Order CYPRINIFORMES: Families BOTIIDAE, VAILLANTELLIDAE and COBITIDAE

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v. 12.0 – 26 Dec. 2016   view/download PDF

Family BOTIIDAE Botia Loaches        
8 genera · 59 species

Subfamily LEPTOBOTIINAE

Leptobotia Bleeker 1870    leptos, thin, referring to elongate, compressed body of L. elongata, i.e., a thin Botia

Leptobotia bellacauda Bohlen & Šlechtová 2016    bella, beautiful; cauda, tail, referring to prominent black bar on caudal fin

Leptobotia elongata (Bleeker 1870)    elongate, “eminently recognizable by the extraordinary elongation of the body” (translation)

Leptobotia flavolineata Wang 1981    flavus, yellow; lineata, lined, referring to yellowish lines separating 14 dark brown vertical bands that encircle body

Leptobotia guilinensis Chen 1980    ensis, suffix denoting place: Guilin City, Guangxi Province, China, type locality

Leptobotia hengyangensis Huang & Zhang 1986    ensis, suffix denoting place: Heng-yang, Hunan, China, type locality

Leptobotia microphthalma Fu & Ye 1983    micro-, small; ophthalmus, eye, referring to smaller eye compared to L. tientaiensis

Leptobotia orientalis Xu, Fang & Wang 1981    eastern, allusion not explained nor evident, possibly referring to its distribution in the Orient (i.e., China)

Leptobotia pellegrini Fang 1936    in honor of Jacques Pellegrin (1873-1944), vice-director of the Laboratory of Ichthyology, Paris Museum, who provided Fang with study material

Leptobotia posterodorsalis Lan & Chen 1992    postero-, posterior; dorsalis, dorsal, referring to more posterior dorsal-fin origin (behind ventral-fin origin) compared to L. guilinensis

Leptobotia punctata Li, Li & Chen 2008    spotted, referring to white spots on body compared to no spots on L. posterodorsalis

Leptobotia rubrilabris (Dabry de Thiersant 1872)    ruber, red; labrum, lip, presumably referring to reddish lips, but entire loach is a vermilion color

Leptobotia taeniops (Sauvage 1878)    etymology not explained nor evident, presumably ops, appearance; since Sauvage said L. taeniops is brownish (although online photos indicate coloration is quite variable), perhaps nomen refers to similarity with the brownish Old World loach Cobitis taenia

Leptobotia tchangi Fang 1936    in honor of Tchunlin (or Tchung-Lin) Tchang (1897-1963), curator of zoology at the Fan Memorial Institute of Biology and lecturer in zoology at the National University of Peking

Leptobotia tientainensis (Wu 1930)    ensis, suffix denoting place: a creek in Tien-Tai Mountain, Chekiang Province, China, type locality

Parabotia Dabry de Thiersant 1872    para-, near, referring to similarity and/or close relationship to Botia

Parabotia banarescui (Nalbant 1965)    in honor of Petru Bănărescu (1921-2009), Institute of Biology, Bucharest, for his work on Chinese fishes

Parabotia bimaculatus Chen 1980    bi-, two; maculata, spotted, referring to two black spots at caudal fin base

Parabotia brevirostris Zhu & Zhu 2012    brevis, short; rostris, snout, referring to short snout, shorter than head length after eye

Parabotia curtus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846)    short, referring to shorter tail compared to three other Japanese loaches known at the time: Cobitis rubripinnis and C. maculata (both = Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) and C. taenia japonica (= C. biwae)

Parabotia dubius Kottelat 2001    doubtful, its status uncertain, possibly a synonym of P. fasciatus [replacement name for Botia elongata Mai 1978, preoccupied by B. (= Leptobotia) elongata Bleeker 1870]

Parabotia fasciatus Dabry de Thiersant 1872    banded, referring to numerous transverse grayish stripes on body

Parabotia heterocheilus Zhu & Chen 2006    heteros, different; cheilus, lip, presumably referring to deep gap in median part of upper lip, which is filled by an “elevated decending [sic] process” on the snout

Parabotia kiangsiensis Liu & Guo 1986    ensis, suffix denoting place: Kiangsi, postal map spelling of Jiangxi, Chinese province where it is endemic

Parabotia kimluani Nguyen 2005    of Kim Luân, a village near the Gâm River, Nà Hang District, Tuyên Quang Province, Viêt Nam, type locality

Parabotia lijiangensis Chen 1980    ensis, suffix denoting place: Lijiang River, Guilin, Guangxi, China, type locality

Parabotia maculosus (Wu 1939)    dappled or spotted, referring to blackish rounded spots covering head

Parabotia mantschuricus (Berg 1907)    Manchurian, referring to distribution in northeast Asia, where Mudanjiang River, type locality, is situated

Parabotia parvus Chen 1980    small, presumably referring to small size (up to 91 mm TL) compared to congeners

Parabotia vancuongi Nguyen 2005    of Văn Cương, a village near the Gâm River, Nà Hang District, Tuyên Quang Province, Viêt Nam, type locality

Subfamily BOTIINAE

Ambastaia Kottelat 2013    named for Ambastai (or Ambastus in Latin), a river in Ptolemy’s (ca. 90–168) Handbook of Geography, now identified as the Mekong, in whose drainage both species occur 

Ambastaia nigrolineata (Kottelat & Chu 1987)    nigro-, black; lineata, lined, referring to dark brown mid-dorsal and mid-lateral stripes in adults

Ambastaia sidthimunki (Klausewitz 1959)    patronym not identified, possibly in honor of Aree Sidthimunk, a researcher at Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture, Thailand

Botia Gray 1831    etymology not explained, presumably a local vernacular in India, possibly derived from balli-potiah, an Assamese name for another Indian loach, Acanthocobitis botia (Nemacheilidae); several aquarium websites state that Botia is an “Asian” word for warrior or soldier (perhaps an allusion to suborbital spine?) but do not provide a source

Botia almorhae Gray 1831    of Almorha, Uttar Pradesh, northern India, type locality (also occurs in Pakistan and Nepal)

Botia birdi Chaudhuri 1909    in honor of W. J. A. Bird, Superintending Engineer, Sirhind Circle, Rupar, Punjab, India, who collected type

Botia dario (Hamilton 1822)    latinization of Dari, local Bengali name for this loach

Botia histrionica Blyth 1860    harlequin-like, probably referring to its “very remarkable beauty,” consisting of black bands across body

Botia kubotai Kottelat 2004    in honor of Katsuma Kubota, for “help with various projects and for the gift of valuable material, including the first known specimens of this species with locality information”

Botia lohachata Chaudhuri 1912    latinization of Lohachat, local name for this loach in Bihar, India

Botia rostrata Günther 1868    beaked, referring to long, pointed snout, longer than “remaining part of the head”

Botia striata Narayan Rao 1920    striped, probably referring to dark and narrow yellow bands that completely surround body

Botia udomritthiruji Ng 2007    in honor of Kamphol Udomritthiruj, who provided type and associated data for this species, and also material and data for other projects

Chromobotia Kottelat 2004    chroma, color, referring to bright coloration of C. macracanthus; botia, general suffix for botiine loaches

Chromobotia macracanthus (Bleeker 1852)    macro-, long; acanthus, thorn, referring to large suborbital spine

Sinibotia Fang 1936    Sinica, China, proposed as a subgenus of Botia endemic to western China

Sinibotia longiventralis (Yang & Chen 1992)    longus, long; ventralis, ventral, referring to “particularly long” pelvic fin

Sinibotia pulchra (Wu 1939)    beautiful or lovely, probably referring to dark blue bands or rings encircling trunk or tail and/or overall attractive coloration

Sinibotia reevesae (Chang 1944)    in honor of Cora D. Reeves, former Head of Department of Biology, Ginling College (Nanjing, China), for her “valuable suggestion” and her “kindness” in allowing Chang to study the fish collection of her department

Sinibotia robusta (Wu 1939)    robust or full-bodied, probably referring to deeper body compared to S. superciliaris

Sinibotia superciliaris (Günther 1892)    super, over, above or beyond; ciliaris, fringed, referring to how the “two symphyseal barbels are not prolonged into filaments [but are]more like a pair of soft round buttons”

Sinibotia zebra (Wu 1939)    referring to ~17 irregular zebra-like light vertical stripes on body

Syncrossus Blyth 1860    syn-, with; krossos, fringe or tassel, probably referring to “one flat filament that ramifies into four” at end of muzzle of S. berdmorei

Syncrossus beauforti (Smith 1931)    in honor of Lieven Ferdinand de Beaufort (1879-1968), University of Amsterdam, “accomplished” coauthor of Fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago

Syncrossus berdmorei Blyth 1860    in honor of the late Major Hugh Thomas Berdmore, Madras Artillery, Assistant to the Commissioner and in charge of the forests’ office, who collected type

Syncrossus helodes (Sauvage 1876)    marshy, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to its being collected in rice fields

Syncrossus hymenophysa (Bleeker 1852)    hymen, membrane; physa, bladder, referring to presence of membranous swim bladder, divided into two lobes

Syncrossus lucasbahi (Fowler 1937)    in honor of Lucas Bah, who collected Thai specimens for the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, “whose industry has added much to the value of our Siamese collections of fishes”

Syncrossus reversa (Roberts 1989)    referring to reversed color pattern compared to that of S. hymenophysa

Yasuhikotakia Nalbant 2002    -ia, belonging to: ichthyologist Yasuhiko Taki, “who contributed very much” to the study of loaches

Yasuhikotakia caudipunctata (Taki & Doi 1995)    cauda-, tail; punctatus, spotted, referring to large blackish blotch on caudal peduncle

Yasuhikotakia eos (Taki 1972)    Eos, Greek goddess of the dawn, referring to shining yellowish or reddish-brown body and brilliant orange fins

Yasuhikotakia lecontei (Fowler 1937)    in honor of John L. LeConte (1825-1883), “distinguished entomologist of past generations,” and a contributor to the fish collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia

Yasuhikotakia longidorsalis (Taki & Doi 1995)    longus, long; dorsalis, dorsal, referring to long dorsal fin base

Yasuhikotakia modesta (Bleeker 1864)    modest, referring to lack of bands or spots on the body and fins, which Bleeker attributed to preservation in alcohol

Yasuhikotakia morleti (Tirant 1885)    in honor of conchologist Laureut-Joseph Morlet, who studied Cambodian mollusks collected by Auguste Jean-Marie Pavie, French colonial civil servant, diplomat and explorer

Yasuhikotakia splendida (Roberts 1995)    bright or shining, referring to “distinctive” coloration, including pale yellowish to bright canary yellow dorsal, pelvic, anal and caudal fins


Family VAILLANTELLIDAE Longfin Loaches

Vaillantella Fowler 1905    ella, diminutive connoting endearment: in honor of Léon Vaillant (1834-1914), “distinguished ichthyologist of the Museum of Natural History of Paris, and well known for his researches in East Indian ichthyology”

Vaillantella cinnamomea Kottelat 1994    light brown, referring to body coloration without conspicuous color pattern

Vaillantella euepiptera (Vaillant 1902)    eu-, very; epi-, on or over; pterus, fin, probably referring to exceptionally long dorsal fin

Vaillantella maassi Weber & de Beaufort 1912    in honor of German anthropologist Alfred Maass, who led expedition to Sumatra, during which type was collected


Family COBITIDAE Spined Loaches        
21 genera/subgenera · 204 species/subspecies

Acantopsis van Hasselt 1823    opsis, appearance, referring to similarity to Acantophthalmus (acanthus, spine; ophthalmus, eye, referring to erectile spine below eye), proposed in same paper but now synonymized with Cobitis

Acantopsis dialuzona van Hasselt 1823    etymology not explained nor evident; perhaps dialy-, separated; zona, bands, referring to 8-9 obscure dark gray spots on sides

Acantopsis guttatus Nguyen 2005    spotted,  referring to three rows of black spots along back and body

Acantopsis octoactinotos Siebert 1991    octo, eight; actinotos, Greek for rays, referring to modal number of branched dorsal-fin rays

Acantopsis spectabilis (Blyth 1860)    notable or showy, a “very prettily marked fish”

Acantopsis thiemmedhi Sontirat 1999    in honor of Jinda Thiemmedh (1902-?), former dean of the Faculty of Fisheries, Lasetsart University (Thailand), and Sontirat’s first teacher in ichthyology

Aperioptus Richardson 1848    aperio, to uncover, expose, open or reveal; optus, seen or visible, i.e., revealed, which, in combination with specific epithet of type species, pictorius, means “revealed pictorially,” referring to genus and type species being known by way of an illustration (see A. pictorius)

Aperioptus delphax (Siebert 1991)    young pig, referring to small size and similarity to Acantopsis choirorhynchos (= dialuzona), which was named for its long, pig-like snout

Aperioptus gracilentus (Smith 1945)    gracilis, slender; –entus, adjectival suffix, referring to very elongate and strongly compressed body

Aperioptus gracilis (Fowler 1934)    slender, referring to elongate, compressed body

Aperioptus hapalias (Siebert 1991)    sucking pig, referring to small size and similarity to Acantopsis choirorhynchos (= dialuzona), which was named for its long, pig-like snout

Aperioptus pictorius Richardson 1848    pictorial or belonging to painters; genus and species described from an illustration (the artist inadvertently threw away the specimens before Richardson had a chance to examine them closely)

Aperioptus robertsi (Siebert 1991)    in honor of ichthyologist Tyson R. Roberts (b. 1940), who led survey that collected type

Bibarba Chen & Chen 2007    tautonymous with B. bibarba

Bibarba bibarba Chen & Chen 2007    bi-, two; barba, barbel, referring to two pairs of barbels, which distinguishes it from the similar Cobitis

Bibarba parvoculus Wu, Yang & Xiu 2015    parvus, small; oculus, eye, referring to smaller eyes compared to B. bibarba

Canthophrys Swainson 1838    [a]canthus, spine; ophrys, eyebrow, referring to “hard spiny proccess” directly beneath eye

Canthophrys gongota (Hamilton 1822)    presumably local Gangetic name for this species in India

Cobitis Linnaeus 1758    ancient Greek for small fishes that bury in the bottom and/or are like a gudgeon; the name was first applied to loaches by Rondelet in 1555

Subgenus Cobitis                              

Cobitis amphilekta Vasil’eva & Vasil’ev 2012    Greek for doubtful or confused, referring to its confused taxonomic history, with specimens identified by different authors as three different species belonging to two different genera

Cobitis arenae (Lin 1934)    of sand, referring to sandy-substrate habitat and sand-burrowing behavior

Cobitis australis Chen, Chen & He 2013    southern, referring to distribution in Pearl River, South China

Cobitis avicennae Mousavi-Savet, Vatandoust, Esmaeili, Geiger & Freyhof 2015   in honor of the Persian polymath Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Sīnā (ca. 980-1037), commonly known by his latinized name Avicenna, who wrote almost 450 treatises on a wide range of subjects

Cobitis baishagensis Chen, Sui, Liang & Chen 2015    -ensis, suffix denoting place: Baisha County, Hainan Province, southern China, where type locality (Nandujiang River in the Hainandao Islands) is situated

Cobitis battalgili Bacescu 1962    matronym not identified but almost certainly in honor of Turkish ichthyologist Fahire Battalgil (later Battalgazi) (1905-1948) [Battalgil was female; since Bacescu did not state for whom this species was named, amendment of spelling to “battalgilae” (which reflects correct gender) is not recommended]

Cobitis bilineata Canestrini 1865    bi-, two; lineata, lined, referring to two continuous brown bands from head to caudal-fin base

Cobitis biwae Jordan & Snyder 1901    of Lake Biwa, the largest Japanese lake, where this species abounds

Cobitis brevifasciata (Kim & Lee 1995)    brevis, short; fasciatus, banded, referring to vertical bars on lower sides of body

Cobitis calderoni Bacescu 1962    in honor of Enrique C. Calderón, chief engineer, Station Centrale d’Hydrobiologie de Madrid, who collected type

Cobitis choii Kim & Son 1984    in honor of Ki-Chul Choi, Seoul National University, for his contributions to the study of Korean freshwater fishes

Cobitis crassicauda Chen & Chen 2013    crassus, thick; cauda, tail, referring to short and thick caudal peduncle compared to long and slender caudal peduncle of C. stenocauda

Cobitis dalmatina Karaman 1928    Dalmatian, referring to Cetina River drainage, Dalmatia, Croatia, type locality

Cobitis damlae Erk’akan & Özdemir 2014    in honor of Mrs. Damla Erk’akan (relationship to senior author not given)

Cobitis delicata Niwa 1937    etymology not explained, perhaps dainty, referring to small size (75 mm total length) and slender, compressed body

Cobitis dolichorhynchus Nichols 1918    dolichos, long; rhynchus, snout, perhaps referring to tip of snout overhanging mouth

Cobitis elazigensis Coad & Sarieyyüpoglu 1988    ensis, suffix denoting place: Elazig Province, Turkey, type locality

Cobitis elongata Heckel & Kner 1858    referring to elongate body shape compared to C. taenia

Cobitis elongatoides Bacescu & Mayer 1969    oides, having the form of: proposed as a form of C. elongata endemic to the Danube basin

Cobitis evreni Erk’akan, Özeren & Nalbant 2008    in honor of Evren Erk’akan, son of senior author

Cobitis fahireae Erk’akan, Atalay-Ekmekçi & Nalbant 1998    in memory of “one of the greatest ichthyologists of Turkey,” Fahire Battalgil (later Battalgazi, 1902-1948)

Cobitis faridpaki Mousavi-Sabet, Vasil’eva, Vatandoust & Vasil’ev 2011    in honor of Iranian ichthyologist Farhad Faridpak (1911-1996), who studied Caspian Sea fishes his entire life

Cobitis fasciola Chen & Chen 2013    fasciola, diminutive of fascia, band, referring to 12-16 vertical bands on sides

Cobitis gladkovi Vasil’ev & Vasil’eva 2008    in honor of N. A. Gladkov, who “has worked for many years in the Zoological Museum of Moscow State University and made a considerable contribution to the taxonomy of spined loaches of the genus Cobitis

Cobitis gracilis Chen & Chen 2016    slender, referring to its slender body

Cobitis granoei Rendahl 1935    in honor of geography professor J. G. Granö, University of Turku, Finland, who collected type

Cobitis hankugensis Kim, Park, Son & Nalbant 2003    ensis, suffix denoting place: Hankug, Korean common name of Korea, where it is endemic

Cobitis hereromacula Chen, Sui, Liang & Chen 2015    heteros, other (i.e., different); macula, spot, referring to color pattern of irregular speckles on back and sides, oval or triangular blotches on upper part of body and vertical elongated triangular blotches on lower, with a row of irregular speckles in between [based on etymology given by the authors, name should be spelled heteromacula, but is spelled with an “r” throughout paper]

Cobitis hugowolfeldi (Nalbant 1993)    in memory of Hugo Wolfeld, Bucharest, Romania, “able” aquarium fish breeder and amateur ichthyologist

Cobitis illyrica Freyhof & Stelbrink 2007    Illyricum, Roman province where type locality (Imotsko polje, Croatia) is situated

Cobitis jadovaensis Mustafic & Mrakovcic 2008    ensis, suffix denoting place: Jadova River, Croatia, where type specimen was found in a drying refuge pond

Cobitis kaibarai Nakajima 2012    in honor of Ekiken Kaibara (1630-1714), the “first real naturalist and biologist in Japan,” and the first to record the distribution of spined loaches from Chikushi (modern-day Fukuoka Prefecture), Kyushu Island, Japan

Cobitis kellei Erk’akan, Atalay-Ekmekçi & Nalbant 1998    in honor of Prof. Dr. Kelle (forename not given), Diyarbakır, Turkey, who donated type

Cobitis keyvani Sabet, Yerli, Vatandoust, Özeren & Moradkhani 2012    in honor of Amin Keyvan (1930-2007), “the greatest Iranian ichthyologist researcher, who dedicated his life to the Iranian fishes”

Cobitis koreensis Kim 1975    ensis, suffix denoting place: Korea, where it is endemic

Cobitis laoensis (Sauvage 1878)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Laos, country of type locality (although the one specimen collected may have actually been from Viêt Nam, where loach is present today, as the border between the two countries has changed since 1878)

Cobitis laterimaculata Yan & Zheng 1984    lateralis, of the side; maculatus, spotted, referring to small scattered dark speckles on dorsolateral surface and/or 16-20 blotches below lateral midline

Cobitis lebedevi Valil’eva & Valis’ev 1985    in honor of Soviet ichthyologist Vladimir Dmitrievich Lebedev (1915-1975), who discovered the first fossil remains of Cobitis

Cobitis linea (Heckel 1847)    line, referring to “dark center line” (translation) on the sides

Cobitis longibarba (Chen & Chen 2005)    longus, long; barbus, barbel, referring to long maxillomandibular barbels

Cobitis longicorpus Kim, Choi & Nalbant 1976    longus, long; corpus, body, referring to longer body length (up to 179 mm TL) compared to congeners

Cobitis lutheri Rendahl 1935    in honor of Rendahl’s friend, A. Luther, University of Helsinki, who collected type

Cobitis macrostigma Dabry de Thiersant 1872    macro-, long or large; stigma, mark or spot, presumably referring to seven oval black spots symmetrically arranged on lateral line

Cobitis magnostriata Nakajima 2012    magnus, large or great, having the largest body and “most awesome appearance” in the Japanese C. striata complex

Cobitis matsubarae Okada & Ikeda 1939    in honor of Kiyomatsu Matsubara (1907-1968), Imperial Fisheries Institute (Tokyo), for his contributions to Japanese ichthyology [often seen as matsubarai but original spelling is acceptable since male names ending in “a” have historically been given the –ae termination]

Cobitis megaspila Nalbant 1993    mega, large; spilos, spot, presumably referring to jet-black spot at upper part of caudal fin

Cobitis melanoleuca Nichols 1925    melano-, black; leuca-, white, presumably referring to “sharply marked” coloration

Cobitis microcephala Chen & Chen 2011    micro-, small; cephalus, head, referring to small, slightly laterally compressed head

Cobitis minamorii minamorii Nakajima 2012    in honor of Sumio Minamori, Hiroshima University, a “pioneer” in the study of Japanese loach speciation

Cobitis minamorii oumiensis Nakajima 2012    ensis, suffix denoting place: Oumi, old name of Lake Biwa, Japan, type locality

Cobitis minamorii saninensis Nakajima 2012    ensis, suffix denoting place: San-in District of eastern Honshu, Japan, main distribution area of this subspecies

Cobitis minamorii tokaiensis Nakajima 2012    ensis, suffix denoting place: Tokai District of Central Honshu, Japan, main distribution area of this subspecies

Cobitis minamorii yodoensis Nakajima 2012    ensis, suffix denoting place: Yodo River system, central Honshu, Kyoto and Osaka Prefectures, Japan, type locality

Cobitis multifasciata Wakiya & Mori 1929    multi-, many; fasciatus, banded, referring to 16 blackish or dark-brown crossbands on sides

Cobitis multimaculata Chen & Chen 2011    multi-, many; maculata, spotted, referring to unique color pattern of scattered, small, elongated, oval blotches on sides

Cobitis nalbanti Vasil’eva, Kim, Vasil’ev, Ko & Won 2016    in honor of Romanian ichthyologist Theodor Nalbant (1933-2011), for “great” contributions to the taxonomy of a number of groups of fishes, including the family Cobitidae, particularly in Korea

Cobitis narentana Karaman 1928    ana, belonging to: Narenta (Cyrillic spelling of Neretva), referring to Neretva River, Dalmatia (Croatia and Bosnia), type locality

Cobitis ohridana Karaman 1928    ana, belonging to: Lake Ohrid, southern Yugoslavia and eastern Albania, type locality

Cobitis pacifica Kim, Park & Nalbant 1999    Pacific, referring Pacific Ocean drainage of eastern Korea, where it is endemic

Cobitis phrygica Battalgazi 1944    ica, belonging to: Phrygia, ancient name of west-central Anatolia, or Turkey, where this loach occurs

Cobitis pontica Vasil’eva & Vasil’ev 2006    ica, belonging to: the Black Sea (= Pontos), referring to distribution in Veleka River, on western coast of Black Sea in Bulgaria

Cobitis pumila Kim & Lee 1987    dwarfish, referring to small body size compared to C. koreensis

Cobitis puncticulata Erk’akan, Atalay-Ekmekçi & Nalbant 1998    dotted, referring to small dark-gray spots on body and head

Cobitis rara Chen 1981    thinly scattered, probably referring to “sparser patches” of brown along horizontal axis of body compared to C. sinensis

Cobitis sakahoko Nakajima & Suzawa 2015    derived from the legendary Japanese weapon Ama-no-sakahoko (=inverted halberd of heaven), which was thrust into the Takachiho Peak of Mt. Kirishima, one of the sources of the Takazaki River, Japan, type locality; the lamina circularis of this loach is a distinctive rectangular plate that resembles a halberd

Cobitis satunini Gladkov 1935    patronym not identified but probably in honor of zoologist Konstantin Alekseevich Satunin (1853-1916)

Cobitis shikokuensis Suzawa 2006    ensis, suffix denoting place: Shikoku Island, Japan, where it is endemic

Cobitis sibirica Gladkov 1935    Siberian, described as a Russian subspecies of C. taenia

Cobitis sinensis Sauvage & Dabry de Thiersant 1874    ensis, suffix denoting place: Sinica (China), referring to type locality in Szechwan (also occurs in Russia, Korea and Viêt Nam)

Cobitis splendens Erk’akan, Atalay-Ekmekçi & Nalbant 1998    magnificent or beautiful, referring to “very beautiful pigmentation”

Cobitis squataeniatus Ngô 2008    etymology not explained, perhaps squa-, square; taeniatus, banded, referring to band of 8-10 square or rectangular spots on sides

Cobitis stenocauda Chen & Chen 2013    stenos, narrow; cauda, tail, referring to long and slender caudal peduncle compared to short and thick caudal peduncle of C. crassicauda

Cobitis stephanidisi Economidis 1992    in memory of Alexander I. Stephanidis (1911-1990), “the first modern explorer of the Greek freshwater fauna”

Cobitis striata striata Ikeda 1936    striated, presumably referring to striped color pattern compared to spotted color pattern of C. taenia

Cobitis striata fuchigamii Nakajima 2012    in honor of Nobuyoshi Fuchigami, Onga River Environment Conservation Monitor, who discovered this loach in the Onga River system, northern Kyushu, Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan

Cobitis striata hakataensis Nakajima 2012    ensis, suffix denoting place: Hakata, “popular common name” of the Fukuoka City area (Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan) where type locality is situated

Cobitis taenia Linnaeus 1758    ribbon, probably referring to laterally compressed body (often colloquially known as “ribbon loach”)

Cobitis takatsuensis Mizuno 1970    ensis, suffix denoting place: Takatsu-gawa River system, Japan, type locality

Cobitis takenoi Nakajima 2016    in honor of Makoto Takeno, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kinki University (Osaka, Japan), its discoverer

Cobitis tanaitica Bacescu & Mayer 1969    ica, belonging to: Tana or Tanais, ancient name for the River Don, Ukraine, type locality

Cobitis taurica Vasil’eva, Vasil’ev, Janko, Ráb & Rábová 2005    of Taurica, ancient Greek and Roman name for Crimea, referring to distribution in Crimean Peninsula, Ukraine

Cobitis tetralineata Kim, Park & Nalbant 1999    tetra-, four; lineata, lined, referring to four brownish longitudinal stripes on sides

Cobitis vardarensis Karaman 1928    ensis, suffix denoting place: Vardar River, Yugoslavia/Macedonia, type locality

Cobitis xinjiangensis (Chen & Chen 2005)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Xinjiang River, Guangfeng County, Jiangxi Province, China, type locality

Cobitis ylengensis Ngô 2003    ensis, suffix denoting place: Yleng, a village where it occurs (Ngô, S. V., pers. comm.), Bai Dinh, Town Dan Hoa, Minh Hoa, Quang Bình Province, Viêt Nam

Cobitis yongdokensis (Kim & Park 1997)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Yongdok-gun, Yongdokoship River basin, type locality

Cobitis zanandreai Cavicchioli 1965    in honor of the late Giuseppe Zanandrea, Istituto di Anatomia Comparata della Università di Bologna, “invaluable advisor and collaborator” (translation), who identified this loach as a distinct taxon in 1964

Cobitis zhejiangensis Son & He 2005    ensis, suffix denoting place: Zhejiang Province, China, type locality

Subgenus Beyshehiria Erk’akan, Atalay-Ekmekçi & Nalbant 1999    ia, belonging to: Beysehir Lake, Turkey, “the single place where this extremely interesting species [C. bilseli] is living”

Cobitis bilseli Battalgil 1942    in honor of Cemil Bilsel (1879-1949), Rector of the University of Istanbul, for his interest in and support of the study of the fauna of Turkey

Subgenus Bicanestrinia Bacescu 1962    bi-, two, referring to two Canestrini’s organs (bony process or plate at base of the first [unbranched] and second [first branched] ray of pectoral fin) of male Cobitis

Cobitis arachthosensis Economidis & Nalbant 1996    ensis, suffix denoting place: River Arachthos, near Akropotamia village, Epirus, Greece, type locality

Cobitis hellenica Economidis & Nalbant 1996    Hellenic (i.e., Greek), referring to distribution in western Greece

Cobitis levantina Krupp & Moubayed 1992    Levantian, referring to type locality in the northern Levant (i.e., Syria and Turkey)

Cobitis meridionalis Karaman 1924    southern, allusion not explained; described as a subspecies of C. taenia, probably referring to distribution south of nominate form

Cobitis punctilineata Economidis & Nalbant 1996    punctum, spot; lineata, lined, referring to “great number of dark spots in the middle lateral row”

Cobitis rhodopensis Vassilev 1998    ensis, suffix denoting place: East Rhodope Mountain region, Aegean Sea basin, Bulgaria, where it is endemic

Cobitis simplicispina Hankó 1925    simplex, onefold or single; spina, spine, referring to single-pronged suborbital spine, compared to double-pronged spine on C. taenia and C. turcica

Cobitis strumicae Karaman 1955    of Strumica River, Yugoslavia, co-type locality

Cobitis trichonica Stephanidis 1974    ica, belonging to: Lake Trichonis, Greece, type locality

Cobitis turcica Hankó 1925    Turkish, referring to type locality in Eregli, Turkey (also occurs in Iran)

Subgenus Iberocobitis Bacescu 1962     Ibero-, Iberian Peninsula, referring to Spanish and Portuguese distribution of C. paludica, i.e., Iberian Cobitis

Cobitis maroccana Pellegrin 1929    Moroccan, referring to type locality in Morocco

Cobitis paludica (de Buen 1930)    ica, belonging to: paludis, marsh, probabaly referring to occurrence in “ponds, ditches and rice fields” (translation)

Cobitis vettonica Doadrio & Perdices 1997    ica, belonging to: the Vettones, historical inhabitants of the sheep-raising area of west-central Spain, which coincides with the range of this species

Koreocobitis Kim, Park & Nalbant 1997    referring to Korea, where type species, K. rotundicaudata, formerly placed in Cobitis, is endemic

Koreocobitis naktongensis Kim, Park & Nalbant 2000    ensis, suffix denoting place: Naktong River at Jugkun-ri village, Korea, type locality

Koreocobitis rotundicaudata (Wakiya & Mori 1929)    rotundus, round or circular; caudatus, tailed, referring to rounded caudal fin

Kottelatlimia Nalbant 1994    ia, belonging to: ichthyologists Maurice Kottelat (b. 1957) and K. P. Lim, who described the “extremely interesting” type species, K. katik, in 1992

Kottelatlimia hipporhynchos Kottelat & Tan 2008    hippos, horse; rhynchos, snout, referring to long, horse-like snout of large specimens

Kottelatlimia katik (Kottelat & Lim 1992)    Malay word for stunted or short, referring to minute size (up to 13.5 mm SL in females)

Kottelatlimia pristes (Roberts 1989)    Greek for saw, referring to serrate pectoral-fin ray of males

Lepidocephalichthys Bleeker 1863    an ichthys, fish, similar to the closely related Lepidocephalus, in which type species, L. hasselti, had been placed

Lepidocephalichthys alkaia Havird & Page 2010    Greek for lion’s tail, referring to tail-like dark stripe on caudal fin

Lepidocephalichthys annandalei Chaudhuri 1912    in honor of zoologist-anthropologist Thomas Nelson Annandale (1876-1924), Director, Indian Museum (Calcutta), who collected some of the type specimens

Lepidocephalichthys arunachalensis (Datta & Barman 1984)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Arunachal Pradesh, India, type locality

Lepidocephalichthys barbatuloides (Bleeker 1851)    oides, having the appearance of: referring to similarity and presumed relationship with Cobitis (= Barbatula) barbatula

Lepidocephalichthys berdmorei (Blyth 1860)    in honor of the late Major Hugh Thomas Berdmore (d. 1859), Madras Artillery, Assistant to the Commissioner and in charge of the forests’ office, who collected type

Lepidocephalichthys coromandelensis (Menon 1992)    ensis, suffix denoting place: presumably from Coromandel Coast of India, although type locality (Araku Valley, Andrha Pradesh) appears to be north of the Coromandel region

Lepidocephalichthys furcatus (de Beaufort 1933)    forked, referring to forked caudal fin

Lepidocephalichthys goalparensis Pillai & Yazdani 1976    ensis, suffix denoting place: Goalpara District, Assam State, India, type locality (also occurs in Nepal, Bangladesh and Myanmar)

Lepidocephalichthys guntea (Hamilton 1822)    latinization of Gunté, local Bengali name for this loach

Lepidocephalichthys hasselti (Valenciennes 1846)    in honor of Dutch physician and biologist Johan Coenraad van Hasselt (1797-1823), who explored the colonial Dutch East Indies with his friend Heinrich Kuhl in 1820 and provided an illustration of this species

Lepidocephalichthys irrorata Hora 1921    covered with granules, referring to sides and fins densely speckled with black

Lepidocephalichthys kranos Havird & Page 2010    Greek for helmet, referring to large, exposed scales on top of head

Lepidocephalichthys lorentzi (Weber & de Beaufort 1916)    in honor of Dutch explorer Hendrikus Albertus Lorentz (1871-1944), who collected many fishes in Borneo

Lepidocephalichthys micropogon (Blyth 1860)    micro-, small; pogon, beard, referring to small barbels (first rostral pair never extends to anterior nostril, other pairs rarely extend to orbit)

Lepidocephalichthys thermalis (Valenciennes 1846)    Latin for hot spring, referring to hot waters of Cania, Sri Lanka, type locality (also occurs in peninsular India)

Lepidocephalichthys tomaculum Kottelat & Lim 1992    Latin for sausage, called “sausage loach” by the authors, perhaps referring to almost uniform depth from head to caudal peduncle

Lepidocephalichthys zeppelini Havird & Tangjitjaroen 2010    of Zeppelin, i.e., the rock band Led Zeppelin (1968-1980), referring to Gibson EDS-1275 double-neck guitar played by Jimmy Page, which reminded authors of the diagnostic double lamina circularis of this species

Lepidocephalus Bleeker 1859    lepido-, scaled; cephalus, head, referring to distal portion of head, cheek and opercle covered with fine scales

Lepidocephalus macrochir (Bleeker 1854)    macro-, long; cheiros, hand, referring to elongate second pectoral-fin ray in males

Lepidocephalus nanensis Deein, Tangjitjaroen & Page 2014    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Nan River, Chao Phraya basin, Thailand, where most specimens were collected

Lepidocephalus pahangensis (de Beaufort 1933)     –ensis, Pahang River at Mentakab, Peninsular Malaysia, only known area of occurrence

Lepidocephalus pallens (Vaillant 1902)    pallid, referring to “generally pale coloration” (translation)

Lepidocephalus spectrum Roberts 1989    spectral, referring to “ghastly or ghostlike character” of its eyelessess and creamy or pinkish white coloration

Microcobitis Bohlen & Harant 2011    micro-, small, smaller than all other species of Cobitis, genus in which its type species (M. misgurnoides) had been placed

Microcobitis misgurnoides (Rendahl 1944)    oides, having the form of: Misgurnus, referring to the “very ample development of the barbels” (translation) the genera share

Microcobitis nuicocensis (Nguyen & Vo 2005)    ensis, suffix denoting place: lake district of Mount (Núi) Côc,Thái Nguyên Province, Viêt Nam, type locality

Misgurnus Lacepède 1803    latinization of either mis’gurn, misgurne or misgurnos, Old English, French and Spanish vernaculars, respectively, for M. fossilis

Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (Cantor 1842)    anguilla, eel; caudatus, tailed, referring to eel-like caudal fin

Misgurnus bipartitus (Sauvage & Dabry de Thiersant 1874)    bi-, two; partitus, divided, referring to narrow black band that divides height of body into two equal parts

Misgurnus buphoensis Kim & Park 1995    ensis, suffix denoting place: Bupo, or Bupo-ri (presumably same as Bupho), Su˘nbong County, North Hamgyong Province, North Korea, type locality

Misgurnus fossilis (Linnaeus 1758)    digging or dug up, allusion not explained, probably referring to habit of burying itself in the mud, particularly in cold weather

Misgurnus mohoity (Dybowski 1869)    adjectival form of mohoj, Buryat vernacular for this species, meaning snake

Misgurnus nikolskyi Vasil’eva 2001    in honor of the “famous” ichthyologist Georgy Vasil’evich Nikolskyi (1910-1977), who taught Vasil’eva and studied the fishes of the Far East

Neoeucirrhichthys Bănărescu & Nalbant 1968    neo-, new, referring to presumed close relationship to Eucirrhichthys (= Pangio), literally a “new Eucirrhichthys

Neoeucirrhichthys maydelli Bănărescu & Nalbant 1968    in honor of Gustav-Adolph von Maydell, Zoological Expedition of the University of Hamburg, who collected type

Pangio Blyth 1860    latinization of Pangya, Gangetic name for P. cinnamomea (= C. pangia) in India

Pangio agma (Burridge 1992)    Greek for fragmented or broken, referring to irregular and broken dark bands on adult body

Pangio alcoides Kottelat & Lim 1993    oides, having the form of: Alca torda, the Razorbill, a colonial seabird, referring to black dorsum and white belly of most specimens

Pangio alternans Kottelat & Lim 1993    alternate, referring to body color pattern of alternating saddles and blotches

Pangio ammophila Britz, Ali & Raghavan 2012    ammos, sand; philo, to love, referring to habitat in which it was collected

Pangio anguillaris (Vaillant 1902)    eel-like, referring to long, eel-like body

Pangio apoda Britz & Maclaine 2007    etymology not explained but clearly a-, without; podal, feet, referring to absence of pelvic fins (name may also allude to apodal fishes, i.e., eels, reflecting vernacular for genus, eel-loaches, and their elongate, eel-like shape)

Pangio atactos Tan & Kottelat 2009    irregular, referring to irregular barred pattern on body

Pangio bitaimac Tan & Kottelat 2009    latinization of bee tai mak, a short and thick rice noodle commonly consumed locally in Southeast Asia, referring to very elongate, worm-shaped body

Pangio cuneovirgata (Raut 1957)    cuneus, wedge; virgata, striped or branched, referring to characteristic wedge-shaped bars on body

Pangio doriae (Perugia 1892)    in honor of zoologist Giacoma Doria (1840-1913), who collected type

Pangio elongata Britz & Maclaine 2007    referring to elongate, laterally compressed body

Pangio filinaris Kottelat & Lim 1993    filum, thread; naris, nostril, referring to rim of anterior nostril, which is modified into a barbel

Pangio fusca (Blyth 1860)    dusky, presumably referring to “uniform dull brown” coloration

Pangio goaensis (Tilak 1972)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Goa, India, where it is endemic

Pangio incognito Kottelat & Lim 1993    Italian for unknown, being “discovered” not in the field but in the lab while examining radiographs

Pangio kuhlii (Valenciennes 1846)    in memory of Heinrich Kuhl (1797-1821), who died while collecting fauna and flora in Java, including type of this loach; his collections, drawings and manuscripts provided material for Valenciennes and other naturalists

Pangio lidi Hadiaty & Kottelat 2009    Indonesian word for the rachis (stalk) of the coconut leaf, referring to slender and elongate shape

Pangio longimanus Britz & Kottelat 2010    longus, long; manus, hand, referring to greatly elongated pectoral fin of males

Pangio lumbriciformis Britz & Maclaine 2007    lumbricus, earthworm; formis, having the form of, referring to round (in cross section), worm-like body

Pangio malayana (Tweedie 1956)    anus, belonging to: Malaysia, only country where it is known to occur

Pangio mariarum (Inger & Chin 1962)    orum, commemorative suffix, plural: in honor of the authors’ wives, both of whom are named Maria

Pangio muraeniformis (de Beaufort 1933)    muraena, moray eel; formis, shape, presumably referring to elongate (and hence eel-like) shape

Pangio myersi (Harry 1949)    in honor of Stanford University ichthyologist George S. Myers (1905-1985), for his interest in and research of Indo-Malayan fishes

Pangio oblonga (Valenciennes 1846)    oblong (i.e., longer than broad), referring to elongated body (“corps allongé”)

Pangio pangia (Hamilton 1822)    latinization of Pangya, Gangetic name for this species in India

Pangio piperata Kottelat & Lim 1993    peppered, referring to finely speckled body

Pangio pulla Kottelat & Lim 1993    pullus, blackish brown, referring to its “dull” coloration and to the blackwaters it inhabits

Pangio robiginosa (Raut 1957)    presumably a misspelling of rubiginosa, rusty, referring to “dirty yellow-brown to bright rusty red” (translation) coloration

Pangio semicincta (Fraser-Brunner 1940)    semi-, half; cinctus, encircled, referring to “tapering patches confined to upper half of the body”

Pangio shelfordii (Popta 1903)    in honor of entomologist R. W. C. Shelford (1872-1912), director of the Sarawak Museum (Borneo), who presented type to the Leyden Museum (Netherlands)

Pangio signicauda Britz & Maclaine 2007    signum, mark; cauda, tail, referring to conspicuous color pattern on caudal fin and caudal fin base

Pangio superba (Roberts 1989)    splendid, referring to beautiful magenta-and-orange coloration

Paralepidocephalus Tchang 1935    para-, near, i.e., “closely allied” to Lepidocephalus but with a scaleless head and body

Paralepidocephalus guishanensis Li 2004    ensis, suffix denoting place: Guishan town, Shilin County, Yunnan Province, China, type locality

Paralepidocephalus translucens Liu, Yang & Chen 2016    translucent, referring to its appearance when alive (ivory in 95% ethanol)

Paralepidocephalus yui Tchang 1935    in honor of Prof. C. C. Yu, Fan Memorial Institute

Paramisgurnus Dabry de Thiersant 1872    para-, near, presumably referring to resemblance and/or close affinity to Misgurnus

Paramisgurnus dabryanus Dabry de Thiersant 1872    anus, belonging to: Pierre Dabry de Thiersant, fish culturist, French counsel to China, and student of Chinese fishes, who collected type (Dabry de Thiersant used a museum name coined by Guichenot but wrote description, therefore he is author of name that honors himself)

Paramisgurnus oligolepos (Li 1993)    oligos, few; lepis, scale, referring to fewer (106-108) longitudinal scales compared to M. bipartitus (160-180)

Protocobitis Yang & Chen 1993    protos, first, hypothesized to be a primitive sister group to the subfamily Cobitinae; cobitis, generic suffix meaning loach

Protocobitis anteroventris Lan 2013    antero, anterior; ventralis, ventral, referring to ventral- (or pelvic-) fin origin anterior to dorsal-fin origin

Protocobitis polylepis Zhu, Lü, Yang & Zhang 2008    poly, many; lepis, scales, referring to scales covering entire body except head and abdomen, compared to rudimentary scales only along middle of sides of P. typhlops

Protocobitis typhlops Yang, Chen & Lan 1993    typhlos, blind; ops, eye, a cave species with no externally visible eyes

Sabanejewia Vladykov 1929    ia, belonging to: Leonid Pavlovich Sabanejew (also spelled Sabaneev, 1844-1898), expert on freshwater fish biology and author of Les poissons de la Russie

Sabanejewia aurata (De Filippi 1863)    golden, referring to “beautiful bright golden” coloration (translation) on sides and belly

Sabanejewia balcanica (Karaman 1922)    Balkan, referring to distribution in the Balkan Pensinula (Black Sea and Aegean Sea basins)

Sabanejewia baltica Witkowski 1994    Baltic, referring to distribution in the southern Baltic basin (Vistula, Neman and Odra river systems)

Sabanejewia bulgarica (Drensky 1928)    Bulgarian, referring to distribution in the Danube River system of Bulgaria

Sabanejewia caspia (Eichwald 1838)    Caspian, referring to distribution in Caspian Sea basin

Sabanejewia caucasica (Berg 1906)    referring to distribution in the Caucasus region of Russia (now Azerbaijan and Armenia) and Iran

Sabanejewia kubanica Vasil’eva & Vasil’ev 1988    ica, belonging to: Kuban River drainage, Russia, where it is endemic

Sabanejewia larvata (De Filippi 1859)    masked, presumably referring to brown streak from eye to end of snout

Sabanejewia romanica (Bacescu 1943)    Romanian, described as a Romanian subspecies of Cobitis (= Sabanejewia) caspia

Sabanejewia vallachica (Nalbant 1957)    ica, belonging to: Vallachica, Romania, where it is endemic

Theriodes Kottelat 2012    named for Theriodes Kolpos (or Theriodis Sinus in Latin, the Bay of the Beasts), a place name in Ptolemy’s (ca. 90-168) Handbook of Geography, identified by some as possibly Borneo, where the only species is endemic

Theriodes sandakanensis (Inger & Chin 1962)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Sandakan District, northern Borneo, type locality