paracanthocobitis canicula Singer & Page 2015    Latin for little dog, referring to canine-molar-like shape of dark dorsal saddles

Paracanthocobitis linypha Singer & Page 2015    linen weaver, referring to narrow bars on side, which suggest a sewing needle in motion

Paracanthocobitis mackenziei (Chaudhuri 1910)    in honor of M. Mackenzie, cattle farmer in Siriour, Bangladesh, who collected part of type series and other fishes for Chaudhuri

Paracanthocobitis maekhlongensis Singer & Page 2015    ensis, suffix denoting place: Mae Khlong River in western Thailand, where it appears to be endemic

Paracanthocobitis mandalayensis (Rendahl 1948)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Mandalay, Myanmar, type locality

Paracanthocobitis mooreh (Sykes 1839)    Marathi vernacular for this species in India, “so that naturalists who travel the country can always obtain” the species

Paracanthocobitis pictilis (Kottelat 2012)    Latin for “embroided” (probably a misspelling of “embroidered”), referring to dark brown triangular saddles on upper half of body                            

Paracanthocobitis rubidipinnis (Blyth 1860)     rubeus, red; pinnis, fin, referring to fins “tinged with red”                     

Paracanthocobitis urophthalma (Günther 1868)    uro-, tail; opthalmus, eye, referring to black white-edged ocellus (eyespot) on base of upper caudal lobe                 

Paracanthocobitis zonalternans (Blyth 1860)     zonatus, banded; alterno, variegated with two alternate colors, referring to 12 short transverse bands along lateral streak which alternate with ~12 dark bands across dorsum   

Paracobitis Bleeker 1863    para-, near, referring to similarity to Cobitis, in which type species (P. malapterura) had been placed

Paracobitis atrakensis Esmaeili, Mousavi-Sabet, Sayyadzadeh, Vatandoust & Freyhof 2014    ensis, suffix denoting place: Atrak River, Iran, type locality

Paracobitis basharensis Freyhof, Esmaeili, Sayyadzadeh & Geiger 2014    ensis, suffix denoting place: Bashar River, Iran, type locality

Paracobitis ghazniensis (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1966)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Ghazni River at Ghazni, tributary of Ab-i-Istadah Lake, Helmand River drainage, Afghanistan, type locality

Paracobitis ghazniensis Mousavi-Sabet, Sayyadzadeh, Esmaeili, Eagderi, Patimar & Freyhof 2015    –ica, belonging to: Hyrcania, Greek name for the southern Caspian Sea region (now in Iran) where this loach occurs

Paracobitis longicauda (Kessler 1872)    longus, long; cauda, tail, referring to long caudal peduncle, ~4.5-4.6 in standard length

Paracobitis malapterura (Valenciennes 1846)    malacos, soft; ptera, fin; oura, tail, probably referring to dorsal adipose keel

Paracobitis molavii Freyhof, Esmaeili, Sayyadzadeh & Geiger 2014    in honor of Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Balkhi (1207-1273), also known as Molavi, a Persian poet, theologian and Sufi mystic

Paracobitis persa Freyhof, Esmaeili, Sayyadzadeh & Geiger 2014    named for Fârs (known in Old Persian as Pârsâ, or Persia), Iranian province where it is endemic

Paracobitis rhadinaea (Regan 1906)    latinization of the Greek rhadinos, slender or lithe, presumably referring to elongate body

Paracobitis vignai Nalbant & Bianco 1998     in honor of entomologist Augusto Vigna Taglianti, La Sapienza University of Rome, who collected type

Paracobitis zabgawraensis Freyhof, Esmaeili, Sayyadzadeh & Geiger 2014     –ensis, suffix denoting place: headwater stream of Great Zab River (the Zab Gawra in Kurdish), Iraqi Kurdistan, type locality

Paranemachilus Zhu 1983    para-, near, similar to Nemacheilus but differing in having scales on sides of head [correct spelling is Paranemachilus not Paranemacheilus; no inadvertent error in original description]

Paranemachilus genilepis Zhu 1983    genys, cheek; lepis, scale, referring to scales on sides of head

Paranemachilus pingguoensis Gan 2013    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Pingguo County, Guangxi Province, China, type locality

Paraschistura Prokofiev 2009    para-, near, referring to similarity with Schistura

Paraschistura abdolii Freyhof, Sayyadzadeh, Esmaeili & Geiger 2015    in honor of Ashgar Abdoli, Iranian fish ecologist, who collected this species with the senior author in 2007

Paraschistura alepidota (Mirza & Bănărescu 1970)    a-, not; lepidotus, scaly, referring to scaleless body    

Paraschistura aredvii Freyhof, Sayyadzadeh, Esmaeili & Geiger 2015    of Aredvi Sura Anahita, Avestan name of Indo-Iranian cosmological figure venerated as the divinity of “the Waters” and hence associated with fertility, healing and wisdom                        

Paraschistura bampurensis (Nikolskii 1900)     ensis, suffix denoting place: Bampur River near Bazman, Iran, one of the type localities

Paraschistura cristata (Berg 1898)    crested, referring to dermal fold or crest that begins shortly in front of anal fin origin level and reaches root of caudal fin

Paraschistura delvarii Mousavi-Sabet & Eagderi 2015    in honor of Rais-Ali Delvari (1882-1915), an anti-colonialist in Bushehr, Iran, type locality, now remembered as a national hero of Iran

Paraschistura hormuzensis Freyhof, Sayyadzadeh, Esmaeili & Geiger 2015     –ensis, suffix denoting place: Straight of Hormuz, between Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman, referring to type locality (tributary of Minab River, Iran, which flows into the Strait)

Paraschistura ilamensis Vatandoust & Eagderi 2015    –ensis, Ilam Province, Tigris River basin, Iran, type locality

Paraschistura kessleri (Günther 1889)    patronym not identified but clearly in honor of German-Russian zoologist Karl Federovich Kessler (1815-1881), who described several loaches from the former Russian Empire

Paraschistura lepidocaulis (Mirza & Nalbant 1981)    lepido-, scale; caulis, peduncle, referring to a few isolated scales on caudal peduncle on an otherwise scaleless fish

Paraschistura lindbergi (Bănărescu & Mirza 1965)    in honor of the late K. Lindberg, a Swedish physician with strong interests in tropical medicine and zoology, who collected type

Paraschistura microlabra (Mirza & Nalbant 1981)    micro-, small; labrum, lip, referring to small mouth opening, smaller than other species in Schistura (original genus)

Paraschistura naseeri (Ahmad & Mirza 1963)    patronym not identified; based on junior author’s dedication of Barilius naseeri (Cyprinidae) in 1986, it seems he honored his professor and co-author Khan Naseerud-Din Ahmad (Government College, Lahore, Pakistan) but did not specify solo authorship, therefore the senior author of the name is the same person whom the name honors

Paraschistura naumanni Freyhof, Sayyadzadeh, Esmaeili & Geiger 2015    in honor of Clas M. Naumann zu Königsbrück (1939-2004), former director of Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander König (Germany) and for some years the senior author’s supervisor; he “deeply loved Iran [where this loach is endemic], its people, nature and culture”

Paraschistura nielseni (Nalbant & Bianco 1998)    in honor of Jørgen G. Nielsen (b. 1932), Zoological Museum of Copenaghen, for his ichthyological work and especially for help offered to the senior author

Paraschistura pakistanica (Mirza & Bănărescu 1969)    Pakistanian, referring to country where it is endemic

Paraschistura pasatigris Freyhof, Sayyadzadeh, Esmaeili & Geiger 2015    ancient name of Karun River, Iran, type locality (from the Sanskrit pas, to touch or be bound to, referring to the fact that the Karun is an independent drainage but closely bound to the Tigris)

Paraschistura prashari (Hora 1933)    in honor of Hora’s friend Mr. Prashar Bhatia, who collected type in 1919

Paraschistura punjabensis (Hora 1923)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Punjab, Pakistan, type locality (also occurs in India)

Paraschistura susiani Freyhof, Sayyadzadeh, Esmaeili & Geiger 2015    in honor of the Susian people; Susa was an ancient city (back to 4200 BC) of the Elamite, Persian and Parthian empires of Iran, an area now located in the lower Zagros Mountains of Khuzestan Province, type locality

Paraschistura turcmenica (Berg 1931)    –ica, belonging to: Turkmenistan, type locality (also occurs in Iran and probably Afghanistan)

Paraschistura turcomana (Nikolskii 1947)    –ana, belonging to: Turkmenistan, type locality (also occurs in Afghanistan)

Petruichthys Menon 1987    Petru, probably in honor of loach specialist Petru M. Bănărescu (1921-2009), Institute of Biology, Bucharest, whom Menon acknowledges in his monograph; ichthys, fish

Petruichthys brevis (Boulenger 1893)    short, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to short length (type specimens up to 5.8 cm TL)

Petruichthys salmonides (Chaudhuri 1911)    oides, having the resemblance of: salmon or trout, its color and shape having “some superficial resemblance to a young trout”

Physoschistura Bănărescu & Nalbant 1982    physa, vesicle or bladder, i.e., a Schistura with a free posterior air-bladder chamber

Physoschistura brunneana (Annandale 1918)     ana, belonging to: C. E. Browne (latinized as brunne), Political Advisor in Yawnghwe (now Nyaung Shwe), Myanmar, to whom Annandale was “indebted for much assistance on his tour” of Inlé Lake, type locality

Physoschistura chhimtuipuiensis Lalramliana, Lalhlimpuia, Solo & Vanramliana 2016     –ensis, suffix denoting place: Chhimtuipui, local name of the Kaladan River, Mizoram, northeastern India, where it occurs

Physoschistura chindwinensis Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2012    ensis, suffix denoting place: Chindwin basin, Manipur, India, where it is endemic

Physoschistura chulabhornae Suvarnaraksha 2013
in honor of H.R.H. Princess Chulabhorn Mahidol (b. 1957) of “for her valuable scientific works”

Physoschistura dikrongensis Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2012    ensis, suffix denoting place: Dikrong River at Doimukh, Brahmaputra basin, Arunachal Pradesh, India, where it is endemic

Physoschistura elongata Sen & Nalbant 1982    referring to elongate, slender body, with nearly horizontal dorsal profile

Physoschistura pseudobrunneana Kottelat 1990     pseudo-, false, i.e., although this species may resemble P. brunneana, such an appearance is false

Physoschistura raoi (Hora 1929)    in honor of Dr. H. S. Rao, Zoological Survey of India, who helped collect type [originally spelled raoe]

Physoschistura rivulicola (Hora 1929)    rivulus, brook or rivulet; –cola, inhabitant, referring to habitat preference

Physoschistura shanensis (Hora 1929)    ensis, suffix denoting place: southern Shan States, Myanmar, type locality

Physoschistura tigrinum Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2012    referring to tiger-like bars on body

Physoschistura tuivaiensis Lokeshwor, Vishwanath & Shanta 2012    ensis, suffix denoting place: Tuivai River, Churchandpur district, Manipur, India, where it is endemic

Physoschistura walongensis Tamang & Sinha 2016    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Walong, Anjaw district, Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India, where it occurs

Physoschistura yunnaniloides Chen, Kottelat & Neely 2011    oides, having the form of: referring to marked similarity in color pattern with some species of Yunnanilus

Protonemacheilus Yang & Chu 1990    protos, first, reflecting authors’ belief that genus is more primitive compared to the closely related Micronemacheilus and Paranemacheilus

Protonemacheilus longipectoralis Yang & Chu 1990    longus, long, presumably referring to long pectoral fins (but this character is not mentioned in description)

Pteronemacheilus Bohlen & Šlechtová 2011    ptero-, wing, i.e., a Nemacheilus with wing-like fins, referring to skinfolds on pectoral fins of males

Pteronemacheilus lucidorsum Bohlen & Šlechtová 2011    lux, light; dorsum, back, referring to absense of pigmentation along dorsal midline

Pteronemacheilus meridionalis (Zhu 1982)    southern, presumably referring to distribution in southern Yunnan Province, China

Qinghaichthys Zhu 1981    Qinghai, referring to occurrence of Q. alticeps (type species) in Qinghai-Xizang Plateau of China; ichthys, fish

Qinghaichthys alticeps (Herzenstein 1888)    altus, high; ceps, head, referring to relatively deep and laterally compressed head

Qinghaichthys rotundiventris (Wu & Chen 1979)    rotundus, round; ventris, belly, referring to round, chubby and slightly wide mid-region of body, which, when compared to long, slim and slightly thin tail region, creates impression of a round or chubby belly

Qinghaichthys zaidamensis (Kessler 1876)    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Tsaidam region, Quinghai Province, China, type locality

Qinghaichthys zamegacephala (Zhao 1985)    za-, very; mega-, large; cephalus, head, referring to larger head compared to Triplophysa dorsalis and T. stolickai (its presumed congeners at the time)

Sasanidus Freyhof, Geiger, Golzarianpour & Patimar 2016    latinization of Sasanian, referring to Sasanian (or Sassanid) Empire, one of Iran’s most important and influential historical periods (224-651), alluding to the country where this genus is endemic

Sasanidus kermanshahensis (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1966)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Kermanshah, Karun River drainage, western Iran, type locality

Schistura McClelland 1838    schistos, split or divided; oura, tail, referring to forked caudal fin

Schistura acuticephala (Hora 1929)    acutus, sharp or pointed; cephalus, head, referring to pointed head

Schistura afasciata Mirza & Bănărescu 1981    a-, without; fascia, bar, referring to absence of crossbars on uniformly brownish-gray body

Schistura aizawlensis Lalramliana 2012    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Aizawl, capital city of Mizoram, India, where Muthi River, only known distribution, is located

Schistura albirostris Chen & Neely 2012    albus, white; rostrata, nose or beak, referring to unpigmented area on snout

Schistura alta Nalbant & Bianco 1998    high, referring to its deep body

Schistura alticrista Kottelat 1990    altus, high; crista, crest, referring to strongly developed ventral and dorsal adipose crests of caudal peduncle

Schistura altipedunculata (Bănărescu & Nalbant 1968)    altus, high; pedunculatus, peduncled, referring to “remarkable” caudal peduncle, which is slightly deeper than body

Schistura amplizona Kottelat 2000    amplus, broad; zona, belt, referring to 5-7 broad blackish-brown bars on body, wider than interspaces

Schistura anambarensis (Mirza & Bănărescu 1970)     –ensis, suffix denoting place: Anambar River at Loralai, eastern Baluchistan, Pakistan, type locality

Schistura andrewi Solo, Lalramliana, Lalrongunga & Lalnuntluanga 2014    in honor of ornamental-fish collector Andrew Arunava Rao, Malabar Tropicals, who helped the authors document the fishes of Mizoram, India, where this loach is apparently endemic

Schistura antennata Freyhof & Serov 2001    with antennae, referring to very long rostral barbels, which resemble arthropod antennae

Schistura aramis Kottelat 2000    one of the characters in Alexander Dumas’ The Three Musketeers, joining two other Schistura species (athos, porthos) in the Nam Ou basin, northern Laos

Schistura arifi Mirza & Bănărescu 1981    in honor of M. Arif (no other information available), who collected type

Schistura athos Kottelat 2000    one of the characters in Alexander Dumas’ The Three Musketeers, joining two other Schistura species (aramis, porthos) in the Nam Ou basin, northern Laos

Schistura atra Kottelat 1998    black, referring to uniform dark blackish brown body (black in life)

Schistura aurantiaca Plongsesthee, Page & Beamish 2011    orange-colored, referring to orange bars on sides

Schistura bachmaensis Freyhof & Serov 2001    ensis, suffix denoting place: Bach Ma National Park, Thua Thien Hue Province, Viêt Nam, source of River Thua Luu, type locality

Schistura bairdi Kottelat 2000    in honor of geographer Ian G. Baird, who had worked on fishes, fisheries and dolphins in southern Laos for several years and who collected type

Schistura balteata (Rendahl 1948)    belted, referring to 2-3 thin vertical dark bars below dorsal fin that appear to wrap around body

Schistura baluchiorum (Zugmayer 1912)    orum, adjectival suffix: referring to Baluchistan, Pakistan, type locality (also occurs in Iran)

Schistura bannaensis Chen, Yang & Qi 2005    ensis, suffix denoting place: Ban Na, a city on the Lancang River, Yunnan Province, China, type locality

Schistura beavani (Günther 1868)    in honor of Lieut. Robert Cecil Beavan (1841-1870), Bengal Staff Corps, who presented type to the British Museum (Natural History)

Schistura bella Kottelat 1990    pretty, referring to attractive color pattern (dark brown bars, blotches and saddles on a yellow-brown background)

Schistura bhimachari (Hora 1937)    in honor of B. S. Bhimachar, Intermediate College (Bangalore), who collected type

Schistura bolavenensis Kottelat 2000    ensis, suffix denoting place: Bolaven Plateau, Laos, where it appears to be endemic

Schistura breviceps (Smith 1945)    brevis, short; ceps, head, “characterized by its comparatively short head”

Schistura bucculenta (Smith 1945)    with full cheeks, referring to its “very full and protruding cheeks”

Schistura callichroma (Zhu & Wang 1985)    calli-, beautiful; chromus, color, referring to distinctive color pattern comprising 6-9 large, dark-brown patches along lateral line, numerous irregular dark-brown spots on upper surface of head and back, and black band at base of caudal fin

Schistura callidora Bohlen & Šlechtová 2011     calloni, beauty; doro, gift, i.e., gifted with beauty, presumably referring to 12-17 dark brown bars on body

Schistura carbonaria Freyhof & Serov 2001    made of coal, referring to dark coloration

Schistura carletoni (Fowler 1924)    in memory of Rev. M. M. Carleton, who collected many Indian freshwater fishes, including type of this one

Schistura cataracta Kottelat 1998    waterfall, referring to habitat where most specimens have been collected

Schistura caudofurca (Mai 1978)    cauda-, tail; furcatus, forked, referring to caudal fin forked to half its length

Schistura chapaensis (Rendahl 1944)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Chapa, now (Sa Pa or Sapa), North Viêt Nam, type locality

Schistura chindwinica (Tilak & Husain 1990)      –ica, belonging to: Chindwin River, Manipur, India, type locality

Schistura chrysicristinae Nalbant 1998    in memory of Cristina Ana Hoinic (Chrysi), Department of Entomology, “Grigore Antipa” National Museum of Natural History, Bucharest, “wonderful friend and colleague. My debts to her are beyond the words.”

Schistura cincticauda (Blyth 1860)    cinctus, belted; cauda-, tail, referring to thin black bar at base of caudal fin

Schistura clatrata Kottelat 2000    runged, probably referring to 9-13 bars on body, wider than interspaces

Schistura conirostris (Zhu 1982)    etymology not explained, possibly conus, cone; rostris, snout, referring to V-shaped mark on front edge of middle part of lower lip

Schistura coruscans Kottelat 2000    to flame or flash, probably referring to bright red dorsal and caudal fins and/or bright yellow-orange anal, pelvic and pectoral fins in life

Schistura crabro Kottelat 2000    hornet or large wasp, probably referring to orange body with four dark brown bars and yellow tip of snout

Schistura crocotula Plongsesthee, Kottelat & Beamish 2013    Latin name for a saffron-colored dress or garment, referring to background color in life

Schistura cryptofasciata Chen, Kong & Yang 2005    cryptos, hidden; fasciata, barred, referring to obscured bars on large individuals

Schistura curtistigma Mirza & Nalbant 1981    curtus, short; stigma, spot, referring to shorter crossbars compared to the related S. arifi

Schistura dalatensis Freyhof & Serov 2001    ensis, suffix denoting place: Dalat Mountains, Lam Dong Province, Viêt Nam, only known habitat

Schistura daubentoni Kottelat 1990    in honor of François d’Aubenton, Muséum National d’Histoire naturelle (Paris), who collected type in 1964

Schistura deansmarti Vidthayanon & Kottelat 2003    in honor of Dean Smart, British speleologist, who collected most of the type specimens and is a “strong voice” for cave conservation in Thailand

Schistura defectiva Kottelat 2000    incomplete, imperfect or intermittent, referring to 8-10 bars on body, often “disassociated” into blotches

Schistura denisoni (Day 1867)    in honor of William Denison (1804-1871), Governor of Madras from 1861 to 1866

Schistura desmotes (Fowler 1934)    prisoner, referring to 7-9 broad dark-brown transverse bands on body, reminiscent of a striped prison uniform

Schistura devdevi (Hora 1935)    in honor of Dev Dev Mukerji, Zoological Survey of India

Schistura diminuta Ou, Montaña, Winemiller & Conway 2011    verbal adjective of diminuo, to break into small pieces (i.e., diminutive), referring to small size (19.5 mm SL)

Schistura disparizona Zhou & Kottelat 2005    dispar, dissimilar; zona, band, referring to very narrow bars on antier part of body and wider bars posteriorly

Schistura doonensis (Tilak & Husain 1977)      ensis, suffix denoting place: Doonga District, Dehra Dun, Uttar Pradesh, India, type locality

Schistura dorsizona Kottelat 1998    dorsum, back; zona, girdle, referring to black saddles extending from middle of sides across dorsal mid-line

Schistura dubia Kottelat 1990    uncertain, referring to close similarity to S. sexcauda; since they “occur sympatrically in a few localities,” Kottelat concludes they are valid species

Schistura ephelis Kottelat 2000    Greek for freckle, referring to dotted cheeks

Schistura fasciata Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2011    banded, referring to dark brown bars on body

Schistura fascimaculata Mirza & Nalbant 1981    fascia, bar; maculata, spotted, referring to 11-15 crossbars and numerous blackish dots on body

Schistura fasciolata (Nichols & Pope 1927)    banded, referring to 11 more or less obscure broad dark bands across back and sides and narrow blackish bar across caudal base

Schistura ferruginea Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013    rust-colored or dusky, referring to patch of dusky pigment deep under skin at mid-lateral line above pectoral fin

Schistura finis Kottelat 2000    Latin for border, referring to type locality, a small creek at the border between Laos and Viêt Nam

Schistura fusinotata Kottelat 2000    fusio-, fusion; notata, marked, allusion uncertain, perhaps referring to small black spot at base of anterior dorsal rays

Schistura gangetica (Menon 1987)    ica, belonging to: Ganges River basin at Srinagar, Garhwal, Uttar Pradesh, India, type locality

Schistura geisleri Kottelat 1990    in honor of German aquarist Rolf Geisler (1925-2012), for his “valuable help”

Schistura globiceps Kottelat 2000    globus, globe or sphere; cephalus, head, perhaps referring to swollen cheeks on specimens >40 cm SL

Schistura greenei Endruweit 2017    in honor of Richard Greene, Library Technician, Smithsonian Institution, for his “persistent support over many years”

Schistura harnaiensis (Mirza & Nalbant 1969)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Harnai, Kaman-Beji River drainage, Baluchistan, Pakistan, type locality

Schistura himachalensis (Menon 1987)    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Himachal Pradesh, Kangra, India, type locality (also occurs in Nepal)

Schistura hingi (Herre 1934)    in honor of Ah Hing, “efficient collector” for botanist-ornithologist G. A. C. Herklots of Hong Kong University, whose “patience and skill enabled [Herre] to get many specimens”

Schistura hoai (Nguyen 2005)    latinization of hoa, Vietnamese word for flower, referring to how black and yellow spots on body resemble a field of blooming flowers (Ly Cam Tu, pers. comm.)

Schistura horai (Menon 1952)    in honor of ichthyologist Sunder Lal Hora (1896-1955), Director, Zoological Survey of India, who collected type in 1926

Schistura huapingensis (Wu & Wu 1992)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Huaping County, Yunnan Province, China, type locality

Schistura huongensis Freyhof & Serov 2001    ensis, suffix denoting place: River Huong (Perfume River), Thua Thien Hue Province, Viêt Nam, type locality

Schistura hypsiura Bohlen, Šlechtová & Udomritthiruj 2014    
hypsos, high; oura, tail, referring to high caudal peduncle

Schistura imitator Kottelat 2000    referring to “quite similar” color pattern with sympatric S. khamtanhi

Schistura implicata Kottelat 2000    complicated or intricate, presumably referring to 8-11 “irregularly shaped and organised” bars on body and/or variable coloration among specimens

Schistura incerta (Nichols 1931)    doubtful, allusion not explained nor evident; perhaps Nichols was unsure of his placing it in the subgenus Homatula

Schistura irregularis Kottelat 2000    referring to 7-9 “very irregularly shaped and set” bars on body

Schistura isostigma Kottelat 1998    isos, equal; stigma, brand, referring to regularly sized blotches along middle of sides

Schistura jarutanini Kottelat 1990    in honor of Kitipong Juratanin, who collected various new fish species in Thailand, including type of this one

Schistura kampucheensis Bohlen, Petrtýl, Chaloupková & Borin 2016    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Kampuchea, Khmer name for Cambodia, where it is widespread and possibly endemic

Schistura kangjupkhulensis (Hora 1921)    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Kangjupkhul Hills, Manipur Valley, Manipur, India, type locality

Schistura kangrae (Menon 1952)    of Kangra Valley, Kangra District, Himachal Pradesh, India, where it appears to be endemic

Schistura kaysonei Vidthayanon & Jaruthanin 2002    in honor of the late Kaysone Phomvihanne (1920-1992), President of Laos PDR

Schistura kengtungensis (Fowler 1936)    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Keng Tung, a town close to type locality, Mekong basin, Myanmar (also occurs in Thailand and China)

Schistura khamtanhi Kottelat 2000    in honor of Khamtanh Vatthanatham, Fisheries Programme Officer, Mekong River Commission, for help during 1999 survey that led to discovery of this species

Schistura khugae Vishwanath & Shanta 2004    of the Khuga River, Manipur, India, type locality [replacement name for S. macrocephalus, described by the same authors earlier in the year, preoccupied by S. macrocephalus Kottelat 2000]

Schistura kloetzliae Kottelat 2000    in honor of Antoinette Kottelat-Kloetzli, for her help and support during author’s field work in Laos and on other projects

Schistura kodaguensis (Menon 1987)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Kodagu District, Karnataka, India, type locality

Schistura kohatensis Mirza & Bănărescu 1981    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Kohat District, Pakistan, type locality

Schistura kohchangensis (Smith 1933)    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Koh Chang island, Gulf of Thailand, type locality

Schistura koladynensis Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2012    ensis, suffix denoting place: Koladyne (also spelled Kolodyne) River, Mizoram, India, where it is endemic

Schistura kongphengi Kottelat 1998    in honor of Kongpheng Bouakhamvongsa, Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Livestock and Veterinary, for his help with field work in Laos

Schistura kontumensis Freyhof & Serov 2001    ensis, suffix denoting place: Kontum Province of central Viêt Nam, main area where it was collected

Schistura laterimaculata Kottelat 1990    lateralis, of the side; maculatus, blotted, referring to ~10 bars superposed over 5-7 elongate blotches on sides

Schistura latidens Kottelat 2000    latus, wide; dens, tooth, referring to short and very wide processus dentiformis

Schistura latifasciata (Zhu & Wang 1985)    latus, wide; fasciatus, banded, referring to 4-6 wide, dark cross bands on body

Schistura leukensis Kottelat 2000    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Nam Leuk, a tributary of Nam Mang, Vientiane Province, Laos, type locality

Schistura leukensis Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2014    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Liyai village, Senapati District, Manipur, India, type locality

Schistura longa (Zhu 1982)    long, referring to longer body, with more vertebrae, compared to S. vinciguerrae

Schistura machensis (Mirza & Nalbant 1970)    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Mach River, tributary of Bolan River, Pakistan, type locality

Schistura macrocephalus Kottelat 2000    macro-, large; cephalus, head, referring to “massive appearance” of head

Schistura macrolepis Mirza & Bănărescu 1981    macro-, large; lepis, scale, referring to large scales covering entire body

Schistura macrotaenia (Yang 1990)    macro-, large; taenia, band, referring to 8-12 “wide” (translation) vertical bands on sides

Schistura maculiceps (Roberts 1989)    maculatus, spotted; ceps, head, referring to spotted head

Schistura maculosa Lalronunga, Lalnuntluanga & Lalramliana 2013    spotted, referring to numerous black spots on caudal and dorsal fins

Schistura maejotigrina Suvarnaraksha 2012    maejo, referring to 77th anniversary of Maejo University (Chiang Mai, Thailand), where Suvarnaraksha and type are located; tigrina, referring to irregular tiger-stripe bars on sides

Schistura maepaiensis Kottelat 1990    ensis, suffix denoting place: Mae Nam Mae Pai (a river), Mae Hong Son Province, Thailand, type locality

Schistura magnifluvis Kottelat 1990    magnus, large; fluvius, river, referring to the Mekong, the largest river in Southeast Asia, where it occurs

Schistura mahnerti Kottelat 1990    in honor of Volker Mahnert (b. 1943), Museum d’Histoire Naturelle, Département d’Herpétologie et Ichthyologie (Geneva), for his help at various stages of Kottelat’s monograph

Schistura malaisei Kottelat 1990    in honor of Swedish entomologist René Malaise (1892-1978), who collected type and to whom we owe “one of the best fish collections from Burma (1933-1935) where he visited numerous remote localities”

Schistura manipurensis (Chaudhuri 1912)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Manipur, India, where type was collected in the Chindwin basins of Nagaland and Assam

Schistura megalodon Endruweit 2014    mega-, big; odon, tooth, referring to large processus dentiformes in upper jaw

Schistura melarancia Kottelat 2000    old Italian word from which modern-day “orange” is derived, referring to orange-brown body and fin coloration in life

Schistura menanensis (Smith 1945)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Mae Nam Nan (a river, also spelled Menam Nan), northern Thailand, type locality

Schistura minutus Vishwanath & Shanta Kumar 2006    small, referring to small size (up to 44.7 mm SL)

Schistura mizoramensis Lalramliana, Lalronunga, Vanramliana & Lalthanzara 2014    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Mizoram state, India, type locality

Schistura mobbsi Kottelat & Leisher 2012    in honor of Jerry Mobbs, discoverer and first explorer of the Phuong Hoang cave system, Viêt Nam, where it is endemic

Schistura moeiensis Kottelat 1990    ensis, suffix denoting place: Man Nam Moei, a tributary of the Salween, Thailand and Burma, where it appears to be endemic

Schistura montana McClelland 1838    mountain, referring to occurrence in mountain streams of Simla, India

Schistura mukambbikaensis (Menon 1987)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Mukambbika, Karnataka, India, type locality

Schistura multifasciata (Day 1878)     multi-, many; fasciatus, banded, referring to “numerous” vertical bands between head and dorsal fin, five vertical bands behind dorsal fin, and dark band at base of caudal

Schistura myrmekia (Fowler 1935)    warts, referring to small, wart-like flap or spine below front of eye

Schistura nagaensis (Menon 1987)    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Naga Hills, Nagaland, India, where it is endemic

Schistura nagodiensis Sreekantha, Gururaja, Rema Devi, Indra & Ramachandra 2006    ensis, suffix denoting place: Nagodi, tributary of the Sharavathi River, centra; Western Ghats, India, type locality

Schistura namboensis Freyhof & Serov 2001    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Nam Bo, Vietnamese name for area equivalent to Cochinchina of former colonial literature, referring to wide distribution covering coastal rivers of southern and central Viêt Nam

Schistura nandingensis (Zhu & Wang 1985)    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Nanding River drainage, Yunxian County, Yunnan Province, China, type locality

Schistura nasifilis (Pellegrin 1936)    nasus, nose; filum, thread, referring to elongated nasal barbels

Schistura nebeshwari Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013  
in honor of Kongrailakpam Nebeshwar Sharma, for his assistance to the authors during field work in Mizoram, India

Schistura nicholsi (Smith 1933)    in honor of John Treadwell Nichols (1883-1958), curator of fishes, American Museum of Natural History, for extensive contributions to the ichthyology of China in general and Chinese loaches in particular

Schistura nilgiriensis (Menon 1987)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Nilgiri District, Tamil Nadu, India, type locality

Schistura nomi Kottelat 2000    in honor of Mr. Nom (forename not given), for his help (driving) during Kottelat’s 1999 field work in Laos

Schistura notasileum Endruweit, Yang & Liu 2016    derived from the Greek notio vasileio, meaning Southern Kingdom, referring to Nanzhao, kingdom that was centered in what is now Dali Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China (where this loach occurs), and flourished during the 8th and 9th centuries

Schistura notostigma (Bleeker 1863)    notos, back; stigma, mark, referring to black-purple spot at anterior dorsal fin rays

Schistura novemradiata Kottelat 2000    novem, nine; radiatus, rayed, referring to 8-9½ (modally 9½) branched dorsal-fin rays

Schistura nudidorsum Kottelat 1998    nudus, naked; dorsum, back, referring to scaleless predorsal area

Schistura obeini Kottelat 1998    in honor of François Obein, Nam Theun 2 Electricity Consortium (Vientiane, Laos), for his help in the field and for organizing field logistics

Schistura obliquofascia Lokeshwor, Barat, Sati, Darshan, Vishwanath & Mahanta 2012    oblique, slanting or inclining in direction; fascia, band, referring to 12–14 oblique olivaceous dark bars on body

Schistura oedipus (Kottelat 1988)    Oedipus, mythic Theban king who tore out his eyes, referring to loach’s degenerate eyes, consisting of a pit in center of skin covering orbit

Schistura orthocauda (Mai 1978)    orthos, straight; cauda, caudal fin, referring to truncate caudal fin

Schistura pantherina Page, Plongsesthee & Randall 2012    referring to distinctive panther-like spotted pattern

Schistura papulifera Kottelat, Harries & Proudlove 2007    papula, a small rounded tumor on skin; fero-, to bear, referring to lower half of head covered by small skin projections

Schistura paucicincta Kottelat 1990    paucus, few; cincta, belted, referring to 6-7 wide bars on body

Schistura paucifasciata (Hora 1929)    paucus, few; fasciata, banded, referring to 3-4 black bars below dorsal fin

Schistura paucireticulata Lokeshwor, Vishwanath & Kosygin 2013    paucus, few; reticulatus, net-like, referring to 2-3 small reticulated bars on anterior half of body

Schistura pawensis Bohlen & Šlechtová 2013    ensis, suffix denoting place: Nam Paw stream, Shan state, Myanmar, type locality

Schistura personata Kottelat 2000    masked, presumably referring to vermiculations on top of head and/or dark spots below eye

Schistura pertica Kottelat 2000    Latin for pole, referring to long, slender, rounded body

Schistura pervagata Kottelat 2000    common or banal, allusion not explained nor evident

Schistura phamhringi Shangningham, Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2014    in honor of the late BD Phamhring Anal, who collected type

Schistura phongthoensis (Nguyen 2005)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Phong Thô (Lai Châu) Province, Viêt Nam, where it is endemic

Schistura poculi (Smith 1945)    of poculum, bowl, referring to Doi Angka (Angka=crow’s bowl), Thailand, type locality

Schistura polytaenia (Zhu 1982)    poly, many; taenia, bands, referring to numerous thin vertical bands on body

Schistura porocephala Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013    poros, pored; cephalus, head, referring to prominent pores in cephalic lateral line system

Schistura porthos Kottelat 2000    one of the characters in Alexander Dumas’ The Three Musketeers, joining two other Schistura species (aramis, athos) in the Nam Ou basin, northern Laos

Schistura prashadi (Hora 1921)    in honor of Baini Prashad (1894-1969), Assistant Superintendent, Zoological Survey of India, who gave Hora “every possible encouragement”

Schistura pridii Vidthayanon 2003    in honor of the late Pridi Bhanomyong (1900-1983), politician, statesman   and Thai Prime Minister who founded Thammasart University, which plays an important role in the development of social sciences in Thailand

Schistura procera Kottelat 2000    elongate, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to more streamlined shape compared to some other Laotian congeners

Schistura prolixifasciata Zheng, Yang & Chen 2012    prolixus, broad or stretched far out; fasciatus, banded, referring to 4-7 brown bars on body, wider than interspaces

Schistura pseudofasciolata Zhou & Cui 1993    pseudo-, false, i.e., although this species may resemble S. fasciolata, such an appearance is false

Schistura psittacula Freyhof & Serov 2001    psitticus, parrot, i.e., parrot-like, referring to broad processes dentiformis, which resembles a parrot’s bill

Schistura pumatensis Nguyen & Nguyen 2007    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Pumat National Park, Nghe An Province, Viêt Nam, where it is endemic

Schistura puncticeps Bohlen & Šlechtová 2013    punctum, dot; ceps, head, referring to prominent spots on head

Schistura punctifasciata Kottelat 1998    punctatus, spotted; fasciatus, banded, referring to irregular greyish spots superimposed on 7-11 vertical dark bars

Schistura quaesita Kottelat 2000    subtle, refined or delicate, allusion not explained nor evident

Schistura quasimodo Kottelat 2000    name of hump-backed character in Victor Hugo’s The Hunchback of Notre Dame, referring to sometimes conspicuous dorsal hump

Schistura rajasthanica (Mathur & Yazdani 1971)    ica, belonging to: Rajasthan, India, where it appears to be endemic

Schistura rara (Zhu & Cao 1987)    thinly scattered, allusion not explained, possibly referring to thin scattering of tiny scales on belly

Schistura reidi (Smith 1945)    in honor of Earl D. Reid, Division of Fishes, United States National Museum

Schistura reticulata Vishwanath & Nebeshwar Sharma 2004    referring to anteriorly reticulated dark brown bars

Schistura reticulofasciata (Singh & Bănărescu 1982)    reticulum, net; fasica, bar, referring to numerous irregular crossbars that form net-like pattern on body

Schistura rikiki Kottelat 2000    French slang meaning wee or pint-sized (also spelled riquiqui), referring to small size, up to 24.2 mm SL

Schistura robertsi Kottelat 1990    in honor of ichthyologist Tyson R. Roberts (b. 1940), who collected most of type series

Schistura rosammae (Sen 2009)    in honor of Rosamma Mathew, Zoological Survey of India, who collected type [originally spelled rosammai; since name honors a woman, rosammae reflects the correct gender]

Schistura rubrimaculata Bohlen & Šlechtová 2013    ruber, red; maculatus, dotted, referring to red dot on caudal peduncle

Schistura rupecula rupecula McClelland 1838    rupes, rock; colus, dwelling in, referring to occurrence in mountain streams in Simla, India

Schistura rupecula inglisi (Hora 1935)    in honor of Charles M. Inglis (1870-1954), Curator, Natural History Museum of Darjeeling, India

Schistura russa Kottelat 2000    russet, referring to body coloration in life

Schistura savona (Hamilton 1822)    latinization and abridgement of Savon khorka, Bengali vernacular for this species

Schistura scaturigina McClelland 1839    ina, belonging to: scaturigo, bubbling spring, allusion unknown, probably referring to Himilayan stream habitat; name dates to a figure in the Francis Hamilton-Buchanan collection, no types known

Schistura schultzi (Smith 1945)    in honor of Leonard P. Schultz (1901-1986), Curator of Fishes, United States National Museum

Schistura scyphovecteta Lokeshwor & Vishwanath 2013    scypho, goblet; vectes, bars, referring to goblet-shaped bars on body

Schistura semiarmata (Day 1867)    semi-, partial; armatus, armed with a weapon, referring to “cartilaginous and rudimentary” spine opposite anterior inferior extremity of orbit

Schistura sertata Kottelat 2000    crowned or garlanded, referring to row of chevron-shaped dots along lateral line

Schistura sexcauda (Fowler 1937)    sex, six; cauda, tail, referring to number of bars behind dorsal fin

Schistura sexnubes Endruweit 2014    sex, six; nubes, clouds, referring to six saddle blotches, “like clouds hanging down the sky”

Schistura shadiwalensis Mirza & Nalbant 1981    ensis, suffix denoting place: Shadiwal, Pakistan, type locality

Schistura sharavathiensis Sreekantha, Gururaja, Rema Devi, Indra & Ramachandra 2006    ensis, suffix denoting place: Sharavathi River, western Ghats, India, where it is endemic

Schistura shebbearei (Hora 1935)    in honor of Hora’s friend, Mr. E. O. Shebbeare, Conservator of Forests, Bengal, who sent a collection of fishes to the Indian Museum, including type of this one

Schistura shuangjiangensis (Zhu & Wang 1985)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Shuangjiang County, Yunnan Province, China, type locality

Schistura shuensis Bohlen & Šlechtová 2014    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Shu Chaung, tributary of Maton Chaung, Irrawaddy River basin, Myanmar, type locality

Schistura sigillata Kottelat 2000    delicately carved, presumably referring to 13-15 narrow bars on body, some of them alternating with narrower and shorter bars, giving the impression of an axial row of blotches

Schistura sijuensis (Menon 1987)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Siju Cave, Garo Hills, Meghalaya, India, only known area of occurrence

Schistura sikmaiensis (Hora 1921)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Sikmai (a stream), Putao, Myanmar, type locality (also occurs in India and Nepal)

Schistura similis Kottelat 1990    similar, referring to “absence of trenchant diagnostic characters between numerous species of nemacheiline”

Schistura singhi (Menon 1987)    in honor of fish ecologist K. P. Singh, who collected type

Schistura sirindhornae Suvarnaraksha 2015    in honor of Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn of Thailand on the occasion of her 60th birthday, supporter of various conservation, education, and “protein source security” projects in rural communities, including many in Nan Province, type locality of this species

Schistura sokolovi Freyhof & Serov 2001    in honor of biologist Vladimir Evgenievich Sokolov (1928-1988), for “great efforts” in the zoological exploration of central Viêt Nam

Schistura sombooni Kottelat 1998    in honor of Somboon Phetphommasouk, liaison engineer, Nam Theun 2 Electricity Consortium (Vientiane, Laos), for his assistance and help in the field

Schistura sonlaensis (Nguyen, Nguyen & Hoang 2010)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Son La City, Viêt Nam, type locality

Schistura spekuli Kottelat 2004    named for SPEKUL, Caving Club of the University of Leuven, Belgium

Schistura spiesi Vidthayanon & Kottelat 2003    in honor of John Spies, Australian speleologist and pioneer in ecological and archaeological cave studies and conservation in Thailand, where this species occurs

Schistura spiloptera (Valenciennes 1846)    spilotus, spotted; pterus, fin, referring to black spot on first three rays of dorsal fin

Schistura spilota (Fowler 1934)    spotted, presumably referring to seven variable dark transverse broad bands, often broken as blotches or spots

Schistura striata (Day 1867)    striped, probably referring to “very narrow light-reddish vertical bands, most distinct in the posterior part of the body”

Schistura suber Kottelat 2000    Latin for cork, referring to yellowish-gray color

Schistura susannae Freyhof & Serov 2001    in honor of Susanne Klähr, for her help with field work

Schistura tamduongensis Nguyen, Nguyen & Nguyen 2009    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Tam Duong district, Lai Chau Province, Viêt Nam, type locality

Schistura tenebrosa Kangrang, Page & Beamish 2012    dark or gloomy, referring to dusky coloration

Schistura tenura Kottelat 2000    tenuis, thin; oura, tail, referring to relatively slender and tapering caudal peduncle

Schistura thanho Freyhof & Serov 2001    named for the “friendly people” of the Tha Nho ethnic community, Binh Dinh Province, Viêt Nam, type locality

Schistura tigrina Vishwanath & Nebeshwar Sharma 2005    tiger-like, referring to tiger-like striations on body

Schistura tirapensis Kottelat 1990    ensis, suffix denoting place: Tirap District, Arunachal Pradesh, India, where it is endemic (replacement name for Nemacheilus arunachalensis Menon 1987, preoccupied by N. arunachalensis Datta & Barman 1984)

Schistura tizardi Kottelat 2000    in honor of Robert Tizard, World Wildlife Fund, “in gratitude for his help at various stages” of Kottelat’s survey of Laotian fishes

Schistura trilineata (Nguyen, Nguyen & Hoang 2010)    tri-, three; lineatus, lined, referring to dark stripe along back and one on each side of body

Schistura tubulinaris Kottelat 1998    tubus, tube; naris, nostril, referring to anterior nostril at the tip of a short tube

Schistura udomritthiruji Bohlen & Šlechtová 2010    in honor of ornamental-fish trader Kamphol Udomritthirug, who provided the first specimens and for continuous support of the authors’ work on Southeast Asian fishes

Schistura vinciguerrae (Hora 1935)    in honor of physician-ichthyologist Decio Vinciguerra (1856-1934), who studied Burmese fishes and described the species (S. multifasciata) with which this species had been identified

Schistura waltoni (Fowler 1937)    in honor of naturalist Joseph Walton (1823-?), a contributor to the fish collection at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia in its early history

Schistura xhatensis Kottelat 2000    ensis, suffix denoting place: Nam Xhat, a tributary of the Nam Khan, Laos, type locality and only known distribution

Schistura yersini Freyhof & Serov 2001    in honor of Swiss biologist and humanist Alexandre Yersin (1863-1943), who spend much of his life in southern Viêt Nam, especially around Dalat, where this species was collected

Schistura yingjiangensis (Zhu 1982)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Yingjiang County, Yunnan Province, China, where it appears to be endemic

Schistura zonata McClelland 1839    girdled or banded, referring to green rings that completely encircle body

Sectoria Kottelat 1990    latinization of sector, referring to mouth structure, “strongly reminiscent” of “sector mouths” (i.e., a wide inferior mouth with an exposed cornified mandibular cutting edge) of some cyprinids (e.g., Cyprinion, Lobocheilus, Onchystoma), used to scrape aufwuchs from submerged surfaces

Sectoria atriceps (Smith 1945)    ater, black; ceps, head, referring to dark-brown head

Sectoria heterognathos (Chen 1999)    hetero-, different; gnathus, jaw, referring to its “abnormal” jaws, broad, thick and strong, without horny edges

Seminemacheilus Bănărescu & Nalbant 1995    semi-, half, referring to short lateral line of S. lendlii, which was originally described in Nemacheilus

Seminemacheilus ispartensis Erk’akan, Nalbant & Özeren 2007    ensis, suffix denoting place: Isparta Creek, Turkey, type locality

Seminemacheilus lendlii (Hankó 1925)    in honor of Hungarian zoologist Adolf Lendl (1862-1943), who collected in Asia Minor (including Turkey, where this species is endemic)

Speonectes Kottelat 2012    speos, cave or cavern; nectes, swimmer, referring to cave habitat of S. tiomanensis

Speonectes tiomanensis (Kottelat 1990)    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Pulau Tioman, Malaysia, type locality

Sphaerophysa Cao & Zhu 1988    sphaero, ball; physa, bladder, referring to two halves of air bladder capsule fused into a single, more or less spherical, shape

Sphaerophysa dianchiensis Cao & Zhu 1988    ensis, suffix denoting place: Dianchi Lake, near Kunming City, China, type locality

Sundoreonectes Kottelat 1990    Sunda, referring to Sunda Archipelago and Sunda Shelf of Southeast Asia, where all species are endemic; Oreonectes, similar to loaches of that genus

Sundoreonectes obesus (Vaillant 1902)    fat or stout, referring to “heavy, rounded body” [translation]

Sundoreonectes sabanus (Chin 1990)    anus, belonging to: Sabah, local name for North Borneo, where it is endemic

Tarimichthys Prokofiev 2010    referring to Tarim River system, northern China, distribution of T. bombifrons and T. incipiens; ichthys, fish

Tarimichthys bombifrons (Herzenstein 1888)    bombe, convex; frons, forehead, referring to bulging or protruding head of larger specimens

Tarimichthys edsinicus (Prokofiev 2003)    icus, belonging to: Edsin River basin, Xinjiang, Hexi region of China, type locality

Tarimichthys incipiens (Herzenstein 1888)    beginning, allusion not explained; since it was proposed as a subspecies of T. bombifrons, name may refer to its being an incipient species, i.e., a subspecies, or variety, which is in the process of becoming permanent, and thus changing to a true species, usually by isolation in localities from which other varieties are excluded

Traccatichthys Freyhof & Serov 2001    derived from (=fish) trac cat, name of T. taeniatus in central Viêt Nam; ichthys, fish

Traccatichthys bacmeensis (Nguyen & Vo 2005)    -ensis, suffix denoting place: Bac Me, Hà Giang, Viêt Nam, where it is endemic

Traccatichthys pulcher (Nichols & Pope 1927)    beautiful, referring to “brightly marked” coloration

Traccatichthys taeniatus (Pellegrin & Chevey 1936)    banded, referring to broad black lateral band

Traccatichthys tuberculum Du, Zhang & Chan 2012     referring to presence of tubercles on dorsal surface of the pectoral-fin rays

Triplophysa Rendahl 1933    triplos, thrice; physa, bladder, presumably referring to swim bladder consisting of three parts, a “bony encapsulated diverticulum” and “two elongated bubbles” (translations)

Triplophysa akhtari (Vijayalakshmanan 1950)    in honor of S. Ali Akhtar, Faculty of Medicine, Kabul, who gave the Zoological Survey of India a “very valuable and interesting” collection of fishes from Afghanistan (including type of this one) along with ecological notes [author’s name sometimes given as Lakshmanan]

Triplophysa alexandrae Prokofiev 2001    in honor of Alexandra Viktorovna Potanina (1843-1893), wife and companion of Grigory Nikolayaevich Potanin (1835-1920), Russian explorer of Central Asia

Triplophysa aliensis (Wu & Zhu 1979)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Ali, Tibet, where it is endemic

Triplophysa altipinnis Prokofiev 2003    altus, high; pinnis, fin, referring to high dorsal fin compared to most other nemacheiline loaches

Triplophysa aluensis Li & Zhu 2000    ensis, suffix denoting place: Alu Cave, Luxi County, Yunnan Province, China, type locality

Triplophysa angeli (Fang 1941)    in honor of herpetologist Fernand Angel (1881-1950), Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (Paris), who was “always interested” (translation) in Fang’s work

Triplophysa anterodorsalis Zhu & Cao 1989    antero, anterior; dorsalis, of the back, referring to dorsal-fin origin closer to snout than to tail

Triplophysa aquaecaeruleae Prokofiev 2001    of aqua, water; caeruleus, blue, referring to Blue River system, Qinghai, northwestern China, type locality

Triplophysa arnoldii Prokofiev 2006    in honor of Lev Vladimirovich Arnoldi (1903-1980), “one of the most eminent Russian entomologists,” who collected type

Triplophysa bashanensis Xu & Wang 2009    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Bashan River, Xixiang County, Shaanxi Province, China, type locality

Triplophysa bellibarus (Tchang, Yueh & Hwang 1963)    latinization of the Anglo-Saxon belly and bar, referring to six transverse brownish bars on abdomen

Triplophysa bleekeri (Sauvage & Dabry de Thiersant 1874)    patronym not identified but clearly in honor of Pieter Bleeker (1819-1878), Dutch medical doctor and ichthyologist

Triplophysa brachyptera (Herzenstein 1888)    brachys, short; ptera, fin, referring to shorter fins compared to T. robusta

Triplophysa brahui (Zugmayer 1912)    apparently named for the Brahui, an ethnic group of people found in Baluchistan, Pakistan, type locality

Triplophysa brevibarba Ding 1993    brevis, short; barba, barbel, referring to shorter barbels compared to T. stoliczkai [also known as T. dingi Prokofiev 2010, an unneeded replacement name]

Triplophysa brevicauda (Herzenstein 1888)    brevis, short; cauda, tail, referring to short (significantly smaller than head length) caudal peduncle

Triplophysa cakaensis Cao & Zhu 1988    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Cakayanhu Lake drainage near Caka town, Ulanxian County, Qinghai Province, China, type locality

Triplophysa chandagaitensis Prokofiev 2002    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Chandagaity River, Tuva Republic, Russia, where it is endemic

Triplophysa chondrostoma (Herzenstein 1888)     chondros, cartilage; stoma, mouth, referring to keratinous covering on jaws

Triplophysa coniptera coniptera (Turdakov 1954)    conus, round; ptera, fin, referring to characteristic shape of dorsal fin

Triplophysa coniptera salari (Turdakov 1954)    of Salar channel, Tashkent, Uzbekistan, type locality (Artém Prokofiev, pers. comm.)

Triplophysa crassilabris Ding 1994    crassus, wide; labrum, lip, referring to thicker, wider lower lip compared to T. tenuicauda

Triplophysa cuneicephala (Shaw & Tchang 1931)    cuneus, wedge; cephalus, head, referring to “somewhat triangular” head, wider than body

Triplophysa daochengensis Wu, Sun & Guo 2016    ensis, suffix denoting place: Daocheng River, Daocheng County, Sichuan Province, China, type locality

Triplophysa dalaica (Kessler 1876)    ica, belonging to: Dalai-Nor (Hulun) Lake, Mongolia, type locality

Triplophysa daqiaoensis Ding 1993     ensis, suffix denoting place: Daqiao, Mianning County, Sichuan Province, China, type locality

Triplophysa dongganensis Yang 2013    ensis, suffix denoting place: Donggan village, Chuanshan and Huanjing counties, Guangxi Province, China, type locality

Triplophysa dorsalis (Kessler 1872)    of the back, probably referring to grayish dorsal coloration (Kessler’s vernacular name for this species, translated into English, was “gray-back loach”)

Triplophysa dorsonotata (Kessler 1879)    dorsum, back; notatus, marked, referring to dark spots along middle of back

Triplophysa drassensis (Tilak 1990)    ensis, suffix denoting place: a stream near Drass, Ladakh, India, type locality

Triplophysa elegans (Kessler 1874)    fine, elegant or select, probably referring to attractive markings and/or slender appearance (Kessler called it a “beautiful loach” [translation])

Triplophysa farwelli (Hora 1935)    in honor of Major A. E. Farwell, Military Attaché to the British Legation at Kabul, Afghanistan, who sent type to the Bombay Natural History Society

Triplophysa fengshanensis Lan 2013    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Fengshan County, Guangxi Province, China, where Lintong Town (type locality) is situated

Triplophysa flavicorpus Yang, Chen & Lan 2004    flavus, yellow; corpus, body, referring to yellow base body color

Triplophysa furva Zhu 1992    dark or dusky, presumably referring to denser and darker black bands and markings on body and fins compared to Barbatula altayensis (described in same paper)

Triplophysa fuxianensis Yang & Chu 1990    ensis, suffix denoting place: Lake Fuxian, Yunnan Province, China, where it is endemic

Triplophysa gejiuensis (Chu & Chen 1979)    ensis, suffix denoting place: underground river in Gejiu County, Yunnan Province, China, where it is endemic

Triplophysa gerzeensis Cao & Zhu 1988    ensis, suffix denoting place: stream near Gêrzê County, Tibet, type locality

Triplophysa gracilis (Day 1877)    slender, presumably referring to elongate body shape

Triplophysa grahami (Regan 1906)    in honor of John Graham, who collected many fishes from Yunnan, China, including type of this one

Triplophysa griffithii (Günther 1868)    in honor of British naturalist and solicitor Edward Griffith (1790-1858), from whose collection type was described

Triplophysa gundriseri Prokofiev 2002    in honor of “famous” Siberian ichthyologist A. N. Gundriser, who described this loach in 1962 but used a preoccupied name, Nemacheilus dorsalis humilis

Triplophysa hexiensis (Zhao & Wang 1988)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Hexi area, Gansu Province, China, type locality

Triplophysa heyangensis Zhu 1992    ensis, suffix denoting place: Heyangxian County, Shaanxi Province, China, type locality

Triplophysa hialmari Prokofiev 2001    in honor of Swedish zoologist and artist Hialmar Rendahl (1891-1969), for his “great” contribution to the systematics of Central Asian fishes

Triplophysa hsutschouensis (Rendahl 1933)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Hsutschou, tributary of Ruo Shui River, Etsin Gol, Gansu Province, China, type locality

Triplophysa huanjiangensis Yang, Wu & Lan 2011    ensis, suffix denoting place: Huajiang County, Guangxi, China, where it is endemic

Triplophysa huapingensis Zheng, Yang & Chen 2012    ensis, suffix denoting place: Huaping town, Leye County River, Guangxi, China, type locality

Triplophysa hutjertjuensis (Rendahl 1933)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Hutjertju Gol, Mongolia, type locality

Triplophysa intermedia (Kessler 1876)    described as intermediate between T. dalaica and T. (=Labiatophysa) nasalis

Triplophysa jianchuanensis Zheng, Du, Chen & Yang 2010    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Jianchuan County, Dali Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China, type locality

Triplophysa jiarongensis Lin, Li & Song 2012    ensis, suffix denoting place: cave in Jiarong Town, Libo County, Guizhou Province, China, type locality

Triplophysa kafirnigani (Turdakov 1948)    of the Kafirnigan River, tributary of Amu-Daya River, near Stalinabad (Dyushanbe), Tadzhikistan, type locality (also occurs in Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan)

Triplophysa kashmirensis (Hora 1922)    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Kashmir (or Kashmir Valley in general), India, type locality (also occurs in Pakistan)

Triplophysa kullmanni Bănărescu, Nalbant & Ladiges 1975    in honor of Ernst Josef Kullmann (1931-1996), zoologist and director (1975-1981) of the Cologne Zoo (Germany), who led Afghan expedition that collected type in 1971

Triplophysa kungessana (Kessler 1879)    ana, belonging to: Kungès River, Ili basin, Kazakhstan, elevation 4000 feet, type locality

Triplophysa lacusnigri (Berg 1928)    lacus, lake; nigra, black, referring to Karakul (“Black Lake”) and tributary, Pamir Plateau, Tajikistan, where it is endemic

Triplophysa lacustris Yang & Chu 1990    lacustrine (belonging to a lake), referring to distribution in Lake Xinyun (or Xingyunha), Yunnan Province, China, where it appears to be endemic

Triplophysa langpingensis Yang 2013    ensis, suffix denoting place: Langping Town, Tianlin County, Guangxi Province, China, type locality

Triplophysa laterimaculata Li, Liu & Yang 2007    lateri-, lateral; maculatus, spotted, referring to 10 black blotches along lateral midline

Triplophysa laticeps Zhou & Cui 1997    latus, flat; ceps, head, referring to its “particularly” flat head

Triplophysa lihuensis Wu, Yang & Lan 2012    ensis, suffix denoting place: cave in Lihu Town, Nandan County, Guangxi Zhuang, China, type locality

Triplophysa lingyunensis (Liao, Wang & Luo 1997)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Lingyun County, Guangxi Province, China, type locality

Triplophysa lixianensis He, Song & Zhang 2008    ensis, suffix denoting place: Lixian County, Aba Prefecture, Sichuan Province, China, type locality

Triplophysa longianguis Wu & Wu 1984    longus, long; anguis, snake, presumably referring to more vertebrae and/or longer caudal peduncle (and hence a longer, more snake-like body) compared to T. pseudoscleroptera

Triplophysa longibarbata (Chen, Yang, Sket & Aljancic 1998)    longus, long; barbatus, bearded, referring to well-developed barbels

Triplophysa longipectoralis Zheng, Du, Chen & Yang 2009    longus, long, referring to long pectoral fin, reaching beyond origin of pelvic fin

Triplophysa longliensis Ren, Yang & Chen 2012    ensis, suffix denoting place: Longli County, Guizhou Province, China, where it is endemic

Triplophysa macrocephala Yang, Wu & Yang 2012    macro-, large or great; cephalus, head, referring to large head (25.3–30.4% of SL) relative to body

Triplophysa macromaculata Yang 1990     macro-, large; maculata, spotted, referring to six large, horseshoe-shaped blotches on back

Triplophysa macrophthalma Zhu & Guo 1985    macro-, long or large; ophthalmus, eye, its diameter larger than distance between the eyes

Triplophysa markehenensis (Zhu & Wu 1981)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Marke He (River), Qinghai Province, China, type locality

Triplophysa marmorata (Heckel 1838)    marbled, referring to brown undulations and mottles on body

Triplophysa microphysus (Fang 1935)    micro-, small; physus, bladder, referring to small free posterior portion of air bladder chamber, about 1/5 length of air-bladder duct [often spelled microphysa but apparently this is incorrect since name is an indeclinable compound noun]

Triplophysa microphthalma (Liao & Wang 1997)    micro-, small; ophthalmus, referring to smaller eyes compared to T. nanpanjiangensis [description appeared in Liao, Wang & Luo 1997 and authorship often cited that way]

Triplophysa microps (Steindachner 1866)    micro-, small; ops, eye, referring to minute eyes, their length two or more times in interorbital space

Triplophysa moquensis Ding 1994    ensis, suffix denoting place: name not explained, perhaps a variant spelling of Maqu, a county in Gasu Province, China, possibly referring to broader Yellow River drainage area that includes nearby type locality (Xia Man Lake, Sichuan Province)

Triplophysa nandanensis Lan, Yang & Chen 1995    ensis, suffix denoting place: Nandan County, Guangxi Province, China, where it is endemic

Triplophysa nanpanjiangensis (Zhu & Cao 1988)    ensis, suffix denoting place: subterranean waters in the Nanpanjiang River basin, Zhanyixian County, Yunnan Province, China, where it is endemic

Triplophysa nasobarbatula Wang & Li 2001    nasus, nose; barbatus, bearded, referring to barbel-like nostril valve

Triplophysa ninglangensis Wu & Wu 1988    ensis, suffix denoting place: Ninglang River, Ninglang County, Yunnan Province, China, type locality

Triplophysa nujiangensa Chen, Cui & Yang 2004    ensis, suffix denoting place: Nu Jiang (Salween) River, Nanjiang Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China, type locality

Triplophysa obscura Wang 1987    dark, referring to grayish-black dorsal surface and/or grayish-black fins

Triplophysa obtusirostra Wu & Wu 1988    obtusus, blunt; rostris, snout, referring to wider, thicker and shorter “rostral character” compared to congeners

Triplophysa orientalis (Herzenstein 1888)    eastern, originally proposed as an eastern Asian subspecies of T. kungessana

Triplophysa papillosolabiata (Kessler 1879)    papillatus, papillose; labiata, lipped, referring to two rows of large papillae on bilobed lower lip

Triplophysa pappenheimi (Fang 1935)    in honor of ichthyologist Paul Pappenheim (1878-1945), Director of the Berlin Zoological Museum, for his kindness in allowing and trusting Fang to examine and describe Museum specimens, and for help in securing literature

Triplophysa paradoxa (Turdakov 1955)    contrary to expectation, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to Turdakov’s assessment that this species, contrary to previous belief, represented a hybrid between T. stolickai and T. dorsalis (Artém Prokofiev, pers. comm.)

Triplophysa parva Chen, Li & Yang 2009    small, referring to small size (up to 32.4 mm SL)

Triplophysa pedaschenkoi (Berg 1931)    in honor of Russian zoologist D. D. Pedaschenko, who collected some of the fishes that Berg studied from Issyk Kul, Kyrgyzstan [technically, name is not available as it was proposed as an infraspecific taxon; but since name is treated as available in current literature it is provisionally included here]

Triplophysa polyfasciata Ding 1996    poly, many; fasciata, banded, referring to 10-12 irregular dark brown bands on sides

Triplophysa pseudoscleroptera (Zhu & Wu 1981)    pseudo-, false, i.e., although this species may resemble T. scleroptera, such an appearance is false

Triplophysa pseudostenura He, Zhang & Song 2012     pseudo-, false, i.e., although this species may resemble (and was previously misidentified as) T. stenura, such an appearance is false

Triplophysa qilianensis Li, Chen & Hu 2015    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Qilian County, Qinghai Province, China, type locality

Triplophysa qiubeiensis Li & Yang 2008    –ensis, suffix denoting place: underwater cave near Nijiao Village, Qiubei County, Yunnan Province, China, where it appears to be endemic

Triplophysa retropinnis (Herzenstein 1888)    retro, back; pinnis, fin, referring to posterior placement of ventral fins compared to T. dorsonotata

Triplophysa robusta (Kessler 1876)    stout, referring to rather stout body shape

Triplophysa rosa Chen & Yang 2005    latinization of rose, named after Red Rose, a caving club that collected type

Triplophysa scapanognatha Prokofiev 2007    skapane, mattock; gnathus, jaw, referring to cylindrical shape of head

Triplophysa scleroptera (Herzenstein 1888)    sclero-, tough or hard; ptera, fin, referring to thickened and sclerotized last unbranched rays on dorsal and anal fins

Triplophysa sellaefer (Nichols 1925)    sella, saddle; fero, to bear, referring to sharply marked and dark cross-saddles on back

Triplophysa sewerzowi (Nikolskii 1938)    in honor of Nikolai Alekseevich Sewerzow (1827-1885), one of the most prominent students of Middle Asian zoology

Triplophysa shaanxiensis Chen 1987    ensis, suffix denoting place: Shaanxi Province, China, where it is endemic

Triplophysa shehensis Menon 1987    ensis, suffix denoting place: irrigation canal at Sheh, 12 km east of Ladakh, India, type locality

Triplophysa shilinensis Chen & Yang 1992    ensis, suffix denoting place: cave in Shi Lin (“Stone Forest”) County, also known as Lunan County, Yunnan Province, China, type locality

Triplophysa shiyangensis (Zhao & Wang 1983)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Shiyang River, Gansu Province, China, type locality

Triplophysa siluroides (Herzenstein 1888)    oides, having the form of: silurus, catfish, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to long, catfish-like barbels

Triplophysa stenura (Herzenstein 1888)    stenos, narrow; oura, tail, referring to caudal peduncle depth sharply reduced sharply towards caudal-fin base

Triplophysa stewarti (Hora 1922)    in honor of Capt. F. H. Stewart, Indian Medical Service, who helped collect type

Triplophysa stolickai (Steindachner 1866)    in honor of paleontologist Ferdinand Stoliczka (1838-1874), who collected type [spelled stoličkai by Steindachner; caron is deleted per ICZN Art. 32.5.2.1 but some authors incorrectly amend spelling to “stoliczkai”]

Triplophysa strauchii (Kessler 1874)    in honor of Russian herpetologist Alexander Strauch (1832-1893)

Triplophysa tanggulaensis (Zhu 1982)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Tanggula Shankou (or Tanggula Pass), just south Wenquan, type locality, a small settlement in Tanggula Town, Qinghai Province, China

Triplophysa tianeensis Chen, Cui & Yang 2004    ensis, suffix denoting place: Tian’e County, Guangxi Province, China, type locality

Triplophysa tianlinensis Li, Li, Lan & Du 2016    ensis, suffix denoting place: a karst cave in Tianlin County, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China, type locality

Triplophysa tianxingensis Yang, Li & Chen 2016    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Tianxing Township, Qiubei County, Yunnan Province, China, type locality; also alludes to unique color pattern: striking brown blotches resembling stars (tianxing means “stars in the sky” in Chinese)

Triplophysa tibetana (Regan 1905)    Tibetan, referring to Asian region where it is endemic

Triplophysa trewavasae Mirza & Ahmad 1990    in honor of “one of the most eminent” of ichthyologists, Ethelwynn Trewavas (1900-1993), British Museum of Natural History

Triplophysa turpanensis Wu & Wu 1992    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Turpan City, Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China, tye locality

Triplophysa ulacholica (Anikin 1905)    ica, belonging to: mouth of Ulakhol River at Issyk-Kul Lake, Kyrgyzstan, type locality

Triplophysa uranoscopus (Kessler 1872)    urano, sky; scopus, watcher, referring to its “eyes distinctly oriented upward” (translation)

Triplophysa venusta Zhu & Cao 1988    attractive, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to yellowish coloration and/or to Lijiang (=beautiful river), Yunnan, China, type locality, an area known for its natural scenic beauty

Triplophysa waisihani Cao & Zhang 2008    in honor of Wai Si Han (Chinese spelling of Wais Khan), 10th-generation male offspring of Mongolian emperor Genghis Khan, whose mausoleum is located in Dunmaza Town (Yining County, Xinjiang-Uighur, China), type locality

Triplophysa wuweiensis (Li & Chang 1974)    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Wuwei-Hsien, Kansu Province, China, type locality

Triplophysa xiangshuingensis Li 2004    ensis, suffix denoting place: Xiangshuijing village, Shilin County, Yunnan Province, China, type locality

Triplophysa xiangxiensis (Yang, Yuan & Liao 1986)    ensis, suffix denoting place: subterranean waters in Xiangxi, alternate Chinese name for Hunan Province, China, where it is endemic

Triplophysa xichangensis Zhu & Cao 1989    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Xichangxian County, Sichuan Province, China, type locality

Triplophysa xichangensis Zhu & Cao 1989    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Xichangxian County, Sichuan Province, China, type locality

Triplophysa xichouensis Liu, Pan, Yang & Chen 2017    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Xichou County, Yunnan Province, China, type locality

Triplophysa xiqiensis Ding & Lai 1996    ensis, suffix denoting place: Xiqi (also spelled Sikai) Village, Zhaojuexian County, Sichuan Province, China, type locality

Triplophysa yajiangensis Yan, Sun & Guo 2015    –ensis, suffix denoting place: city of Yajiang, Sichuan Province, China, where type locality (Yalong River) is situated

Triplophysa yaopeizhii Xu, Zhang & Cai 1995    in honor of Yao Peizhi, vice chairman of the Agriculture and Forestry Committee of Tibet (where this loach is endemic), for his support of the authors’ research

Triplophysa yunnanensis Yang 1990    ensis, suffix denoting place: Yunnan Province, China, where it is endemic

Triplophysa zhaoi Prokofiev 2006    in honor of Chinese ichthyologist Zhao Tieqiao, for his “great” contribution to the study of nemacheiline loaches from northwestern China

Triplophysa zhenfengensis Wang & Li 2001    ensis, suffix denoting place: Zhenfeng County, Guizhou Province, China, type locality

Troglocobitis Parin 1983    trogle, hole, referring to subterranean habitat; cobitis, referring to presumed close relationship to Paracobitis

Troglocobitis starostini (Parin 1983)    in honor of hydrobiologist I. V. Starostin, who studied the inland waters of Turkmenistan (where genus is endemic)

Tuberoschistura Kottelat 1990    Schistura that are tuberosus, i.e., covered with lumps or tumors, referring to small elongate tubercles regularly placed around eye and forming a longitudinal series in the interorbital space

Tuberoschistura baenzigeri (Kottelat 1983)    in honor of Swiss entomologist Hans Bänziger, Chiang Mai, Thailand, whose help made Kottelat’s collecting trip a success

Tuberoschistura cambodgiensis Kottelat 1990    ensis, suffix denoting place: Cambodia, where it is endemic

Turcinoemacheilus Bănărescu & Nalbant 1964    Turcino-, Turkey, i.e., a Turkish Nemacheilus, referring to distribution of T. kosswigi in eastern Turkey (also occurs in Iran)

Turcinoemacheilus bahaii Esmaeili, Sayyadzadeh, Özulug, Geiger & Freyhof 2014    in honor of Bahāʾ al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Ḥusayn al‐ʿĀmilī (also known as Shaykh‐i Bahāʾī, 1547-1621), Persian scholar, philosopher, architect, mathematician, astronomer and poet

Turcinoemacheilus hafezi Golzarianpour, Abdoli, Patimar & Freyhof 2013    in honor of Khwāja Shamsud-Dān Muhammad Hāfez-e Shārizi (1325/26-1389/90), known by his pen name Hāfez, “one of the most famous and influential Persian lyric poets”

Turcinoemacheilus himalaya Conway, Edds, Shrestha & Mayden 2011    Sanskrit Hima-Alaya, meaning “abode [sic, abode] of snow,” referring to Himalayan Mountain Range, where it is endemic

Turcinoemacheilus kosswigi Bănărescu & Nalbant 1964    in honor of zoologist and geneticist Curt Kosswig (1903-1982), who collected, or supervised the collection of, many Turkish fishes, including type of this one

Turcinoemacheilus minimus Esmaeili, Sayyadzadeh, Özulug, Geiger & Freyhof 2014    least, referring to small size, up to 38 mm SL observed

Turcinoemacheilus saadii Esmaeili, Sayyadzadeh, Özulug, Geiger & Freyhof 2014    in honor of Abū-Muhammad Muslih al-Dīn bin Abdallāh Shīrāzī, Saadi Shirazi (better known by his pen-name Saʿdī, or Saadi), one of the major Persian poets of the medieval period

Yunnanilus Nichols 1925    –ilus, adjectival suffix: referring to Yunnan, China, center of distribution of genus at time of description

Yunnanilus altus Kottelat & Chu 1988    high, referring to deep body

Yunnanilus analis Yang 1990    anal, referring to six branched anal-fin rays, unique among congeners

Yunnanilus bailianensis Yang 2013    ensis, suffix denoting place: Bailian Cave, Liuzhou City, Guangxi Province, China, type locality

Yunnanilus bajiangensis Li 2004    ensis, suffix denoting place: Bajiang River, Shilin County, Yunnan Province, China, type locality

Yunnanilus beipanjiangensis Li, Mao & Sun 1994    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Beipanjiang River system, Yunnan Province, China, type locality

Yunnanilus caohaiensis Ding 1992    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Caohai Lake, Weining County, Guizhou, China, type locality

Yunnanilus chui Yang 1991    in honor of ichthyologist Chu Xin-Luo, for “kindness, valuable advice and help” given to the author

Yunnanilus discoloris Zhou & He 1989    dis-, different, referring to sexually dimorphic color pattern: male with black longitudinal stripe on both sides and a light blackish stripe of spots along back, female with black spots and blotches on back and sides

Yunnanilus elakatis Cao & Zhu 1989    spindle, referring to spindle-like shape of body          

Yunnanilus ganheensis An, Liu & Li 2009    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Ganhe, Xundan County, Yunnan Province, China, type locality

Yunnanilus jinxiensis Zhu, Du & Chen 2009    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Jingxi County, Guangxi, China, location of Pearl River, type locality

Yunnanilus longibarbatus Gan, Chen & Yang 2007    longus, long; barbatus, bearded, having the longest barbels in Yunnanilus

Yunnanilus longibulla Yang 1990    longus, long; bulla, bubble, referring to more elongate air bladder compared to Y. pleurotaenia and Y. parvus

Yunnanilus macrogaster Kottelat & Chu 1988    macro-, large; gaster, stomach, referring to large, swollen stomach

Yunnanilus macroistainus Li 1999    macro-, long or large; stainus, presumably latinization of Anglo-Saxon stain, referring to 8-10 large black spots along sides of body

Yunnanilus nanpanjiangensis Li, Mao & Lu 1994    ensis, suffix denoting place: Nanpanjiang River system, Yunnan Province, China, type locality

Yunnanilus niger Kottelat & Chu 1988    black, referring to “deep velvet black” coloration in life

Yunnanilus niulanensis Chen, Yang & Yang 2012    ensis, suffix denoting place: Niulanjiang River, Songming County, Yunnan Province, China, type locality

Yunnanilus obtusirostris Yang 1995    obtusus, blunt; rostris, snout, referring to blunt snout, its length less than interorbital width

Yunnanilus pachycephalus Kottelat & Chu 1988    pachy, thick or wide; cephalus, head, referring to large swollen head of some specimens

Yunnanilus paludosus Kottelat & Chu 1988    marshy, referring to biotype where types were collected

Yunnanilus parvus Kottelat & Chu 1988    small, referring to small size, up to 37.6 mm SL

Yunnanilus pleurotaenia (Regan 1904)     pleuro-, side; taenia, ribbon or band, referring to blackish longitudinal stripe on side

Yunnanilus pulcherrimus Yang, Chen & Lan 2004    most beautiful, referring to “unique” banded color pattern (thin vertical stripes crossing a wide lateral band) compared to congeners

Yunnanilus qujinensis Du, Lu & Chen 2015    –ensis, suffix denoting place: a spring in Qujin City, Yunnan Province, China, type locality

Yunnanilus sichuanensis Ding 1995    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Sichuan, China, where it is endemic

Yunnanilus spanisbripes An, Liu & Li 2009    etymology not explained and complicated by fact that name is spelled spanisbripes in Chinese text and spanitripes in English abstract; since vernacular translates as “horizontal stripe Yunnan loach” one may guess that spanis is a latinization of the Anglo-Saxon span, or bridge, and that both –bripes and –tripes are misspellings of stripes; another guess is that spanis is a typo for sparis, spare or few, and that the name means “few stripes,” which seems to correspond with the single lateral stripe on females (males are blotched or spotted)