Order GALAXIIFORMES

COMMENTS
v. 1.1 – 14 Oct. 2017  view/download PDF

Family GALAXIIDAE
7 genera · 66 species

Subfamily APLOCHITONINAE Peladillas                                     

Aplochiton Jenyns 1842    ap[heles], smooth; chiton, tunic, referring to “perfectly naked skin” that is “free from scales”

Aplochiton marinus Eigenmann 1928    of the sea, a catadromous species “found along the shores and inland a very short distance”

Aplochiton taeniatus Jenyns 1842    banded, referring to pale silver band along middle of sides

Aplochiton zebra Jenyns 1842    referring to “irregular transverse zebra-like marks” on sides

Lovettia McCulloch 1915    ia, belonging to Edward Frederick Lovett (1857-1943), Hobart, Australia, from whom McCulloch is “indebted” for “beautifully preserved specimens” of L. sealii, as well as many other “interesting” Tasmanian fishes

Lovettia sealii (Johnston 1883)    patronym not identified, probably in honor of Matthew Seal, President of the Tasmanian Fisheries Commission                     

Subfamily GALAXIINAE White Bait and Mudfishes

Brachygalaxias Eigenmann 1928     brachys, short, referring to short body of B. bullocki, “the smallest of the Galaxiidae in Chile”

Brachygalaxias bullocki (Regan 1908)    in honor of Dillman Samuel Bullock (1878-1971), an American agronomist who lived in Chile and collected many Chilean fishes, including type of this one

Brachygalaxias gothei Busse 1983    in honor of Busse’s friend Karl Heinz Gothe (Taka, Chile), who took him to the type locality and enthusiastically helped collect type

Galaxias Cuvier 1816    etymology not explained; several sources state that the name means “milky” and refers to G. argenteus, alluding to its gold spots, which are reminiscent of stars in the night sky, but we have found no substantiation for this explanation

Galaxias aequipinnis Raadik 2014    aequalis, like or same; pinnis, fin, referring to almost equal size, on average, of its pectoral and pelvic fins, which are the most equal of all members within the G. olidus complex

Galaxias anomalus Stokell 1959    odd or irregular, referring to its “failure to conform to the arrangement usual in long-bodied species” of Galaxias (e.g., more posterior ventral-fin insertion, the presence of canine teeth, and a long vs. poorly developed pyloric caeca)

Galaxias arcanus Raadik 2014    cryptic, secret or mysterious, referring to its cryptic habitat (amongst boulder and cobbles on the stream bed) and its cryptic coloration

Galaxias argenteus (Gmelin 1789)    silvery, an unusual choice for a species described as “brown, painted with yellow letters” (translation), based on a 1777 account from Forster: “its colour was brown, and mottled with yellowish spots in the shape of some ancient Asiatic characters”; Gmelin apparently confused this species, which Forster surmised was an undescribed pike, or Esox, with Esox (now Albula) argentea (Albuliformes), which Forster described in the same book

Galaxias auratus Johnston 1883    golden, referring to the “bright transparent golden hue” of its body

Galaxias brevipinnis Günther 1866    brevis, short; pinnis, fin, presumably referring to length of anal-fin rays which, if laid backwards, do not reach caudal-fin base

Galaxias brevissimus Raadik 2014    shortest, having the shortest caudal peduncle and caudal fin compared with other members of the G. olidus complex

Galaxias cobitinis McDowall & Waters 2002    loach-like, from the Greek kobitis, “like a gudgeon,” referring to its slender and elongate loach (Cobitis)-like shape

Galaxias depressiceps McDowall & Wallis 1996    depressus, low-lying or flat; ceps, head, referring to its distinctively flattened head

Galaxias divergens Stokell 1959    divergent, referring to how it differs from “typical” galaxiid species in having fewer ventral-fin rays

Galaxias eldoni McDowall 1997    in honor of G.A. (Tony) Eldon, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, on the occasion of his June 1994 retirement, for more than 30 years of “enthusiastic commitment” to the study and conservation of New Zealand’s native freshwater fishes

Galaxias fasciatus Gray 1842    banded, referring to “nearly regular narrow cross band” on sides

Galaxias fontanus Fulton 1978    spring, referring to probable origin of Swan River, Tasmania, type locality

Galaxias fuscus Mack 1936    brown, dark, dusky or tawny, probably referring to “greenish-brown” coloration and/or large “dark” oval blotches on sides

Galaxias globiceps Eigenmann 1928    globus, globe or sphere; cephalus, head, presumably referring to “more blunt appearance” of head compared to G. platei

Galaxias gollumoides McDowall & Chadderton 1999    oides, having the form of: Gollum, a “dark little fellow with big round eyes who sometimes frequents a swamp” from Tolkien’s The Hobbit and “Lord of the Rings” trilogy, referring to its relatively large eyes and occurrence in swamps (also occurs in pool-riffle-runs below waterfalls)

Galaxias gracilis McDowall 1967    slender, referring to its slender form

Galaxias gunaikurnai Raadik 2014    named for the Gunai/Kurnai indigenous nation, traditional inhabitants of the Gippsland region of Victoria, where this species is endemic

Galaxias johnstoni Scott 1936    in honor of statistician and scientist Robert Mackenzie Johnston (1843-1918), “the father of Tasmanian ichthyology, who paid considerable attention to the local Galaxiidae”

Galaxias lanceolatus Raadik 2014    lance-like, referring to comparatively elongate body shape with relatively evenly arched dorsal and ventral profiles (except when close to spawning time)

Galaxias longifundus Raadik 2014    longus, long; fundus, base or bottom, referring to relatively long dorsal- and anal-fin bases compared with other members of the G. olidus complex

Galaxias macronasus McDowall & Waters 2003    macro-, large; nasus, nose, referring to its distinctively rounded snout

Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns 1842)    spotted, referring to “numerous conspicuous spots and small irregular transverse bars of black” on body

Galaxias mcdowalli Raadik 2014    in honor of the late Robert (Bob) Montgomery McDowall (1939-2011), for his long and valuable contribution to galaxioid systematics

Galaxias mungadhan Raadik 2014    from the language of the Gunai/Kurnai indigenous nation, traditional inhabitants of the Gippsland region of Victoria where this species is endemic: munga, from and dhan, frost or snow, referring to distribution at high elevations on the Dargo High Plains which are usually covered by snow during winter

Galaxias neocaledonicus Weber & de Beaufort 1913    icus, belonging to: New Caledonia, where it is endemic

Galaxias niger Andrews 1985    black, referring to its “heavy pigmentation” (uniform deep olive-brown with large irregular dark-brown blacks and bars on sides)

Galaxias occidentalis Ogilby 1899    western, this being the first galaxiid recorded west of the Murray River watershed in Australia

Galaxias olidus Günther 1866    smelly, allusion not explained: according to Raadik (2014), freshly preserved specimens are not known to impart a distinctive odor, and the holotype currently smells only of preservative; he conjectures that the liquid the holotype was originally preserved in, or later transferred to, may have had a distinctive odor at the time the description was made

Galaxias oliros Raadik 2014    combination of the first three letters of the names of G. olidus and G. rostratus, first used as a field code for what appeared to be a distinct morphological form intermediate between, and sharing morphological characteristics with, both taxa, particularly juvenile to young-adult stages

Galaxias ornatus Castelnau 1873    decorated or adorned, probably referring to its often bold and ornate color pattern (light green and yellow body, with green bands across the back, yellow eyes, light-yellow fins)

Galaxias parvus Frankenberg 1968    small, maximum size observed 60.5 mm TL

Galaxias paucispondylus Stokell 1938    pauci-, few; spondylus, vertebrae, referring to fewest number of vertebrae (51-53) of any New Zealand galaxiid (at least those known at time of description)

Galaxias pedderensis Frankenberg 1968    ensis, suffix denoting place: lake Pedder and immediate surrounds, southern Tasmania, where it is endemic

Galaxias platei Steindachner 1898    in honor of German zoologist and geneticist Ludwig Hermann Plate (1862-1937), who led expedition that collected type

Galaxias postvectis Clarke 1899    post, after or behind; vectis, bar, referring to 7-9 darkish-brown lines on posterior portion of body

Galaxias prognathus Stokell 1940    pro-, in front of; gnathus, jaw, referring to its protruding lower jaw

Galaxias pullus McDowall 1997    dark or dusky brown, referring to its “deep dusky brown/black to grey-olive” back with similarly colored bands or vermiculations, and some “dusky markings” at caudal- and dorsal-fin bases

Galaxias rostratus Klunzinger 1872    beaked, allusion not explained, probably referring to its long, relatively pointed snout

Galaxias supremus Raadik 2014    highest or uppermost, found at the highest elevation of all the Galaxiidae, at over 2000 m on Mount Kosciuszko, Australia’s highest mountain

Galaxias tantangara Raadik 2014    named for Tantangara Creek, upstream of Tantangara Reservoir, New South Whales, type locality

Galaxias tanycephalus Fulton 1978    tanyo, stretch out; cephalus, head, referring to long, slender head that tapers to a long, slender snout

Galaxias terenasus Raadik 2014    teres, rounded or smooth; nasus, nose, referring to its rounded snout

Galaxias truttaceus Valenciennes 1846    trout-like, “rounded shape of the body and the arrangement of spots make it look like this fish is a small trout” (translation)

Galaxias vulgaris Stokell 1949    common, the “most abundant and widely distributed” galaxiid in the upland streams of Canterbury, New Zealand

Galaxias zebratus (Castelnau 1861)    zebra-like, referring to its “vivid and transverse lines” on sides (translation)

Galaxiella McDowall 1978    iella, a diminutive, i.e., small galaxiid fishes (<47.5 mm)

Galaxiella munda McDowall 1978    Latin for neat, presumably referring to its appearance (a “small, almost tubular species, compressed behind the vent, the dorsal and ventral body profiles almost parallel, or the belly deepened a little”)

Galaxiella nigrostriata (Shipway 1953)    nigro-, black; striatus, striped, referring to black stripes that flank yellowish stripe on sides

Galaxiella pusilla (Mack 1936)    very small (described at 31 mm)

Galaxiella toourtkoourt Coleman & Raadik 2015    from the Australian indigenous language groups Tjapwurrung, Korn Kopan Noot and Peekwurrung, meaning “little fish in freshwater,” referring to its being the smallest species in the family (pronounced too-urt koo-urt)

Neochanna Günther 1867    neo-, new; Channa, genus of Asian snakeheads (Perciformes: Channidae), many of which, like N. apoda (type species), lack pelvic fins (Günther also named the catfish genus Channallabes [Clariidae], which also lacks pelvic fins)

Neochanna apoda Günther 1867    without feet, referring to absence of pelvic fins

Neochanna burrowsius (Phillipps 1926)    ius, belonging to: Mr. A. Burrows, a farmer who collected type specimens from a creek near his house in West Oxford, South Island, New Zealand

Neochanna cleaveri (Scott 1934)    in honor of Mr. F. Cleaver (West Ulverstone, Tasmania), who discovered the type specimen burrowed inside the root of a eucalyptus tree, where it had been aestivating

Neochanna diversus Stokell 1949    different, referring to its “disagreement” with several characters originally described for the genus (e.g., conical vs. compressed teeth)

Neochanna heleios Ling & Gleeson 2001    Greek for “dwelling in a marsh,” referring to its habitat (ephemeral wetlands on peaty soils)

Neochanna rekohua (Mitchell 1995)    ancient Moriori name for the Chatham Islands (pronounced rare-k’hoe-hoo-ar), where this galaxiid is endemic

Paragalaxias Scott 1935    para-, near, referring to similarity to Galaxias

Paragalaxias dissimilis (Regan 1906)    different, referring to its six ventral-fin rays, compared to seven on presumed congeners in Galaxias, its genus at time of description

Paragalaxias eleotroides McDowall & Fulton 1978    oides, having the form of: referring to similarity in appearance and behavior to gudgeons (Eleotris: Eleotridae)

Paragalaxias julianus McDowall & Fulton 1978    anus, belonging to: Julian Lakes, Tasmania, Australia, where it occurs

Paragalaxias mesotes McDowall & Fulton 1978    Greek for middle, intermediate in behavior and other characteristics between P. eleotroides and P. dissimilis