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Family BALITORIDAE Hillstream or River Loaches
15 genera • 100 species/subspecies

Balitora Gray 1830    local Gangetic word meaning “sand-digger,” referring to its living among stones in rapid mountain streams, or in rivers with pure sandy bottoms, usually close to the bottom

Balitora annamitica Kottelat 1988    itica, adjectival suffix: etymology not explained but probably referring to Annamite Range of eastern Indochina, which extends into Ratanakiri Province, northeast Cambodia, type locality

Balitora brucei Gray 1830    patronym not identified, possibly in honor of Scottish trader and explorer Robert Bruce (d. 1824), or his brother Charles Alexander Bruce (1793-1871), who introduced tea plantations in Assam, India (type locality) in 1823

Balitora burmanica Hora 1932    Burmese, referring to Meekalan, Myanmar, type locality, described as a “Burmese race” of B. brucei

Balitora chipkali Kumar, Katwate, Raghavan & Dahanukar 2016    lizard in Hindi, referring to general lizard-like appearance in its habitat, where is it usually found adhering to rocks and boulders in fast-flowing streams

Balitora eddsi Conway & Mayden 2010    in honor of aquatic ecologist David R. Edds, Emporia State University, Kansas, USA, who collected type series, for his contribution to the knowledge of the fishes of Nepal

Balitora elongata Chen & Li 1985    elongate, referring to more slender body compared to B. brucei

Balitora haithanhi Nguyen 2005    of Hai Thành, presumably a town or village on or near Gâm River, Na Hang District, Tuyên Quang Province, Viêt Nam, type locality

Balitora jalpalli Raghavan, Tharian, Ali, Jadhav & Dahanukar 2013    derived from Sanskrit words jal, water, and palli, small lizard, referring to lizard-like appearance and habit of clinging to rocks in fast-slowing streams

Balitora kwangsiensis (Fang 1930)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Guangxi (romanized as Kwangsi) Province, China, type locality

Balitora lancangjiangensis (Zheng 1980)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Lancangjiang (Mekong) River drainage, China and Laos, where it occurs

Balitora laticauda Bhoite, Jadhav & Dahanukar 2012    latus, broad; cauda, tail, referring to deeper caudal peduncle compared to B. brucei and B. mysorensis

Balitora longibarbata (Chen 1982)    longus, long; barbata, bearded, referring to longer, thicker barbels compared to B. kwangsiensis

Balitora ludongensis Liu & Chen 2012    ensis, suffix denoting place: Ludong Town, Jingxi County, Guangxi Province, China, type locality

Balitora meridionalis Kottelat 1988    southern, being southernmost member of genus in the Indochinese peninsula

Balitora mysorensis Hora 1941    ensis, suffix denoting place: Mysore, Karnataka, India, type locality

Balitora nantingensis Chen, Cui & Yang 2005    ensis, suffix denoting place: Nanting River, Yunnan Province, China, where it is endemic

Balitora nigrocorpa Nguyen 2005    nigro-, black; corpa, body, presumably referring to dark-gray coloration and/or black scales

Balitora nujiangensis Zhang & Zheng 1983    ensis, suffix denoting place: Nu-Jiang basin, Yunnan Province, China, where it is endemic

Balitora tchangi Zheng 1982    in honor of Tchunlin (or Tchung-Lin) Tchang (1897-1963), in appreciation of his work on Chinese cyprinoids

Balitora vanlani Nguyen 2005    of Văn Lan, presumably a town or village on or near Gâm River, Na Hang District, Tuyên Quang Province, Viêt Nam, type locality

Balitora vanlongi Nguyen 2005    of Văn Long, a pass near Gâm River, Na Hang, Tuyên Quang Province, Viêt Nam, type locality

Balitoropsis Smith 1945    opsis, appearance, allusion not explained, presumably referring to resemblance to Balitora

Balitoropsis ophiolepis (Bleeker 1853)    ophis, snake; lepis, scale, presumably referring to scales which, like a reptile’s, are keeled

Balitoropsis zollingeri (Bleeker 1853)    in honor of “naturalist explorer” (and Swiss botanist) Heinrich Zollinger (1818-1859), who gave his collection of Macassar (Indonesia) fishes, including type of this one, to Bleeker

Bhavania Hora 1920    etymology not explained, perhaps –ia, belonging to: Bhavani, name of municipal area and river in Tamil Nadu, India, at or near where B. australis occurs

Bhavania arunachalensis Nath, Dam, Bhutia, Dey & Das 2007    ensis, suffix denoting place: Arunachal Pradish, southern India, where it is endemic

Bhavania australis (Jerdon 1849)    southern, presumably referring to distribution in southern India

Cryptotora Kottelat 1998    crypto, hidden; –tora, contraction of Balitora, i.e., a hidden balitorid, referring to cave life of C. thamicola

Cryptotora thamicola (Kottelat 1988)    tham, Latin transcription of Thai word for cave; cola, to inhabit, referring to cave habitat

Ghatsa Randall & Page 2015    named for the Western Ghats of India, where species of this genus appear to be endemic

Ghatsa menoni (Shaji & Easa 1995)    in honor of A.G.K. Menon (1921-2002), Zoological Survey of India, for “outstanding” contributions to the taxonomy of Indian loaches

Ghatsa montana (Herre 1945)    mountain, referring to Anamallai Hills, southern India, elevation about 3600 feet, type locality

Ghatsa pillaii (Indra & Rema Devi 1981)    in honor of R. S. Pillai, Deputy Director and Officer-in-Charge, Southern Regional Station, Zoological Survey of India, who collected type

Ghatsa santhamparaiensis (Arunachalam, Johnson & Rema Devi 2002)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Santhampari Hills, Idukki District of Kerala, India, type locality

Ghatsa silasi (Madhusoodana Kurup & Radhakrishnan 2011)    in honor of Eric Godwin Silas (b. 1928), Director, Central Marine Fisheries Institute (India), “renowned” fishery scientist, for his outstanding contributions to the taxonomy of freshwater fishes of Western Ghats

Hemimyzon Regan 1911    hemi-, partial; myzon, perhaps referring to Gastromyzon (Gastromyzontidae), since the 15-16 pelvic-fin rays of H. formosanus, “with extended bases convergent posteriorly, [are] approximating to the Gastromyzon structure”

Hemimyzon confluens Kottelat 2000    confluent, referring to fused pelvic fins

Hemimyzon ecdyonuroides Freyhof & Herder 2002    oides, having the form of: the rheophilous mayfly Ecdyonurus (Heptageniidae, Ephemeroptera)

Hemimyzon formosanus (Boulenger 1894)    anus, belonging to: Formosa (Taiwan), where it is endemic

Hemimyzon khonensis Kottelat 2000    ensis, suffix denoting place: immediately downriver of Khone Falls, Champasak Province, Laos, only known distribution

Hemimyzon macroptera Zheng 1982    macro-, long; ptera, fin, referring to wide, fan-shaped anal fin

Hemimyzon megalopseos Li & Chen 1985    megalo-, large; ops, eye, referring to larger eye compared to H. formosanus

Hemimyzon nanensis Doi & Kottelat 1998    ensis, suffix denoting place: upper Mae Nam Nan basin, north Thailand, where it is endemic

Hemimyzon papilio Kottelat 1998    butterfly, referring to wing-like pectoral and pelvic fins

Hemimyzon pengi (Huang 1982)    patronym not identified, nor can identity be inferred from available evidence

Hemimyzon pumilicorpora Zheng & Zhang 1987    pumila, dwarf; corpa, body, referring to “dwarfish” body compared to H. macroptera

Hemimyzon sheni Chen & Fang 2009    in honor of Shieh-Chieh Shen, for his “great” contribution to ichthyology in Taiwan

Hemimyzon songamensis Nguyen 2005    ensis, suffix denoting place: Gâm River (Sông Gâm), Viêt Nam, type locality

Hemimyzon taitungensis Tzeng & Shen 1982    ensis, suffix denoting place: Taitung County, Taiwan, type locality

Hemimyzon yaotanensis (Fang 1931)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Yao-tan, Wa-chang, Luchow, Szechuan, China, type locality

Homaloptera van Hasselt 1823    homalos, level or even; ptera, fin, referring to “horizontal position of the pectoral and ventral fins” (translation)

Homaloptera bilineata Blyth 1860    bi-, two; lineata, lined, presumably referring to narrow line from snout to eye that continues behind eye as a broad, irregular and somewhat zig-zag band, with a corresponding but obscure band below lateral line (little seen on rear half of body)

Homaloptera confuzona Kottelat 2000    confusus, confused; zona, belt, referring to four irregularly shaped or incomplete (sometimes absent) darker bars on body

Homaloptera ocellata van der Hoeven 1833    having little eyes, referring to 6-7 large, round, dark spots on middle line of back, each with an orange ring [name coined by van Hasselt ca. 1823 but never published]

Homaloptera ogilviei Alfred 1967    in honor of the late Charles S. Ogilvie, Superintendent of King George V National Park, Malaya, a “keen amateur ichthyologist and an unfailing source of information, inspiration, and assistance” during Alfred’s expeditions into the Park

Homaloptera orthogoniata Vaillant 1902    orthos, straight; goniata, angled, presumably referring to thin, dark longitudinal stripe through eye and a similar vertical stripe extending below it

Homaloptera parclitella Tan & Ng 2005    par, two; clitellae, pack-saddle of donkeys, referring to distinct two-saddle blotched dorsum pattern

Homalopteroides Fowler 1905    oides, having the form of: Homaloptera, referring to placement of dorsal fin behind (vs. before) ventral fin on H. wassinkii

Homalopteroides avii Randall & Page 2014    in memory of Lawrence ‘‘Avi’’ Greenberg (1982-2011), “an inspiration to and missed friend of the first author and many others”; the diagnostic lateral cephalic stripe of this species, reminiscent of a smile, is a symbol of Avi’s gentle disposition and goodhearted nature

Homalopteroides indochinensis (Silas 1953)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Indochina, former French colony that included Annam, a French protectorate that encompasses the central region of present-day Viêt Nam, type locality

Homalopteroides modestus (Vinciguerra 1890)    modest or unassuming, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to grayish coloration compared to more-colorful H. bilineata

Homalopteroides nebulosus (Alfred 1969)    dark or cloudy, probably referring to dark brown stripe along lateral line with 5-6 irregular brown patches across dorsum and sides

Homalopteroides rupicola (Prashad & Mukerji 1929)    rupes, rock; colus, dwelling in, referring to occurrence in small rocky streams

Homalopteroides smithi (Hora 1932)    in honor of ichthyologist Hugh M. Smith (1865-1941), then at the Department of Fisheries, Siam

Homalopteroides stephensoni (Hora 1932)    in honor of Hora’s teacher, Lieut.-Col. John Stephenson (1871-1933), civil surgeon, Indian Medical Service, and biology professor, Government College, Lahore

Homalopteroides tweediei (Herre 1940)    in honor of naturalist-archaeologist Michael W. F. Tweedie (1907-1993), Assistant Curator, Raffles Museum in Singapore, who helped collect type

Homalopteroides wassinkii (Bleeker 1853)    in honor of Dr. Geerlof Wassink, chief of the medical service in the Netherlands Indies, through whose kindness Bleeker received type

Homalopteroides weberi (Hora 1932)    in honor of ichthyologist Max Weber (1852-1937), for the “valuable service rendered by him towards the study of Indo-Australian Fishes”

Homalopteroides yuwonoi (Kottelat 1998)    in honor of Digdo Yuwono, Indonesian Ornamental Fish Association, for his continuous support of Kottelat’s work on Indonesian freshwater fishes

Jinshaia Kottelat & Chu 1988    ia, belonging to: Jinsha-jiang (or Yangtze-kiang in earlier transcriptions), longest river in China and only known distribution of genus (at time of description)

Jinshaia abbreviata (Günther 1892)    shortened, presumably referring to “short and simple” barbels

Jinshaia niulanjiangensis Li, Mao & Lu 1998    ensis, suffix denoting place: Niulanjiang, Qujing County, Yunnan Province, China, type locality

Jinshaia sinensis (Sauvage & Dabry de Thiersant 1874)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Sinica (China), then the only known species of Psilorhynchus (its original genus) in China

Lepturichthys Regan 1911    leptos, thin; oura, tail; ichthys, fish, referring to long, slender tail, which distinguishes it from Homaloptera

Lepturichthys dolichopterus Dai 1985    dolichos, long; pterus, fin, referring to longer pectoral and ventral fins compared to L. fimbriata

Lepturichthys fimbriata (Günther 1888)    fringed, i.e., mouth “surrounded with fringes, from which the barbels differ only by their greater size”

Metahomaloptera Chang 1944    meta-, between, referring to presumed relationship between homalopterin and gastromyzonin loaches

Metahomaloptera longicauda Yang, Chen & Yang 2007    longus, long; cauda, tail, referring to longer caudal peduncle compared to M. o. omeiensis and M. o. hangshuiensis

Metahomaloptera omeiensis omeiensis Chang 1944    ensis, suffix denoting place: Omei, Szechwan, China, type locality

Metahomaloptera omeiensis hangshuiensis Xie, Yang & Gong 1984    ensis, suffix denoting place: upper Hanjiang River, Mount Shengnongjia, Hubei Province, China, type locality

Neohomaloptera Herre 1944    neo-, new, proposed as a subgenus of Homaloptera

Neohomaloptera johorensis (Herre 1944)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Johore, Malaysia, type locality

Pseudohomaloptera Silas 1953    pseudo-, false, i.e., although this genus may superficially resemble Homaloptera, such an appearance is false

Pseudohomaloptera batek (Tan 2009)    a traditional Indonesian patterned cloth, made by hand painting, alluding to beautiful body pattern

Pseudohomaloptera leonardi (Hora 1941)    in honor of G. R. Leonard, Superintendent of King George V National Park, “in slight recognition of the help rendered by him in the collection of fishes from Kuala Taham, Pahang” (Malaya)

Pseudohomaloptera sexmaculata (Fowler 1934)    sex, six; maculata, spotted, referring to six blackish-brown to blackish saddle-like blotches on back

Pseudohomaloptera tatereganii (Popta 1905)    patronym not identified but clearly in honor of ichthyologist Charles Tate Regan (1878-1943), Natural History Museum (London)

Pseudohomaloptera vulgaris (Kottelat & Chu 1988)    common, inconspicuous or trivial, referring to inconspicuous appearance and color pattern

Pseudohomaloptera yunnanensis (Chen 1978)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Yunnan Province, China, referring to type locality at Lanchan River

Sinogastromyzon Fang 1930    Sino-, Chinese, referring to country where type species, G. wui, is endemic, i.e., a Chinese Gastromyzon (Gastromyzontidae)

Sinogastromyzon chapaensis Mai 1978    ensis, suffix denoting place: Chapa, French name for Sa Pa, capital of Sa Pa District, Lao Cai Province, Viêt Nam, presumed type locality

Sinogastromyzon daduheensis Guo & Yang 2013    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Dadu River, Shimian County, China, type locality

Sinogastromyzon daon Nguyen 2005    presumably referring to Da River system, Lai Châu, Viêt Nam, type locality

Sinogastromyzon dezeensis Li, Mao & Lu 1999    ensis, suffix denoting place: Deze, Qujing County, Yunnan Province, China, type locality

Sinogastromyzon hagiangensis Nguyen 2005    ensis, suffix denoting place: Hà Giang, Hà Giang Province, Viêt Nam, type locality

Sinogastromyzon hsiashiensis Fang 1931    ensis, suffix denoting place: Hsia-shih, Ma-ha-hsien, Guizhou (Kweichow) Province, China, type locality

Sinogastromyzon hypercorpus Nguyen 2005    hyper, very or above; corpus, body, presumably referring to high body, body depth equal to body length

Sinogastromyzon lixianjiangensis Liu, Chen & Yang 2010    ensis, suffix denoting place: Lixianjiang River drainage, Mojiang County, Yunnan, China, where it is endemic

Sinogastromyzon macrostoma Liu, Chen & Yang 2010    macro-, long or big; stoma, mouth, referring to relative larger mouth when compared to congeners

Sinogastromyzon maon Nguyen & Nguyen 2005    presumably referring to Ma River system, Sông Ma, Son La Province, Viêt Nam

Sinogastromyzon minutus Mai 1978    referring to small size, 31-38 mm SL (38-45 mm TL)

Sinogastromyzon multiocellum Nguyen 2005    multi-, many; ocellum, eyespot but in this case likely meaning spot, referring to eight black spots along back

Sinogastromyzon namnaensis Nguyen 2005    ensis, suffix denoting place: Nâm Na River, Lai Châu, Viêt Nam, type locality

Sinogastromyzon nanpanjiangensis Li 1987    ensis, suffix denoting place: Nanpan River, Lunan County, Yunnan Province, China, type locality

Sinogastromyzon nantaiensis Chen, Han & Fang 2002    ensis, suffix denoting place: Nan-Tai, Chinese name for southern Taiwan, type locality

Sinogastromyzon puliensis Liang 1974    from Pu-lo (Tatuchi, Puli), Taiwan, type locality

Sinogastromyzon rugocauda Mai 1978    etymology not explained, perhaps rugo-, creased or wrinkled; cauda, tail, possibly referring to caudal peduncle covered by ctenoid scales

Sinogastromyzon sichangensis Chang 1944    from Sichang (now Xichang), Sichuan Province, China, where Anning River, type locality, is situated

Sinogastromyzon szechuanensis Fang 1930    ensis, suffix denoting place: Szechuan, China, referring to distribution in upper reaches of Changjiang River

Sinogastromyzon tonkinensis Pellegrin & Chevey 1935    ensis, suffix denoting place: Tonkin, Viêt Nam, type locality

Sinogastromyzon wui Fang 1930    in honor of Hsien W. Wu, Biological Laboratory of the Science Society of China, for “excellent work” on the ichthyology of the southeastern China coast

Travancoria Hora 1941    ia, belonging to: Travancore Hill, Kerala, India, where type species (T. jonesi) is endemic

Travancoria elongata Pethiyagoda & Kottelat 1994    elongate, referring to more slender body and/or more slender caudal peduncle compared to T. jonesi

Travancoria jonesi Hora 1941    in honor of Mr. S. Jones, who sent a “fine collection” of fishes from Travancore Hilla, Kerala, India, to the Zoological Survey of India [probably same person for whom the clupeid Sardinella jonesi Lazarus 1983 was named]

Family GASTROMYZONTIDAE Sucker Loaches
20 genera/subgenera • 151 species/subspecies

Annamia Hora 1932    ia, belonging to: Annam, a French protectorate encompassing the central region of present-day Viêt Nam, type locality of type species, A. normani

Annamia normani (Hora 1931)    in honor of ichthyologist J. R. (John Roxborough) Norman (1898-1944), British Museum (Natural History), who loaned type to Hora

Annamia thuathienensis Nguyen 2005    ensis, suffix denoting place: Thua Thiên Province, Huê, Viêt Nam, type locality

Beaufortia Hora 1932    ia, belonging to: Hora’s friend Lieven Ferdinand de Beaufort (1879-1968), for helping Hora during his work at the Zoölogisch Museum, Amsterdam

Beaufortia buas (Mai 1978)    no locality mentioned in text, probably referring to Búa River, northern Viêt Nam, presumed type locality

Beaufortia cyclica Chen 1980    round, presumably referring to long ventral fins, which unite to form a suctorial disc

Beaufortia daon (Mai 1978)    presumably referring to Da River system, Lai Châu, Viêt Nam, type locality

Beaufortia elongata (Mai 1978)    elongate, presumably referring to compressed body and slender caudal peduncle

Beaufortia huangguoshuensis Zheng & Zhang 1987    ensis, suffix denoting place: upstream of Huangguoshu Falls, Guizhou Province, China, type locality

Beaufortia intermedia Tang & Wang 1997    middle, presumably referring to how it shares characters with both B. kweichowensis and B. szechuanensis

Beaufortia kweichowensis (Fang 1931)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Guizhou (Kweichow) Province, China, referring to occurrence in Xi River

Beaufortia leveretti (Nichols & Pope 1927)    in honor of Rev. William J. Leverett, American Presbyterian Mission of Hainan, “who contributed in no small degree to the success of [the authors’] ichthyological work in Hainan”

Beaufortia liui Chang 1944    in honor of herpetologist Cheng-chao Liu (1900-1976), West China Union University, who led expedition that collected type

Beaufortia loos (Mai 1978)    no locality mentioned in text, probably referring to Lô River, Viêt Nam, presumed type locality

Beaufortia niulanensis Chen, Huang & Yang 2009    ensis, suffix denoting place: Niulan Jiang River, Yunnan Province, China, where it is endemic

Beaufortia pingi (Fang 1930)    in honor of Chi Ping, Biological Laboratory of Science Society of China, for his zeal in encouraging the development of zoology in China

Beaufortia polylepis Chen 1982    poly, many; lepis, scale, having more lateral line scales than B. pingi

Beaufortia szechuanensis (Fang 1930)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Szechuan (now Sichuan) Province, China, where type locality, Omei-shien (Mount Emei), is situated

Beaufortia yunnanensis (Li, Lu & Mao 1998)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Yunnan Province, China, where it is endemic

Beaufortia zebroida (Fang 1930)    oides, having the form of: a zebra, presumably referring to >20 fine blackish vertical patches on back

Erromyzon Kottelat 2004    erro, to err or make an error, referring to erroneous generic placement of type species (E. sinensis) in Protomyzon; myzon, a common suffix in Balitoridae, from myzo, to suck, referring to long ventral fins, which unite to form a suctorial disc

Erromyzon compactus Kottelat 2004    referring to more compact body compared to E. sinensis

Erromyzon damingshanensis Xiu & Yang 2017    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Damingshan Mountain, headwaters of Pearl River drainage, Guangxi, China, type locality

Erromyzon kalotaenia Yang, Kottelat, Yang & Chen 2012    kalos, beautiful; taenia, stripes or bars, referring to 9-12 squarish brown blotches on flank

Erromyzon sinensis (Chen 1980)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Sinica (China), described as a Chinese representative of the largely Bornean genus Protomyzon

Erromyzon yangi Neely, Conway & Mayden 2007    in honor of Yang Jun-Xing, Deputy Director of the Kunming Institute of Zoology (Yunnan, China), who allowed the authors to review his draft manuscript on Chinese Erromyzon

Formosania Oshima 1919    ia, belonging to: Formosa (Taiwan), referring to distribution of F. gilberti (=lacustris)

Formosania chenyiyui (Zheng 1991)    in honor of ichthyologist Chen Yiyu (b. 1944), who first recognized this species as distinct in 1980

Formosania davidi (Sauvage 1878)    in honor of Armand David (1826-1900), Lazarist missionary Catholic priest and biologist, who collected many specimens in China, including type of this one

Formosania fascicauda (Nichols 1926)    fascia-, band; cauda, tail, referring to four “bold black” bands across tail

Formosania fasciolata (Wang, Fan & Chen 2006)    banded, referring to 18-22 gray-brown bars or stripes on sides

Formosania galericula (Zhang & Wang 2011)    small hat, cap or bonnet, allusion not explained, possibly referring to irregularly shaped bright-gold spots on head and behind eye

Formosania lacustris (Steindachner 1908)    lacustrine (belonging to a lake), referring to abundance in Sun Moon Lake (Lake Candidus), Taiwan [replacement name for Homaloptera formosanum Steindachner 1908, preoccupied by H. formosana Boulenger 1894]

Formosania paucisquama (Zheng 1981)    paucus, few; squama, scale, having fewer lateral line scales than known congeners

Formosania stigmata (Nichols 1926)    marked, referring to irregular bold, dark blotches above and below lateral line and on caudal lobes

Formosania tengi (Watanabe 1983)    in honor of the late Teng Huo-to (1911-1978), ichthyologist and former president of the Taiwan Fisheries Research Institute, Keelung

Formosania tinkhami (Herre 1934)    in honor of entomologist Ernest R. Tinkham (1904-1987), Lingnan University (Canton, China), who collected type

Gastromyzon Günther 1874    gaster, belly; myzo, to suck, referring to long ventral fins that unite to form a suctorial disc

Gastromyzon aequabilis Tan 2006    uniform, referring to plain body color compared to bar pattern of G. danumensis

Gastromyzon aeroides Tan & Sulaiman 2006    sky-blue, referring to blue dorsal, anal and caudal fins in life

Gastromyzon auronigrus Tan 2006    aurum, gold; nigra, black, referring to distinctive gold-and-black coloration

Gastromyzon bario Tan 2006    named for Bario plateau and indigenous people in Kelabit highlands, north Sarawak, Borneo

Gastromyzon borneensis Günther 1874    ensis, suffix denoting place: Borneo, where it is endemic

Gastromyzon contractus Roberts 1982    drawn together, referring to overlapping or nearness of fins

Gastromyzon cornusaccus Tan 2006    cornu, end; saccus, bag, referring to postoral pouches at corners posterior to lower lip

Gastromyzon cranbrooki Tan & Sulaiman 2006    in honor of Gathorne Gathorne-Hardy (b. 1933), 5th Earl of Cranbrook, zoologist and environmentalist, for his contributions to the study of biodiversity in Southeast Asia

Gastromyzon crenastus Tan & Leh 2006    notched, referring to white blotches and bars on dark-colored body

Gastromyzon ctenocephalus Roberts 1982    cteno, comb; cephalus, head, referring to ctenoid tubercles on head of mature males

Gastromyzon danumensis Chin & Inger 1989    ensis, suffix denoting place: Danum Valley Conservation Area, Lahad Datu District, Sabah, Malaysia, type locality

Gastromyzon embalohensis Rachmatika 1998    ensis, suffix denoting place: Embaloh River system, West Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia, type locality

Gastromyzon extrorsus Tan 2006    outwardly directed, referring to occurrence only in coastal river basins draining from west side of Crocker Range, Sabah, Borneo

Gastromyzon farragus Tan & Leh 2006    mixed, referring to presence of both bars (on dorsum) and spots (on sides)

Gastromyzon fasciatus Inger & Chin 1961    banded, referring to 8-10 cream bars on dorsum and two cream bars on dorsal fin base

Gastromyzon ingeri Tan 2006    in honor of biologist Robert Frederick Inger (b. 1920), Field Museum of Natural History, for his contributions to the ichthyology and herpetology of Borneo

Gastromyzon introrsus Tan 2006    inwardly directed, referring to occurrence only from interior river basins draining from east side of Crocker Range, Sabah, Borneo

Gastromyzon katibasensis Leh & Chai 2003    ensis, suffix denoting place: Katibas River (Sarawak, Indonesia), which drains part of the Lanjak-Entimau Wildlife Sanctuary, where it occurs

Gastromyzon lepidogaster Roberts 1982    lepido-, scale; gaster, stomach, referring to extensive abdominal squamation

Gastromyzon megalepis Roberts 1982    mega-, large; lepis, scale, referring to relatively large scales

Gastromyzon monticola (Vaillant 1889)    of the mountains, referring to distribution in northwest and north-draining rivers of Mount Kinabulu, Borneo

Gastromyzon ocellatus Tan & Ng 2004    having little eyes, referring to eye-like patterns on sides

Gastromyzon ornaticauda Tan & Martin-Smith 1998    ornatus, embellished; cauda, tail, referring to unique color pattern on caudal fin

Gastromyzon pariclavis Tan & Martin-Smith 1998    par, even; clavis, bar, referring to evenly spaced bars on body

Gastromyzon praestans Tan 2006    distinguished or superior, referring to distinctive body color and pattern

Gastromyzon psiloetron Tan 2006    psilos, naked or bare; etron, belly, referring to scaleless belly with scaled pelvic fin area

Gastromyzon punctulatus Inger & Chin 1961    diminutive of punctum, spot, referring to numerous small light spots on back and anterior half of body

Gastromyzon ridens Roberts 1982    laughing or smiling, referring to peculiar countenance caused by extension of sublacrimal groove onto side of head

Gastromyzon russulus Tan 2006    reddish, referring to red fins in life

Gastromyzon scitulus Tan & Leh 2006    beautiful or elegant, referring to pretty body pattern and coloration in life

Gastromyzon spectabilis Tan 2006    notable or showy, referring to distinctive coloration and body pattern in life

Gastromyzon stellatus Tan 2006    starry, referring to numerous yellow spots on black body

Gastromyzon umbrus Tan 2006    shade or shadow, referring to dusky body coloration; since loach occurs at the “throat” of the Hog’s head of Borneo island, name also refers to shadow cast on the “throat” area by the “chin” area

Gastromyzon venustus Tan & Sulaiman 2006    charming or beautiful, referring to distinctive coloration in life

Gastromyzon viriosus Tan 2006    robust and strong, referring to thick-set body

Gastromyzon zebrinus Tan 2006    zebra-like, referring to dark bars on a light body

Glaniopsis Boulenger 1899    glanis, sheatfish (Silurus glanis), probably used here as a general term for catfish; opsis, appearance, perhaps referring to catfish-like appearance of a nasal barbel, distinguishing it from Homaloptera (Balitoridae)

Glaniopsis denudata Roberts 1982    nude, referring to extremely reduced squamation, allowing myotomal muscles masses to be seen externally

Glaniopsis gossei Roberts 1982    in honor of Jean-Pierre Gosse (1924-2001), curator of vertebrates, Institut Royal des Sciences Naturalles de Belgique, who collected type and much of the material reported on in Roberts’ paper

Glaniopsis hanitschi Boulenger 1899    in honor of entomologist Richard Hanitsch (1860-1940), Raffles Museum (Singapore), who collected type

Glaniopsis multiradiata Roberts 1982    multi-, much; radiatus, rayed, referring to more numerous pectoral- and pelvic-fin rays than congeners

Homalopterula Fowler 1940    ula, a diminutive, referring to “comparatively small size” of H. ripleyi, i.e., a small Homaloptera (Balitoridae)

Homalopterula amphisquamata (Weber & de Beaufort 1916)    amphi-, double; squamata, scaled, probably referring to how scales on upper anterior part of trunk are much smaller than posterior scales

Homalopterula gymnogaster (Bleeker 1853)    gymnos, naked or bare; venter, belly, referring to scaleless belly between ventral fins

Homalopterula heterolepis (Weber & de Beaufort 1916)    heteros, different; lepis, scales, referring to scales on upper anterior part of trunk much smaller than posterior ones

Homalopterula modiglianii (Perugia 1893)    in honor of anthropologist, zoologist and explorer Elio Modigliani (1860-1932), who collected type

Homalopterula ripleyi Fowler 1940    in honor of ornithologist Sidney Dillon Ripley (1913-2001), who acted as a field representative for the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia during Sumatran expedition that collected type

Homalopterula vanderbilti (Fowler 1940)    in honor of yachtsman and explorer George W. Vanderbilt III (1914-1961), who organized Sumatran expedition during which type was collected

Hypergastromyzon Roberts 1989    hyper, very, referring to larger pectoral and pelvic fins compared to Gastromyzon and Neogastromyzon

Hypergastromyzon eubranchus Roberts 1991    eu-, good; branchos, gill, referring to large and oblique gill opening, extending to pectoral fin origin

Hypergastromyzon humilis Roberts 1989    on the ground or low, referring to dorso-ventrally depressed body

Katibasia Kottelat 2004    ia, belonging to: Katibas River, Sarawak, Borneo, type locality of K. insidiosa

Katibasia insidiosa Kottelat 2004    cunning, insidious or sly, referring to its misleading Protomyzon-like appearance

Liniparhomaloptera Fang 1935    in honor of S.-Y. Lin, for his ichthyological works of South China, including description of type species, Parhomaloptera disparis, i.e., Lin’s Parhomaloptera

Liniparhomaloptera disparis disparis (Lin 1934)    different, “referring to the color of the fish,” presumably to how it differs in coloration from Parhomaloptera microstoma (which was presumed to be congeneric)

Liniparhomaloptera disparis qiongzhongensis Zheng & Chen 1980    ensis, suffix denoting place: Qiongzhong Xian, Hainan Island, China, type locality

Liniparhomaloptera macrostoma Wu, Xiu & Yang 2016    macro-, long or large; stoma, mouth, referring to its relatively larger mouth when compared with congeners

Liniparhomaloptera monoloba (Mai 1978)    mono-, one; lobatus, lobed, referring to unlobed lower lip

Liniparhomaloptera obtusirostris Zheng & Chen 1980    obtusus, blunt; rostris, snout, referring to blunt snout compared to sharper snout of L. disparis

Neogastromyzon Popta 1905    neo-, new, i.e., a new genus of Gastromyzon

Neogastromyzon brunei Tan 2006    named for the Sultanate of Brunei Darussalam and the indigenous Brunei tribe of Borneo

Neogastromyzon chini Tan 2006    in honor of Datuk Chin Phui Kong, for his contributions to the ichthyology of Sabah and Sarawak

Neogastromyzon crassiobex Tan 2006    crassus, thick; obex, bar, referring to thick cream-colored bars on body

Neogastromyzon kottelati Tan 2006    in honor of Swiss ichthyologist Maurice Kottelat (b. 1957), for his “extensive” contributions to the freshwater ichthyology of Asia and Europe

Neogastromyzon nieuwenhuisii Popta 1905    in honor of Anton Willem Nieuwenhuis (1854-1953), Dutch medical officer, ethnographer and explorer, who traveled extensively in Borneo and collected type

Neogastromyzon pauciradiatus (Inger & Chin 1961)    paucus, few; radiatus, rayed, referring to low pelvic-fin-ray count as compared to N. nieuwenhuisii

Paraprotomyzon Pellegrin & Fang 1935    para-, near, referring to similarity of elongate gill opening and separated ventral fins with that of Protomyzon

Paraprotomyzon bamaensis Tang 1997    ensis, suffix denoting place: Bama County, Guangxi, China, type locality

Paraprotomyzon lungkowensis Xie, Yang & Gong 1984    ensis, suffix denoting place: Lungkow stream, Mount Shengnongjia, Hubei Province, China, type locality

Paraprotomyzon multifasciatus Pellegrin & Fang 1935    multi-, many; fasciatus, banded, referring to 12-17 obliquely vertical dark brown bands surrounding body

Paraprotomyzon niulanjiangensis Lu, Lu & Mao 2005    ensis, suffix denoting place: Niulanjiang, Zhanyi County, Yunnan Province, China, type locality

Parhomaloptera Vaillant 1902    para-, near, referring to similarity to Homaloptera

Parhomaloptera microstoma (Boulenger 1899)    micro-, small; stomus, mouth, “its width barely one fourth that of the head”

Plesiomyzon Zheng & Chen 1980    plesios, near; myzon, to suck, probably used here as a suffix for Gastromyzon, presumably referring to placement as most primitive genus among gastromyzonin fishes

Plesiomyzon baotingensis Zheng & Chen 1980    ensis, suffix denoting place: Boating Xian, Hainan Island, China, type locality

Protomyzon Hora 1932    protos, first; myzon, to suck, presumably reflecting Hora’s hypothesis that P. whiteheadi may have evolved from Nemacheilus-like ancestors under influence of swift currents

Protomyzon aphelocheilus Inger & Chin 1962    apheles, smooth or simple; cheilos, lip, referring to unpapillated lower lip

Protomyzon borneensis Hora & Jayaram 1952    ensis, suffix denoting place: Borneo (northern Borneo), where it is endemic

Protomyzon griswoldi (Hora & Jayaram 1952)    in honor of J. A. Griswold, Jr., “whose collection has enabled us to elucidate several points in the taxonomy and systematics of the Gastromyzonid fishes of Borneo”

Protomyzon whiteheadi (Vaillant 1894)    in honor of John Whitehead (1860-1899), English explorer, naturalist and bird collector, who collected type

Pseudogastromyzon Nichols 1925    pseudo-, false, i.e., although this genus may resemble Gastromyzon (e.g., expanded pectoral and ventral fins), such an appearance is false

Subgenus Pseudogastromyzon                        

Pseudogastromyzon changtingensis changtingensis Liang 1942    ensis, suffix denoting place: Changting, Fukien, China, type locality

Pseudogastromyzon changtingensis tungpeiensis Chen & Liang 1949    ensis, suffix denoting place: Tung-pei-shiu, Lienhsien, Kwangtung (Guangdong) Province, China, type locality

Pseudogastromyzon cheni Liang 1942    in honor of Johnson T. F. Chen, Director of the Taiwan Museum and professor, National Taiwan University, for his contributions to Chinese ichthyology

Pseudogastromyzon fasciatus fasciatus (Sauvage 1878)    banded, referring to dark, broad, transverse bands on brown body

Pseudogastromyzon fasciatus jiulongjiangensis Chen 1980    ensis, suffix denoting place: Jiulong River, Fujian Province, China, type locality

Pseudogastromyzon laticeps Chen & Zheng 1980    latus, wide; ceps, head, referring to wide head, its width twice depth at pectoral base

Pseudogastromyzon lianjiangensis Zheng 1981    ensis, suffix denoting place: Lianjiang system, Puning Xian, Guangdong Province, China, type locality

Pseudogastromyzon meihuashanensis Li 1998    ensis, suffix denoting place: Meihuashan Nature Reserve, Rjian, Fujian, China, type locality

Pseudogastromyzon myersi Herre 1932    in honor of Stanford University ichthyologist George S. Myers (1905-1985), for providing “much assistance” to Herre’s study of Chinese fishes

Pseudogastromyzon peristictus Zheng & Li 1986    peri-, very; stictus, spotted, referring to head and body densely covered with small black dots

Subgenus Labigastromyzon Tang & Chen 1996    labeo, one with large lips, presumably referring to club-shaped adhesive apparatus on lips, almost totally covered with taste buds, i.e., a Gastromyzon with large lips

Pseudogastromyzon fangi (Nichols 1931)    in honor of Ping-Wen Fang, Metropolitan Museum of Natural History and Biological Laboratory of the Science Society of China, “who has described several handsome new species of these interesting fishes”

Sewellia Hora 1932    ia, belonging to: Lieut.-Col. R. B. Seymour Sewell (1880-1964), Director, Zoological Survey of India, for “encouragement and facilities received for carrying out studies on the torrential [fish] populations of India”

Sewellia albisuera Freyhof 2003    albus, white; suere, to sew, referring to white skin around lateral line pore, resembling a sewn line

Sewellia analis Nguyen & Nguyen 2005    anal or anus, allusion not explained, possibly referring to placement of anus closer to anal fin than to ventral-fin edge (compared to medial placement of anus on S. media, described in same publication)

Sewellia breviventralis Freyhof & Serov 2000    brevis, short; ventralis, pelvic fin, referring to short pelvic fin, reaching 5-40% of distance between anus and anal-fin origin

Sewellia diardi Roberts 1998in honor of Pierre-Médard Diard (1794-1863), naturalist-explorer of Indo-China and Indonesia, perhaps first person to collect freshwater fishes in what is now Viêt Nam,     including specimens of Sewellia ca. 1821

Sewellia elongata Roberts 1998    elongate, being the longest known species of Sewellia

Sewellia hypsicrateae Endruweit & Nguyen 2016    named after Hypsicratea, Queen of Pontus (flourished 63 BC), known for her extraordinary combat skills and masculine strength, referring to overall muscular appearance of this species

Sewellia lineolata (Valenciennes 1846)    lined, referring to four parallel longitudinal stripes along sides

Sewellia marmorata Serov 1996    marbled, referring to marble color pattern on upper part of head and dorsal surface

Sewellia media Nguyen & Nguyen 2005    middle, allusion not explained, possibly referring to placement of anus half-way between anal fin and ventral-fin edge (compared to posterior placement of anus on S. analis, described in same publication)

Sewellia monolobata (Nguyen & Nguyen 2005)    mono-, one; lobata, lobed, referring to single-lobed (i.e., undivided) chin

Sewellia patella Freyhof & Serov 2000    a roundish basin, referring to form of sucking disk and general resemblance to gastropod genus Patella

Sewellia pterolineata Roberts 1998    pteryx, wing; lineatus, lined, referring to five bold stripes parallel to fin margins on pectoral fins

Sewellia speciosa Roberts 1998    beautiful or showy, referring to “showy and very contrasting coloration”

Sewellia trakhucensis Nguyen & Nguyen 2005    ensis, suffix denoting place: Trà Khúc River, Son Hà, Quang Ngai Province, Viêt Nam, where it is endemic

Vanmanenia Hora 1932    ia, belonging to: Hora’s friend, Johan Van Manen (1877-1943), the “illustrious” General Secretary of the Asiatic Society of Bengal

Vanmanenia caldwelli (Nichols 1925)    in honor of Methodist missionary to China, Harry R. Caldwell, who collected type

Vanmanenia caobangensis Nguyen 2005    ensis, suffix denoting place: Cao Bang, Cao Bang Province, Viêt Nam, where it is endemic

Vanmanenia crassicauda Kottelat 2000    crassus, thick; cauda, tail, referring to stout caudal peduncle

Vanmanenia gymnetrus Chen 1980    gymnos, naked or bare; etron, belly, referring to larger scaleless region of abdomen compared to congeners

Vanmanenia hainanensis Chen & Zheng 1980    ensis, suffix denoting place: Hainan Island, China, where it is endemic

Vanmanenia homalocephala Zhang & Zhao 2000    etymology not explained, presumably homalos, level; cephalus, head, referring to flat, compressed head

Vanmanenia lineata (Fang 1935)    lined, presumably referring to two dark brownish, dorso-lateral stripes extending from head to caudal base

Vanmanenia maculata Yi, Zhang & Chen 2014    spotted, referring to dark brown marks on body

Vanmanenia microlepis Nguyen 2005    micro-, small; lepis, scale, referring to small scales, covered by skin

Vanmanenia monofasciodorsala Nguyen 2005    mono-, one; fascio, band; dorsala, of the dorsal fin, referring to dark band on dorsal fin

Vanmanenia multiloba (Mai 1978)    multi-, many; lobatus, lobed, referring to lobate, or papillated, lips

Vanmanenia nahangensis Nguyen 2005    ensis, suffix denoting place: Nà Hang, Tuyên Quang Province, Viêt Nam, where it is endemic

Vanmanenia orcicampus Kottelat 2017    orcis, jars; campus, plain or field, referring to type locality, Plain of Jars, central Laos, type locality

Vanmanenia pingchowensis (Fang 1935)    ensis, suffix denoting place: mountain streams in Pingchowhsien, southern Kweichow (Guizhou) Province, China, type locality and, at time of description, only known distribution

Vanmanenia polylepis Pan, Liu & Zheng 1983    poly, many; lepis, scale, referring to more lateral line scales (137-146) compared to P. pingchowensis (87-98)

Vanmanenia serrilineata Kottelat 2000    serra, saw; lineata, lined, referring to saw-toothed midlateral stripe

Vanmanenia stenosoma (Boulenger 1901)    steno-, narrow; soma, body, presumably referring to “feebly depressed” body

Vanmanenia striata Chen 1980    striped, referring to irregular vertical bands on sides

Vanmanenia tetraloba (Mai 1978)    tetra, four; lobatus, lobed, referring to four lobes on lower lip

Vanmanenia trifasciodorsala Nguyen 2005    tri-, three; fascio, band; dorsala, of the dorsal fin, referring to three dark bands on dorsal fin

Vanmanenia ventrosquamata (Mai 1978)    ventro-, belly; squamata, scaled, referring to scales on belly (but not breast)

Vanmanenia xinyiensis Zheng & Chen 1980    ensis, suffix denoting place: Xinyi Xian, Guangdong, China, type locality

Yaoshania Yang, Kottelat, Yang & Chen 2012    ia, belonging to: Dayaoshan Mountain, Jinxiu County, Guangxi, China, type locality of Y. pachychilus

Yaoshania pachychilus (Chen 1980)    pachys, thick; cheilus, lip, referring to broader, thicker lips compared to congeners in Protomyzon (original genus)

Family BARBUCCIDAE Fire-eyed Loaches

Barbucca Roberts 1989    barba, beard; bucca, cheek, referring to tuberculate cheek patch in males

Barbucca diabolica Roberts 1989    devilish, referring to glowing red eyes and spiked tail

Barbucca elongata Vasil’eva & Vasil’ev 2013    referring to more elongate body compared to B. diabolica

Family ELLOPOSTOMATIDAE Squarehead Loaches

Ellopostoma Vaillant 1902    ellops, ancient Greek for a large fish, probably a sturgeon; stoma, mouth, referring to peculiar sturgeon-like mouth

Ellopostoma megalomycter (Vaillant 1902)    megalo-, greatest; mycteros, nose, referring to large nasal cavities, diameter ~⅓ that of eye

Ellopostoma mystax Tan & Lim 2002    moustache, referring to dark margin over dorsal-anterior edge of snout

Family SERPENTICOBITIDAE Snake Loaches                       

Serpenticobitis Roberts 1997    serpentis, snake, referring to fang-like suborbital spines and banded coloration; cobitis, ancient name for loach, derived from the Greek kobitis, a gudgeon

Serpenticobitis cingulata Roberts 1997    belted, referring to 7-12 thin, dark, mostly incomplete bands on body

Serpenticobitis octozona Roberts 1997    octo-, eight; zona, band or girdle, referring to eight thin vertical bands that encircle body

Serpenticobitis zonata Kottelat 1998    girdled or banded, referring to regularly shaped and set bars extending on the belly compared to irregularly shaped bars restricted to upper 2/3 of flank on S. cingulata