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Family MELANONIDAE Pelagic Cods

Melanonus Günther 1878    melanos, black, referring to entirely deep-black body of M. gracilis; onus, presumably a latinization of onos, a name dating to Aristotle, originally referring to Phycis blennoides (Gadidae) but often applied to Merluccius merluccius (Merlucciidae) and hence used several times by Günther as a suffix for a hake-like fish

Melanonus gracilis Günther 1878    thin or slender, presumably referring to its “rather compressed” head and body and/or how body terminates into a “long tapering” tail without a caudal fin

Melanonus zugmayeri Norman 1930    in honor of ichthyologist Erich Zugmayer (1879-1938), who misidentified this species as M. gracilis in 1911


Steindachneria Goode & Bean 1888    ia-, belonging to: Austrian ichthyologist Franz Steindachner (1834-1919), Custos [Keeper or Custodian] of the Imperial Zoological Museum of Vienna

Steindachneria argentea Goode & Bean 1896    silvery, referring to its base coloration (upper parts light brown, belly purplish, inside of mouth dark)

Family BATHYGADIDAE Codhead Rattails
2 genera · 27 species

Bathygadus Günther 1878    bathys, deep, referring to deep-sea habitat of B. cottoides (caught at 950-1280 m); gadus, a cod or gadiform fish

Bathygadus antrodes (Jordan & Starks 1904)    full of cavities, referring to “spongy” head with “wide mucous canals and fragile crests”

Bathygadus bowersi (Gilbert 1905)    in honor of politician George M. Bowers (1863-1925), head of the United States Fish Commission, whose fisheries steamer Albatross collected type

Bathygadus cottoides Günther 1878    oides, having the form of: Cottus, sculpin, presumably referring to sculpin-like combination of big head and wide mouth

Bathygadus dubiosus Weber 1913    doubtful or uncertain, described from a poorly preserved specimen that appears closely related to B. bowersi but differs in one character: the extension of the pectoral, ventral and possibly dorsal fins

Bathygadus entomelas Gilbert & Hubbs 1920    entos, within; melas, black, referring to completely black branchial cavity

Bathygadus favosus Goode & Bean 1886    according to Goode & Bean (1896): cavernous, from favus, a honeycomb, referring to cavities in skull

Bathygadus furvescens Alcock 1894    growing dark, referring to its “warm dusky brown” coloration with “blackish” vertical fins, black paired fins, and black gill membranes, mouth and peritoneum

Bathygadus garretti Gilbert & Hubbs 1916    in honor of the late Lieut. Commander L. M. Garrett, U.S. Navy, commander of the fisheries steamer Albatross, from which type was collected, for his contributions to the success of an 1906 expedition to the Northwest Pacific; he was lost overboard during a storm on the return voyage from Japan

Bathygadus macrops Goode & Bean 1885   macro-, large; ops, eye, described at 20 mm in diameter, contained five times in length of head, twice as long as the eye of Gadomus longifilis, its presumed congener at the time

Bathygadus melanobranchus Vaillant 1888    melano-, black; branchos, gill, referring to black branchial cavity and interior of mouth

Bathygadus micronemus (Gilbert 1905)   micro-, small; nema, thread, referring to “minute” mandibular barbel

Bathygadus nipponicus (Jordan & Gilbert 1904)    ica, belonging to: Nippon, or Japan, where type locality, Suruga Bay, is situated

Bathygadus spongiceps Gilbert & Hubbs 1920    spongia, sponge; ceps, head, referring to the “spongy nature” of its head

Bathygadus sulcatus (Smith & Radcliffe 1912)    furrowed or grooved, presumably referring to small coracoid foramen (opening), “situated near the edge of the hypercoracoid, a shallow fossa [groove] extending backward toward center of bone”

Gadomus Regan 1903    gadus, a cod or gadiform fish; omus, shoulder, presumably referring to perforate scapula (shoulder blade) of G. longifilis

Gadomus aoteanus McCann & McKnight 1980    anus, belonging to: Aotearoa, “land of the long white cloud,” Maori name for New Zealand, type locality (also occurs off Australia)

Gadomus arcuatus (Goode & Bean 1886)    with a curved or arched profile, referring to its “gibbous” back, “the dorsal outline rising rapidly from the interorbital region to the origin of the first dorsal, whence it descends gradually to the end of the tail”

Gadomus capensis (Gilchrist & von Bonde 1924)   ensis, suffix denoting place: the Cape, presumably referring to type locality off Table Bay, Cape Town, South Africa

Gadomus colletti Jordan & Gilbert 1904    in honor of Norwegian zoologist Robert Collett (1842-1913), University of Christiana

Gadomus denticulatus Gilbert & Hubbs 1920    denticulated, i.e., finely toothed, referring to teeth “so excessively minute and crowded as to form an even shagreen-like surface, on which the individual teeth cannot be distinguished by the unaided eye”

Gadomus dispar (Vaillant 1888)    dissimilar, referring to confusion with G. longifilis at time of capture (but branchial cavity is not as black)

Gadomus filamentosus (Smith & Radcliffe 1912)    filamentous, presumably referring to “filiform” second dorsal-fin spine and/or “filiform” pectoral- and ventral-fin rays

Gadomus introniger Gilbert & Hubbs 1920    intro-, inside or within; niger, black, referring to “wholly dark” buccal and branchial cavities

Gadomus longifilis (Goode & Bean 1885)    longus, long; filum, thread, referring to extended dorsal-, pectoral- and ventral-fin rays

Gadomus magnifilis Gilbert & Hubbs 1920    magnus, great; filum, thread, referring to long dorsal- and ventral-fin filaments

Gadomus melanopterus Gilbert 1905    melanos, black; pterus, fin, referring to “jet-black” base and axil of pectoral fins

Gadomus multifilis (Günther 1887)    multi-, many; filis, thread, referring to second dorsal-, pectoral- and ventral-fin rays “produced into very long filaments”

Gadomus pepperi Iwamoto & Williams 1999    in honor of Roger Pepper, fishing master of FRV [Fisheries Research Vessel] Southern Surveyor and FRV Soela, for his contributions to many scientific fishing expeditions, including those that provided much of the material for the authors’ study of the macrouroid fishes of western Australia

Family MACROURIDAE Grenadiers or Rattails
36 genera/subgenera · 374 species/subspecies                                 

Albatrossia Jordan & Gilbert 1898    ia, belonging to: “the good ship Albatross, in remembrance of her splendid contributions to our knowledge of the life of the deep sea”                                   

Albatrossia pectoralis (Gilbert 1892)    referring to “long and narrow” pectoral fins           

Asthenomacrurus Sazonov & Shcherbachev 1982    asthenos, weak, referring to “brittle and easily deformed skeleton” (translation) and small size of A. victoris; Macrourus, type genus of family 

Asthenomacrurus fragilis (Garman 1899)    fragile or brittle, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to brittle and easily deformed skeleton (see genus), its weak head bones, and/or its scales, described as “small, thin, deciduous”

Asthenomacrurus victoris Sazonov & Shcherbachev 1982    is, genitive singular of: ichthyologist Viktor Markelovich Makushok (1924-1992, sometimes spelled Makushek and Makushuk), Institute of Oceanology, Academy of Sciences of the USSR, who described Coryphaenoides subserrulatus in 1976

Cetonurichthys Sazanov & Shcherbachev 1982    Cetonurus, similar to that genus in a number of characters, particularly enlarged scales along base of second dorsal fin; ichthys, fish

Cetonurichthys subinflatus Sazonov & Shcherbachev 1982    sub, less than; inflatus, inflated, referring to how seismosensory canals of head are less inflated than in related genera

Cetonurus Günther 1887    cetio-, large, referring to “exceedingly large and thick” head of C. crassiceps; –urus, proposed as a subgenus of Macrourus

Cetonurus crassiceps (Günther 1878)    crassus, thick, fat or stout; ceps, head, referring to “very large head, especially the anterior portion”

Cetonurus globiceps (Vaillant 1884)    globus, globe or sphere; cephalus, head, referring to globular shape of head

Cetonurus robustus Gilbert & Hubbs 1916    referring to its “robust, very deep, and strongly compressed” body

Coelorinchus Giorna 1809    coelo-, hollow; rhynchus, snout, referring to cavernous nature of snout of C. caelorhinchus (all macrourids have expanded mucous chambers in the head associated with the sensory lateralis system; these chambers may give the visual impression of a hollow or empty head)

Coelorinchus acanthiger Barnard 1925    acanthus, thorn or spine; –iger, to bear, referring to spinules on scales

Coelorinchus acantholepis Gilbert & Hubbs 1920    acanthus, thorn or spine; lepis, scale, referring to spinules on scales

Coelorinchus aconcagua Iwamoto 1978    Aconcagua (in the Andes of Argentina), the highest peak of the Western Hemisphere, “beneath the shadows of which the holotype was captured” off the Pacific Coast of Chile

Coelorinchus acutirostris Smith & Radcliffe 1912    acutus, sharp or pointed; rostris, snout, referring to its “very narrow, needle-like” snout

Coelorinchus amirantensis Iwamoto, Golani, Baranes & Goren 2006    ensis, suffix denoting place: Amirantes Basin, western Indian Ocean, type locality

Coelorinchus amydrozosterus Iwamoto & Williams 1999   amydros, indistinct or obscure; zosteros, belt or girdle, referring to faint bands on body

Coelorinchus anatirostris Jordan & Gilbert 1904    anatis, duck-like; rostris, beak, referring to snout, “shaped like a duck’s bill”

Coelorinchus anisacanthus Sazonov 1994    a-, not; isos, equal; acanthos, spine, referring to how scales on head and body vary markedly in how they are armed with ctenii (spinules or teeth)

Coelorinchus aratrum Gilbert 1905    plow, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to “long, depressed” snout

Coelorinchus argentatus Smith & Radcliffe 1912    silvery, referring to coloration on sides, cheek, opercles, and region immediately below suborbital ridge, with silvery reflections around vent

Coelorinchus argus Weber 1913    Argus, mythical hundred-eyed guardian of Io, whose eyes after death where transformed into the feathers of a peacock, referring to light-edged ocellus between dorsal and pectoral fins

Coelorinchus aspercephalus Waite 1911    asper, rough; cephalus, head, i.e., “head is everywhere roughened without distinct scales”

Coelorinchus asteroides Okamura 1963    oides, having the form of: aster, star, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to star-like arrangement of scales on mid-rostral ridge, with “spinous rows radiating in all directions”

Coelorinchus australis (Richardson 1839)    southern, referring to its distribution off southern Australia, “an example of a genus [then Lepidoleprus] which had not previously been detected in the southern hemisphere”

Coelorinchus biclinozonalis Arai & McMillan 1982    bi-, two; clino-, slant; zonalis, belt, referring to two dark slanted bands (or belts) on body

Coelorinchus bollonsi McCann & McKnight 1980    patronym not identified, probably in honor of John Peter Bollons (1862-1929), New Zealand marine captain, naturalist and ethnographer

Coelorinchus braueri Barnard 1925    in honor of zoologist August Brauer (1863-1917), Berlin Zoological Museum, who misidentified this species as C. parallelus in 1906

Coelorinchus brevirostris Okamura 1984    brevis, short; rostris, snout, referring to its “comparatively short” snout for a member of Quincuncia (recognized as a valid subgenus at the time)

Coelorinchus caelorhincus caelorhincus (Risso 1810)    caelo-, variant spelling of coelo-, hollow (reflecting its French vernacular name at the time, Le Cælorinque), referring to cavernous nature of its snout (all macrourids have expanded mucous chambers in the head associated with the sensory lateralis system; these chambers may give the visual impression of a hollow or empty head)

Coelorinchus caelorhincus carminatus (Goode 1880)   atus, having the nature of: carmen, a wool card, referring to long, vitreous spines arranged in 9-10 rows on scales, in which the scales resembled “old-fashioned wool cards”

Coelorinchus campbellicus McCann & McKnight 1980    icus, belonging to: Campbell Plateau, near New Zealand, type locality

Coelorinchus canus (Garman 1899)    grayish white, presumably referring to “more or less of silver especially on the sides of the body chamber” and/or silvery, translucent head

Coelorinchus caribbaeus (Goode & Bean 1885)    according to Goode & Bean 1896: referring to occurrence in Caribbean Sea (although most of type series was collected from the Gulf of Mexico)

Coelorinchus carinifer Gilbert & Hubbs 1920    carina, keel; –ifer, to bear, referring to 7-10 carinae on each scale of the body

Coelorinchus caudani (Köhler 1896)    in honor of the French steamer Caudan, from which type was collected

Coelorinchus celaenostoma McMillan & Paulin 1993    kelainos, black; stoma, mouth, referring to its black lips

Coelorinchus charius Iwamoto & Williams 1999    charieis, Greek for graceful, allusion not explained; “We had no particular reason for calling the fish ‘graceful’ except that we thought it was a nice name. The term could very well apply to most grenadiers, as their long tapering tail lends to a graceful swimming motion” (Tomio Iwamoto, pers. comm.)

Coelorinchus chilensis Gilbert & Thompson 1916    ensis, suffix denoting place: off Lota, Chile, type locality

Coelorinchus cingulatus Gilbert & Hubbs 1920    banded, referring to barred markings on posterior part of body

Coelorinchus commutabilis Smith & Radcliffe 1912    variable, referring to infraspecific variability in the form, length and scaling of the snout, falling “quite readily into one of several groups, each of which, had it been found alone in a separate locality, would have been regarded without doubt as representing a distinct species” (the five forms are now recognized as four species)

Coelorinchus cookianus McCann & McKnight 1980    anus, belonging to: patronym not identified, probably in honor of James Cook (1728-1779), British explorer, navigator, cartographer and naval captain, whose 1769 arrival in New Zealand (where this species occurs) marked the beginning of ichthyology and scientific fish collecting in that country

Coelorinchus cylindricus Iwamoto & Merrett 1997    referring to its long, cylindrical body

Coelorinchus denticulatus Regan 1921    small-toothed, presumably referring to “spinules” on scales

Coelorinchus divergens Okamura & Yatou 1984    referring to “diverging spinous carinae of scales on the top of the head”

Coelorinchus dorsalis Gilbert & Hubbs 1920    referring to its high dorsal fin                  

Coelorinchus doryssus Gilbert 1905    spear-bearer, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to more slender snout compared to the similar C. aratrum 

Coelorinchus fasciatus (Günther 1878)    banded, referring to broad irregular blackish bands across the back

Coelorinchus flabellispinis (Alcock 1894)    flabellum, fan; spinis, spine, probably referring to 3-8 “strong widely radiating spiniferous ribs” on scales of head and “usually eight similar great spiniferous ribs, the radiate arrangement of which, though very distinct, is not quite so marked” on body and tail [initially spelled flabellispinnis, which would mean “fanned fin,” presumably a printer’s error]

Coelorinchus formosanus Okamura 1963    anus, belonging to: Formosa (Taiwan), referring to type locality (also occurs in waters off Japan and Korea)    

Coelorinchus fuscigulus Iwamoto, Ho & Shao 2009    fuscus, dark or swarthy; gula, throat, referring to blackish branchiostegal membranes

Coelorinchus gaesorhynchus Iwamoto & Williams 1999    gaison, spear or javelin; rhynchos, snout, referring to “notably long, sharp snout”

Coelorinchus geronimo Marshall & Iwamoto 1973   named for the U.S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries (now the National Marine Fisheries Service) research vessel Geronimo, which conducted fishery and oceanographic investigations in the tropical Atlantic Ocean (1663-1970) and which made the largest collection of grenadiers from the Gulf of Guinea that Iwamoto examined (Tomio Iwamoto, pers. comm.), although it should be noted that holotype of this species was collected by its sister ship, Undaunted

Coelorinchus gilberti Jordan & Hubbs 1925    in honor of ichthyologist, fisheries biologist and Jordan’s Stanford University colleague Charles H. Gilbert (1859-1928), who described many gadiform species, often with Carl L. Hubbs

Coelorinchus gladius Gilbert & Cramer 1897    sword, presumably referring to very long snout in adults, “narrowed anteriorly, its tip produced as a long, strong, horny spine”

Coelorinchus goobala Iwamoto & Williams 1999    Bardi (Indigenous Australian) word for star, referring to spinules on scales of median nasal ridge, which are, as in C. asteroides, arranged in rows radiating from a central point

Coelorinchus gormani Iwamoto & Graham 2008    in honor of fishery scientist Terry Gorman, who pioneered deepwater fishery research in the 1970s and 1980s with the New South Wales FRV [Fisheries Research Vessel] Kapala; it was from collections made during this research that the extent of the southeast Australian grenadier fauna came to the attention of the authors

Coelorinchus hexafasciatus Okamura 1982    hexa-, six; fasciatus, banded, referring to 6-7 wide crossbands on body

Coelorinchus hige Matsubara 1943    Japanese word for beard or mustache and for members of the genus, probably referring to their chin barbel

Coelorinchus hoangi Iwamoto & Graham 2008    in honor of friend and patron Tuan Hoang, M.D., for his “long and enthusiastic support” of ichthyology at the California Academy of Sciences (where Iwamoto is Curator of Ichthyology, Emeritus)

Coelorinchus horribilis McMillan & Paulin 1993    dreadful, referring to its “unaesthetic” coloration

Coelorinchus hubbsi Matsubara 1936    patronym not identified but almost certainly in honor of ichthyologist Carl L. Hubbs (1894-1979), who co-authored major contributions to macrouroid taxonomy in 1916 and 1920

Coelorinchus immaculatus Sazonov & Iwamoto 1992    im-, not; maculosus, spotted, referring to lack of distinctive color pattern, in contrast to two other grenadiers from the Nazca and Sala y Gomez ridges, C. spilonotus and C. multifasciatus, which have prominent blotches on their bodies

Coelorinchus infuscus McMillan & Paulin 1993    dusky, referring to its coloration

Coelorinchus innotabilis McCulloch 1907    im-, not; notabilis, remarkable or notable; McCulloch noted “it is impossible to be quite certain of its determination” without more specimens for study

Coelorinchus japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846)    Japanese, originally known from bays in ¯Omura and Shimabara, Japan (but occurring throughout Indo-West Pacific)

Coelorinchus jordani Smith & Pope 1906    in honor of David Starr Jordan (1851-1931), for his “prolific studies of the Japanese fish fauna”

Coelorinchus kaiyomaru Arai & Iwamoto 1979    named for the research vessel Kaiyo Maru of the Japanese Fisheries Agency, from which type was collected                    

Coelorinchus kamoharai Matsubara 1943    patronym not identified, presumably in honor of ichthyologist Toshiji Kamohara (1901-1972), Kochi University, who described Spicomacrurus kuronumai in 1938

Coelorinchus karrerae Trunov 1984    in honor of German ichthyologist Christine Karrer, who first drew attention to this species among fishes collected by August Brauer during the Valdivia Expedition (1888-1899) to subantarctic seas

Coelorinchus kermadecus Jordan & Gilbert 1904    acus, belonging to: Kermadec Islands, southwestern Pacific, type locality

Coelorinchus kishinouyei Jordan & Snyder 1900    in honor of Kamakichi Kishinouye (1867-1929), head of the Imperial Fisheries Bureau of Japan, who gave Jordan a number of gobies and other small Japanese fishes for study

Coelorinchus labiatus (Köhler 1896)    lipped, referring to “two very accentuated bulges” (translation) on upper lip, which Köhler did not see in drawings of the closely related C. japonicus and C. parallelus

Coelorinchus lasti Iwamoto & Williams 1999    in honor of Peter R. Last, CSIRO Marine & Atmospheric Research, for his contributions to Australian ichthyology

Coelorinchus leptorhinus Chiou, Shao & Iwamoto 2004    leptos, slender; rhinos, nose, referring to its sharply pointed snout

Coelorinchus longicephalus Okamura 1982    longus, long; cephalus, referring to longer head and snout compared to congeners in the C. tokiensis species group

Coelorinchus longissimus Matsubara 1943    longest, allusion not explained nor evident (it certainly is not the longest among C. kamoharai and C. vermicularis, described in the same paper, although luminous organ in front of anus may be longer)

Coelorinchus macrochir (Günther 1877)    macro-, long or large; cheiros, hand, referring to “remarkably long” pectoral fin, extending to origin of second dorsal fin

Coelorinchus macrolepis Gilbert & Hubbs 1920    macro-, long or large; lepis, scale, referring to its large scales, larger than other species in the C. notatus group

\Coelorinchus macrorhynchus Smith & Radcliffe 1912    macro-, long or large; rhynchus, snout, more than twice as long as orbit

Coelorinchus maculatus Gilbert & Hubbs 1920    spotted, referring to large blackish spot located just above and behind pectoral fin

Coelorinchus marinii Hubbs 1934    in honor of Argentine ichthyologist Tomás L. Marini, who gave type specimen to Hubbs and allowed him to describe it

Coelorinchus matamua (McCann & McKnight 1980)    a Maori word for this New Zealand fish, meaning first, high, exalted or firstborn, allusion not explained nor evident

Coelorinchus matsubarai Okamura 1982    in honor of the late Kiyomatsu Matsubara (1907-1968), ichthyologist, Imperial Fisheries Institute (Tokyo)

Coelorinchus maurofasciatus McMillan & Paulin 1993    mauro-, dark; fasciatus, banded, referring to grayish-brown to black saddle marks

Coelorinchus mayiae Iwamoto & Williams 1999    from the Australian Yindjibarndi language, mayi, meaning younger sister, referring to putative sister-species relationship with C. argentatus

Coelorinchus mediterraneus Iwamoto & Ungaro 2002    named after the Mediterranean Sea, where it is endemic

Coelorinchus melanobranchus Iwamoto & Merrett 1997    melanos, black; branchus, gill, referring to black blotch on branchiostegal membrane

Coelorinchus melanosagmatus Iwamoto & Anderson 1999   melanos, black; sagmatus, saddle, referring to dark saddle markings on body

Coelorinchus mirus McCulloch 1926    weird or wonderful, allusion not explained nor evident

Coelorinchus multifasciatus Sazonov & Iwamoto 1992    multi-, many; fasciatus, banded, referring to its “distinctive” color pattern

Coelorinchus multispinulosus Katayama 1942    multi-, many; spinulosus, diminutive of spinosus, thorn, referring to scales armed with numerous small spinules in a quincunx order as in C. quincunciatus

Coelorinchus mycterismus McMillan & Paulin 1993    turned-up nose, referring to its distinctive snout

Coelorinchus mystax McMillan & Paulin 1993    mustache, referring to well-developed papillae on lips

Coelorinchus nazcaensis Sazonov & Iwamoto 1992    ensis, suffix denoting place: Nazca Ridge, southeastern Pacific, type locality

Coelorinchus notatus Smith & Radcliffe 1912    marked, referring to a large circular dark brown area extending from pectoral base upward to lateral line and/or a broad saddle of similar color extending across back behind origin of second dorsal                             

Coelorinchus obscuratus McMillan & Iwamoto 2009   darkened or obscured, referring to its dark and dusky coloration

Coelorinchus occa (Goode & Bean 1885)    according to Goode & Bean (1896): a harrow, referring to its rough scales, each one bearing ~5 large spines and many smaller ones

Coelorinchus okamurai Nakayama & Endo 2017    in honor of the late Osamu Okamura (Kochi University), who collected type in 1972

Coelorinchus oliverianus Phillipps 1927    anus, belonging to: Walter Reginald Brook Oliver (1883-1957), naturalist and museum coordinator, who received type specimens from fishermen and gave them to the New Zealand Dominion Museum

Coelorinchus osipullus McMillan & Iwamoto 2009    os, mouth; pullus, dusky or dark-colored, referring to its dark gums

Coelorinchus parallelus (Günther 1877)    referring to “nearly parallel” arrangement of 5-7 “spiny ridges” on scales

Coelorinchus pardus Iwamoto & Williams 1999    leopard, referring to its leopard-like spots

Coelorinchus parvifasciatus McMillan & Paulin 1993    parvus, small; fasciatus, banded, referring to “short faint banded color pattern”

Coelorinchus platorhynchus Smith & Radcliffe 1912    platy, broad; rhynchus, snout, described as “short, broad”

Coelorinchus polli Marshall & Iwamoto 1973    in honor of Belgian ichthyologist Max Poll (1908-1991), who noted this species in 1953 but did not describe it

Coelorinchus productus Gilbert & Hubbs 1916    produced, presumably referring to longer snout compared to the closely related C. anatirostris

Coelorinchus pseudoparallelus Trunov 1983    pseudo-, false, i.e., although similar to C. parallelus in form, and position of ctenii on scales of trunk, such an appearance is false

Coelorinchus quadricristatus (Alcock 1891)    quadri-, four; cristatus, crested, referring to two “strongly related ridges” traversing both sides of posterior half of head, comprising “either bony crests or the modified spines of scales that are indetachably adherent to the bones beneath”

Coelorinchus quincunciatus Gilbert & Hubbs 1920    quincunx, a geometric pattern consisting of five coplanar points, referring to arrangement of spinules on scales

Coelorinchus radcliffei Gilbert & Hubbs 1920    in honor of ichthyologist-malacologist Lewis Radcliffe (1880-1950), scientific assistant for the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries, who, with Hugh M. Smith, described many new macrouroid species obtained during the Philippine cruise of the fisheries steamer Albatross

Coelorinchus scaphopsis (Gilbert 1890)    scapho-, shovel; opsis, face, presumably referring to its flattened snout

Coelorinchus semaphoreus Iwamoto & Merrett 1997    sema-, sign; phoreus, bearer, referring to “boldly marked” first dorsal fin

Coelorinchus sereti Iwamoto & Merrett 1997    in honor of Bernard Séret, ORSTOM (Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique d’Outre-Mer), for his studies of deep-sea fishes, for collecting deep-sea fishes off New Caledonia, and for making grenadiers from these collections available to the authors

Coelorinchus sexradiatus Gilbert & Hubbs 1920    sex, six; radiatus, rayed, referring to six ventral-fin rays

Coelorinchus shcherbachevi Iwamoto & Merrett 1997    in honor of ichthyologist Yuri Nikolayevich Shcherbachev (Institute of Oceanology, Academy of Sciences of the USSR), “friend, colleague, and fellow student of grenadiers”

Coelorinchus simorhynchus Iwamoto & Anderson 1994    simus, snub-nosed; rhynchus, snout, referring to its “notably short and blunt” snout

Coelorinchus smithi Gilbert & Hubbs 1920    in honor of ichthyologist Hugh M. Smith (1865-1941), then U. S. Commissioner of Fisheries, who made the entire collection fishes obtained by Philippine cruise of the fisheries steamer Albatross available to the authors

Coelorinchus sparsilepis Okamura & Yatou 1984    sparsi, sparse; lepis, scale, referring to scales on underside of head, “small and sparse, separated from each other”

Coelorinchus spathulatus McMillan & Paulin 1993    broad blade (i.e., spatula), referring to its broad, flattened snout

Coelorinchus spilonotus Sazonov & Iwamoto 1992    spilos, spot; notos, back, referring to two prominent saddle marking

Coelorinchus spinifer Gilbert & Hubbs 1920    spina, thorn; fero, to bear, referring to the “relatively immense spine borne on each scale”

Coelorinchus supernasutus McMillan & Paulin 1993    super, super; nasutus, nosed, referring to its “extremely large” snout

Coelorinchus thompsoni Gilbert & Hubbs 1920    in honor of fishery biologist William Francis Thompson (1888-1965), University of Washington (Seattle, USA), for his “ichthyological investigations”

Coelorinchus thurla Iwamoto & Williams 1999    Yindjibamdi (Indigenous Australian) word meaning eye, referring to characteristic shoulder spot and to the name of its sister species, C. argus (see above)

Coelorinchus tokiensis (Steindachner & Döderlein 1887)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Tokyo, Japan, type locality (but occurs in Western North Pacific and East China Sea)

Coelorinchus trachycarus Iwamoto, McMillan & Shcherbachev 1999    trachys, rough; kara, head, referring to “bristly spinulation” on ridges of the head, “more prickly” than other congeners

Coelorinchus triocellatus Gilbert & Hubbs 1920    tri-, three; ocellatus, having little eyes, referring to three ocellated markings on body

Coelorinchus trunovi Iwamoto & Anderson 1994    in honor of Russian colleague Ivan Andreevich Trunov (1936-2005), Atlantic Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography, for his important contributions to the study of deep-sea fishes of the South Atlantic

Coelorinchus velifer Gilbert & Hubbs 1920    velum, sail; fero, to bear, referring to high dorsal fin

Coelorinchus ventrilux Marshall & Iwamoto 1973    ventris, ventral; lux, light, referring to “large and lenticular” luminous organ, which “lies in a shallow fossa [groove] in the rear half of the chest”

Coelorinchus vityazae Iwamoto, Shcherbachev & Marquardt 2004    in honor of the research vessel Vityaz (also spelled Vitiaz), from which many of the type specimens were collected

Coelorinchus weberi Gilbert & Hubbs 1920    in honor of ichthyologist Max Weber (1852-1937), for this work on the fishes of the East Indian region

Coelorinchus yurii Iwamoto, Golani, Baranes & Goren 2006    in honor of ichthyologist Yuri Nikolayevich Shcherbachev (Institute of Oceanology, Academy of Sciences of the USSR), who initially recognized this species as new and planned to describe it with Iwamoto                                  

Coryphaenoides Gunnerus 1765    oides, having the form of: referring to C. rupestris, described has having a “blunt snout, a beautiful silver color, and several [other] characters” that “can be compared with the Dorado-like fishes (Coryphaenae)” (translation), i.e., dolphinfishes, genus Coryphaena

Subgenus Coryphaenoides

Coryphaenoides acrolepis (Bean 1884)    etymology not explained, perhaps acro-, top, and lepis, scale, referring to 7-8 rows of scales above lateral line, or acer, sharp, referring to its rough scales (although this feature is not mentioned)

Coryphaenoides aequatoris (Smith & Radcliffe 1912)    equatorial, referring to type locality, Gulf of Tomini, Sulawesi, Indonesia, just eight minutes south of Equator

Coryphaenoides alateralis Marshall & Iwamoto 1973    a-, without; lateralis, of the side, referring to absence of grooved lateral-line scales except for one or two scales at anteriormost end of the line

Coryphaenoides altipinnis Günther 1877    altus, high; pinnis, fin, presumably referring to “considerably produced” second dorsal-fin spine [sometimes misspelled altipennis]

Coryphaenoides anguliceps (Garman 1899)    angulus, angular; ceps, head, presumably referring to “wide, shovel-shaped” snout, “pointed and bearing three prominent angles at the end”

Coryphaenoides ariommus Gilbert & Thompson 1916    ari-, large; omma, eye; although eye size is not mentioned in description, they do appear to be large in accompanying illustration

Coryphaenoides asper Günther 1877    rough, presumably referring to “five radiating series of strong and low spines” on scales

Coryphaenoides asprellus (Smith & Radcliffe 1912)    diminutive of asper, rough, perhaps referring to “exposed portion of each scale armed with about 13 subparallel rows of rather strong spinules”; however, Gilbert & Hubbs (1920) indicate that name is a diminutive of C. asper

Coryphaenoides boops (Garman 1899)    bo, ox; ops, eye, referring to its large eye, longer than the snout

Coryphaenoides bucephalus (Garman 1899)    bous, ox; cephalus, head, presumably referring to its “rather short and broad” head

Coryphaenoides bulbiceps (Garman 1899)    bulbus, a swelling; ceps, head, referring to its “massive, rounded” head

Coryphaenoides camurus (Smith & Radcliffe 1912)    crooked, allusion not explained; Gilbert & Hubbs (1920) say it refers to its “peculiar physiognomy”

Coryphaenoides capito (Garman 1899)    large head, described as “large, two ninths of the total length, three fourths as wide as high, high and arched from the nape to the dorsal, descending from the nape to the end of the snout”

Coryphaenoides carminifer (Garman 1899)    carmino, a comb (with wire bristles) for carding wool; fero, to bear, referring to longitudinal series of spines on each scale, which create a “pilose grayish brown appearance”

Coryphaenoides castaneus Shcherbachev & Iwamoto 1995    chestnut, referring to its overall “dark chocolate brown” ground color

Coryphaenoides cinereus (Gilbert 1896)    ash-colored, referring to “uniform light-grayish” coloration on body and fins (with exception of blackish pectorals and ventrals)

Coryphaenoides delsolari Chirichigno F. & Iwamoto 1977    in honor of Enrique del Solar (1911-1990), for his numerous contributions to Peruvian ichthyology

Coryphaenoides dossenus McMillan 1999    Latin for humpback, referring to prominent bulge in predorsal area in large females

Coryphaenoides dubius (Smith & Radcliffe 1912)    doubtful or uncertain, allusion not explained; Gilbert & Hubbs (1920) speculate that the name reflects its “supposed doubtful status or relationships”

Coryphaenoides filamentosus Okamura 1970    with filaments, presumably referring to one of more of the following: filamentous tail, gradually tapering to a point; short filamentous tip on second dorsal-fin spine; outer pectoral-fin ray produced into a long filament

Coryphaenoides filifer (Gilbert 1896)    filum, thread; fero, to bear, referring to second spine of dorsal fin, “extremely long and slender,” terminating in a “long membranous filament”

Coryphaenoides grahami Iwamoto & Shcherbachev 1991    in honor of Ken Graham, New South Wales State Fishery Agency, who collected numerous valuable fish specimens, including four paratypes of this species

Coryphaenoides guentheri (Vaillant 1888)    in honor of ichthyologist-herpetologist Albert Günther (1830-1914), British Museum (Natural History), who described Macrourus holotrachys in 1878, with which this species had initially been confused 

Coryphaenoides hextii (Alcock 1890)    according to Alcock (1902), in honor of Rear-Admiral John Hext (1842-1924), Director of the Royal Indian Marine, for his generous support of the HMS Investigator expedition to the Arabian Sea, during which type was collected

Coryphaenoides hoskynii (Alcock 1890)    in honor of R. F. Hoskyn (d. 1892), Commander of the HMS Investigator, from which type was collected

Coryphaenoides longicirrhus (Gilbert 1905)    longus, long; cirrhus, curl or tendril, allusion not explained, possibly referring to well-developed chin barbel

Coryphaenoides macrolophus (Alcock 1889)    macro-, long or large; lophus, crest, presumably referring to second dorsal-fin spine, “produced into a long filament … about half the total length of the fish”

Coryphaenoides marginatus Steindachner & Döderlein 1887    margined, presumably referring to blackish edge on fins

Coryphaenoides marshalli Iwamoto 1970    in honor of ichthyologist Norman Bertram Marshall (1915-1996), British Museum (Natural History), for his “numerous and valuable contributions to the knowledge of deep-sea fishes”

Coryphaenoides mexicanus (Parr 1946)    Mexican, presumably referring to its occurrence in the Gulf of Mexico

Coryphaenoides microps (Smith & Radcliffe 1912)   micro-, small; ops, eye, referring to “much smaller” eye compared to the similar C. macrolophus

Coryphaenoides microstomus McMillan 1999    micro-, small; stomus, mouth, referring to small mouth, the upper jaw extending back to about anterior third of orbit, 27-30% of head length

Coryphaenoides myersi Iwamoto & Sazonov 1988    in honor of the late George S. Myers (1905-1985), “distinguished” ichthyologist and former Stanford University professor, who collected type in 1938

Coryphaenoides nasutus Günther 1877    long-nosed, referring to conical snout, “with a projecting barb in the middle,” overhanging the mouth

Coryphaenoides oreinos Iwamoto & Sazonov 1988    from the mountains or mountain-dwelling, referring to its habitat on seamounts and guyots of the eastern Pacific

Coryphaenoides orthogrammus (Smith & Radcliffe 1912)    ortho-, straight; gramme, line, allusion not explained; Gilbert & Hubbs (1920) speculate that name refers to “strongly marked line formed by the suborbital ridge,” but we doubt this interpretation since Smith & Radcliffe described the suborbital ridge as “wavy”

Coryphaenoides paramarshalli Merrett 1983    para-, near, referring to its very close relationship to C. marshalli; indeed, two of the paratypes of the former species are incorporated among the paratypes of the latter

Coryphaenoides rudis Günther 1878    rough, referring to scales “equally rough over the whole of their surface, the spinelets being subequal in size, densely packed, and not arranged in series”

Coryphaenoides rupestris Gunnerus 1765    living among rocks, derived from Norwegian vernacular for this and similar species, berg-laks, i.e., rock salmon, presumably referring to its rocky habitat [see Macrourus berglax, below]

Coryphaenoides semiscaber Gilbert & Hubbs 1920    semi-, partial; scaber, rough, referring to strong spinules on basal half of second dorsal-fin spine

Coryphaenoides sibogae Weber & de Beaufort 1929    of the ship Siboga and Indonesian expedition (1898-1899) of same name, during which type was collected

Coryphaenoides soyoae Nakayama & Endo 2016    of Soyo-maru, research vessel of the National Research Institute of Fisheries Science (Japan), from which type was collected

Coryphaenoides thelestomus Maul 1951    thele, nipple; stomus, mouth, referring to its thick, fleshly and “conspiculously papillous” lips

Coryphaenoides tydemani (Weber 1913)    in honor of Lieut. Gustaaf Frederik Tydeman (1858-1939), commander (and hydrographer) of the ship Siboga and Indonesian expedition (1898-1899) of same name, during which type was collected

Coryphaenoides woodmasoni (Alcock 1890)    in honor of British zoologist James Wood-Mason (1846-1893), Indian Museum (Calcutta), who collaborated with Alcock in studying the collections of the HMS Investigator, from which type was collected

Coryphaenoides zaniophorus (Vaillant 1888)    xanion, a comb for carding wool; phoros, to have or bear, referring to short, stout spinules on scales of larger specimens, arranged in V-shaped rows, resembling the wire bristles on wool cards (or combs), i.e., cardiform (a term usually applied to teeth)

Subgenus Bogoslovius Jordan & Evermann 1898    ius, adjectival suffix: named for St. John Bogoslof, a volcanic island in the Bering Sea, near where type species, B. clarki (=C. longifilis) was dredged

Coryphaenoides longifilis Günther 1877    longus, long; filum, thread, referring to outer ventral-fin ray “produced into an exceedingly long stiff filament”

Subgenus Chalinura Goode & Bean 1883    chalinos, bridle; oura, tail; according to Goode & Bean (1896), referring to strap-like tail of C. simula (=C. leptolepis)                         

Coryphaenoides brevibarbis (Goode & Bean 1896)    brevis, short; barbis, barbel, referring to short chin barbel (8 mm)

Coryphaenoides fernandezianus (Günther 1887)    ianus, belonging to: south of Juan Fernández Islands, type locality

Coryphaenoides leptolepis Günther 1877    leptos, thin; lepis, scale, referring to its “thin and deciduous” scales

Coryphaenoides liocephalus (Günther 1887)    leios, smooth; cephalus, head, referring to “quite smooth” scales on head

Coryphaenoides mcmillani Iwamoto & Shcherbachev 1991    in honor of Peter McMillan, Fishery Research Agency (Wellington, New Zealand), who independently recognized this species as new and was planning to describe it, but kindly deferred to the current authors

Coryphaenoides mediterraneus (Giglioli 1893)    referring to its occurrence in the Mediterranean Sea (also occurs in the North Atlantic)

Coryphaenoides murrayi Günther 1878    in honor of John Murray (1841-1914, later the founder of modern oceanography), of the HMS Challenger, which secured type

Coryphaenoides profundicolus (Nybelin 1957)    profundus, deep; –cola, dweller or inhabitant; all known specimens at the time captured between 4000-5000 m, “which indicates its being a pronounced deep-sea bottom fish”

Coryphaenoides serrulatus serrulatus Günther 1878    diminutive of serra, saw, i.e, small saw-toothed, referring to second dorsal spine, “finely and closely serrate in front”

Coryphaenoides serrulatus oceanus Iwamoto & Shcherbachev 1991    referring to its oceanic distribution, compared with the more continental distribution of the nominate subspecies

Coryphaenoides striaturus Barnard 1925    “the fluting on a column” (according to Barnard), referring to “more numerous flutings [i.e., grooves] on scales” compared to C. leptolepis

Coryphaenoides subserrulatus Makushok 1976    sub-, somewhat, referring to its “supposed relationship” (translation) with C. serrulatus

Subgenus Lionurus Günther 1887    leios, smooth, referring to its smooth scales; –urus, proposed as a subgenus of Macrourus

Coryphaenoides carapinus Goode & Bean 1883    inus, adjectival suffix: allusion not explained, presumably referring to its resemblance to the pearlfish genus Carapus (Carapidae)

Coryphaenoides filicauda Günther 1878    filum, thread; cauda, tail, referring to how tail is “prolonged into a long filament”

Subgenus Nematonurus Günther 1887    nemato-, thread, presumably referring to filamentous outer ventral-fin ray; –urus, proposed as a subgenus of Macorurus

Coryphaenoides affinis Günther 1878    related, presumably referring to its similarity and/or close relationship to C. variabilis (=armatus), both described by Günther as having five spiny ridges on the scales

Coryphaenoides armatus (Hector 1875)   armed with a weapon, presumably referring to spinous second ray (or spine) of first dorsal fin, “enveloped in a sheath that is prolonged as a filament”

Coryphaenoides ferrieri (Regan 1913)   in honor of James G. Ferrier, Secretary of the Scotia Committee; Scotia is ship from which type was collected during the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition (1902-1904)

Coryphaenoides lecointei (Dollo 1900)   in honor of Lieut. Georges Lecointe (1869-1929), second-in-command of the Belgian Antarctic Expedition, during which type was collected

Coryphaenoides yaquinae Iwamoto & Stein 1974   of the research vessel Yaquina, Oregon State University, from which type was collected (and specimens of other species studied by the authors)                          

Incertae sedis

Coryphaenoides gypsochilus Iwamoto & McCosker 2001    gypso, chalky (like gypsum); cheilus, lip, referring to prominent chalk-colored lips in life

Cynomacrurus Dollo 1909    cyno-, dog, referring to its “large mandibular fangs” (translation); macrurus, a macrourid fish, from Macrourus, type genus of family                                   

Cynomacrurus piriei Dollo 1909    in honor of James Hunter Harvey Pirie (1878-1965), physician and geologist of the Scotia expedition to the Antarctic, during which type was collected

Echinomacrurus Roule 1916    echinos, spiny, referring to slender, erect spinules on scales; macrurus, a macrourid fish, from Macrourus, type genus of family

Echinomacrurus mollis Roule 1916    soft, referring to its large, flaccid head (swollen by expansive cephalic lateral-line canals)

Haplomacrourus Trunov 1980    haplos, simple or primitive, referring to primitive (cycloid) scales on head and abdomen; Macrourus, type genus of family

Haplomacrourus nudirostris Trunov 1980    nudus, bare or naked; rostris, snout, referring to scaleless snout

Hymenocephalus Giglioli 1884    hymen, membrane; cephalus, head, referring to membrane-like head covering of H. italicus

Hymenocephalus aeger Gilbert & Hubbs 1920    feeble, i.e., lacking strength of character, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to how it intergrades with H. torvus, which, along with H. aeger, was considered a subspecies of H. striatissimus

Hymenocephalus antraeus Gilbert & Cramer 1897    full of caves or hollows, presumably referring to “greatly developed” cavities on head

Hymenocephalus aterrimus Gilbert 1905    very black, referring to uniform black coloration

Hymenocephalus barbatulus Gilbert & Hubbs 1920    diminutive of barbatus, bearded, referring to its short barbel, shorter than pupil

Hymenocephalus billsam Marshall & Iwamoto 1973    named for ichthyologists William (Bill) H. Longley (1881-1937) and Samuel (Sam) F. Hildebrand (1883-1949), who noted the existence of this species in 1941 but did not describe it [Iwamoto later amended the spelling to “billsamorum” believing it to be the correct grammatical ending for a patronym that honors two men, but since the original spelling did not have the the usual patronymic “i”, we treat it as a noun in apposition that does not require amendment]

Hymenocephalus fuscus McMillan & Iwamoto 2014    swarthy, referring to overall dark coloration

Hymenocephalus grimaldii Weber 1913    patronym not identified, probably in honor of Albert Honoré Charles Grimaldi (1848-1922), Albert I, Prince of Monaco, who devoted much of his life to the study of oceanography, and who published a series of papers on the instruments of deep-sea exploration, which Weber cited in his 1902 introductory Siboga expedition report [see Sphagemacrurus richardi, below]

Hymenocephalus hachijoensis Okamura 1970    ensis, suffix denoting place: off Hachijo Island, Japan, type locality

Hymenocephalus heterolepis (Alcock 1889)    heteros, different; lepis, scales, referring to large, smooth scales immediately behind head, and small, spiny scales on rest of body

Hymenocephalus italicus Giglioli 1884    Italian, referring to type locality, Genoa, Italy, Mediterranean Sea

Hymenocephalus iwamotoi Schwarzhans 2014    in honor of Tomio Iwamoto, California Academy of Sciences, for his “outstanding” contribution to the knowledge of the family Macrouridae; he was also the first ichthyologist to study this species, then identified as Hymenocephalus sp.

Hymenocephalus lethonemus Jordan & Gilbert 1904    lethos, forgetting; nema, thread, referring to lack of mandibular barbel

Hymenocephalus longibarbis (Günther 1887)    longus, long; barbis, barbel, referring to long barbel, 2/3 as long as head

Hymenocephalus longiceps Smith & Radcliffe 1912    longus, long; ceps, head, presumably referring to its comparatively long, slender head

Hymenocephalus longipes Smith & Radcliffe 1912    longus, long; pes, foot, referring to its “produced” (extended) ventral-fin rays

Hymenocephalus maculicaudus McMillan & Iwamoto 2014    maculis, spot; cauda, tail, referring to distinctive line of melanophores along mid-lateral line anteriorly on the tail

Hymenocephalus megalops Iwamoto & Merrett 1997    mega-, great; ops, eye, referring to its notably large eyes

Hymenocephalus nascens Gilbert & Hubbs 1920    nascent or being born, “applied to this form to designate it as an incipient species” very close to but not intergrading with H. lethonemus

Hymenocephalus neglectissimus Sazonov & Iwamoto 1992    most neglected or unnoticed, referring to its late discovery, first collected with H. semipellucidus in 1983, but not recognized as distinct from that species until 1990

Hymenocephalus nesaeae Merrett & Iwamoto 2000    from the Greek Nesaie, one of the Nereids, a sea nymph; no particular allusion or meaning, simply “a nice name that might have some bearing on the creature” (Tomio Iwamoto, pers. comm.)

Hymenocephalus papyraceus Jordan & Gilbert 1904    papery, “crests on head very high, thin, and papery, bridged over by excessively delicate membrane” 

Hymenocephalus punt Schwarzhans 2014    named after the mythic kingdom of Punt, thought to have been historically located in northern Somalia, off the shores of which this species occurs (also occurs off Yemen and southern Oman)    

Hymenocephalus sazonovi Schwarzhans 2014    in memory of Yuri I. Sazonov, curator of ichthyology, Zoological Museum, Moscow State University, for his many contributions to the knowledge of the family Macrouridae; he was also the first to examine the type specimens (with Tomio Iwamoto) in 1992

Hymenocephalus semipellucidus Sazonov & Iwamoto 1992    semi-, half; pellucidus, clear or transparent, referring to partially transparent head covering and translucent caudal region (where vertebra can be seen in fresh specimens)

Hymenocephalus striatissimus Jordan & Gilbert 1904    very striated, referring to “extension of striated area across the isthmus and anterior part of the breast, and by an extension downward in front of each of the ventral fins, forming a pair of conspicuous silvery spots, on which the fine lines are more irregularly disposed”; the base of each ventral fin is “wholly surrounded by the striated area”

Hymenocephalus striatulus Gilbert 1905    narrowly striped, presumably referring to gular membrane with a “black median streak, from which diverge forward and outward a number of fine parallel black lines” and/or silvery streak along each side of isthmus, “crossed with very fine parallel hair lines of black, which can be made out only by the aid of a lens”

Hymenocephalus tenuis (Gilbert & Hubbs 1917)    slender, allusion not explained but almost certainly referring to its slender body

Hymenocephalus torvus Smith & Radcliffe 1912    staring, presumably referring to its large, circular eyes, the “orbital rims greatly expanded”

Hymenocephalus yamasakiorum Nakayama, Endo & Schwarzhans 2015    orum, commemorative suffix, plural: in honor of Yasuko Yamasaki and her family, who operate a fishing trawler in Tosa Bay (Japan) and adjacent waters, providing a large number of fish specimens to Kochi University

Hymenogadus Gilbert & Hubbs 1920    hymeno-, proposed as a subgenus of Hymenocephalus; gadus, a cod or gadiform fish

Hymenogadus gracilis (Gilbert & Hubbs 1920)    thin or slender, referring to its slender body form

Idiolophorhynchus Sazonov 1981    idio-, special; lophus, crest or ridge; rhynchus, snout, referring to “distinct crests on the head”

Idiolophorhynchus andriashevi Sazonov 1981    in honor of Soviet ichthyologist Anatoly Petrovich Andriashev (1910-2009)

Kumba Marshall 1973    anagram of the initials of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, whose research vessel Sarsia dredged the type species K. dentoni

Kumba calvifrons Iwamoto & Sazonov 1994    calvus, bald; frons, forehead, referring to naked (scaleless) snout and forehead

Kumba dentoni Marshall 1973    in honor of marine biologist Eric James Denton (1923-2007), for his “fine explorations in bathybiophysics”

Kumba gymnorhynchus Iwamoto & Sazonov 1994    gymnos, naked; rhynchus, snout, referring to scaleless snout

Kumba hebetata (Gilbert 1905)    blunted or dulled, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to “short, cuboid” head with “very short” snout

Kumba japonica (Matsubara 1943)    Japanese, referring to type locality at Kumano-Nada, Japan

Kumba maculisquama (Trunov 1981)    macula, spot; squama, scale, referring to “isolated ‘islets’ of scales” (translation) in front of lower margin of anterior nostrils and above upper margin of posterior nostrils

Kumba musorstom Merrett & Iwamoto 2000    named for the acronym MUSORSTOM, for a series of exploratory cruises to the Indo-West Pacific region jointly sponsored by the Institut français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération (ORSTOM) and the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle

Kumba punctulata Iwamoto & Sazonov 1994    diminutive of punctum, spot, i.e., dotted, referring to dense covering of melanophores on head                     

Kuronezumia Iwamoto 1974    kuroi, Japanese for black or dark, referring to “swarthy to dark brown” coloration of K. bubonis, proposed as a subgenus of Nezumia    

Kuronezumia bubonis (Iwamoto 1974)    tumor, referring to light organ “peculiarly enlarged into a bulbous, scaly, wartlike structure”

Kuronezumia leonis (Barnard 1925)    smooth, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to “small round scaleless fossa [groove]” in front of vent

Kuronezumia macronema (Smith & Radcliffe 1912)    macro-, long; nema, thread, referring to produced (extended) outer ventral-fin ray

Kuronezumia paepkei Shcherbachev, Sazonov & Iwamoto 1992    in honor of Hans-Joachim Paepke, curator of ichthyology, Berlin Museum of Natural History, for loaning the specimens that initiated the authors’ study

Kuronezumia pallida Sazonov & Iwamoto 1992    light or pale, referring to its pale coloration, contrasted with the dark-colored K. bubonis                    

Lepidorhynchus Richardson 1846    lepido-, scaled; rhynchus, snout, allusion not explained, possibly referring to thin bony crests on snout and interorbital area

Lepidorhynchus denticulatus Richardson 1846    denticulated, i.e., finely toothed or notched, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to “scales being armed on the exposed part of their disk by slender subulate or setaceous spines”

Lucigadus Gilbert & Hubbs 1920    lux, light, referring to possibility that L. lucifer has bioluminescent organs (it does); gadus, a cod or gadiform fish

Lucigadus acrolophus Iwamoto & Merrett 1997    crest or mountain ridge, referring to submarine elevations in and around New Caledonia, where it occurs

Lucigadus borealis Iwamoto & Okamoto 2015    northern, the most-northerly member of the genus

Lucigadus lucifer (Smith & Radcliffe 1912)    lux, light; fero, to bear, referring to possibility that two lens-like organs, one between ventral fins and the other immediately before anus, may be bioluminescent (they are)

Lucigadus microlepis (Günther 1878)    micro-, small; lepis, scale, referring to its small, cycloid scales, 13 in a transverse series between first dorsal fin and lateral line

Lucigadus nigromaculatus (McCulloch 1907)    nigro-, black; maculatus, spotted, referring to large round black spot on first dorsal fin

Lucigadus nigromarginatus (Smith & Radcliffe 1912)    nigro-, black; marginatus, margined, referring to black margin along anterior ventral- and anterior anal-fin rays

Lucigadus ori (Smith 1968)    named for ORI, the Oceanographic Research Institute (Durban, South Africa), whose research vessel David Davies collected type

Lucigadus potronus (Pequeño 1971)    latinization of potra, from the language of the Araucanian people of Chile, meaning hump or bulge, presumably referring to dorsal profile that steeply ascends to first dorsal spine then drops abruptly so that dorsal fin appears to be attached to posterior slope of a prominent hump

Lucigadus vittatus (Weber 1913)    banded, referring to broad dark bands on body

Macrosmia Merrett, Sazonov & Shcherbachev 1983    macro-, long or distant; osme, smell, referring to supposed sensory capability of highly developed olfactory organ of males

Macrosmia phalacra Merrett, Sazonov & Shcherbachev 1983   bald, referring to reduced squamation of the head

Macrourus Bloch 1786    macro-, long; urus, tail, referring to long, rat-like tail

Macrourus berglax Lacepède 1801    latinization of Norwegian vernacular for this and similar species, berg-laks, i.e., rock salmon; according to Lacepède, “from the connections [i.e., relationship] it seems to share with salmon … in the middle of the rocks [rocky habitat?] where they frequently rest” (translation) [see Coryphaenoides rupestris, above]

Macrourus caml McMillan, Iwamoto, Stewart & Smith 2012    named for the Census of Antarctic Marine Life (CAML, pronounced “camel”), carried out during the International Polar Year in 2008, when type was collected from the Ross Sea slope, Antarctica

Macrourus carinatus (Günther 1878)    keeled, referring to scales with a “very strong median keel”

Macrourus holotrachys Günther 1878    holo-, entire; trachys, rough, referring to each scale with a “median series of spinelets, and with two or more isolated spinelets besides,” and/or “irregular rough scales” covering top and sides of head

Macrourus whitsoni (Regan 1913)    in honor of T. B. Whitson, Accountant of the Scotia Committee; Scotia is ship from which type was collected during the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition (1902-1904)

Malacocephalus Günther 1862    malacos, soft; cephalus, head, presumably referring to head bones of M. laevis, described as “very thin and fragile”

Malacocephalus boretzi Sazonov 1985    in honor of L.A. Boretz (also spelled Borets), TINRO (Pacific Scientific Research Fisheries Centre), who collected type specimens and provided them for study

Malacocephalus laevis (Lowe 1843)    smooth, referring to its “glossly, sleek or apparently naked appearance, caused by the fineness and minuteness of its areolæ or scales”

Malacocephalus luzonensis Gilbert & Hubbs 1920    ensis, suffix denoting place: off western Luzon Island, Philippines, type locality

Malacocephalus occidentalis Goode & Bean 1885    western, presumably referring to occurrence in western Atlantic (type locality: off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, USA), but also occurs in eastern Atlantic

Malacocephalus okamurai Iwamoto & Arai 1987    in honor of Osamu Okamura (Kochi University), for his “important” contributions to the knowledge of the family Macrouridae                                   

Mataeocephalus Berg 1898    mataios, empty; cephalus, head, replacement name for Coelocephalus Gilbert & Cramer 1897, coelo-, hollow (preoccupied in Coleoptera), presumably referring to expanded mucous chambers in the head associated with the sensory lateralis system; these chambers may give the visual impression of a hollow or empty head

Subgenus Mataeocephalus

Mataeocephalus acipenserinus (Gilbert & Cramer 1897)    sturgeon-like, presumably referring to sturgeon-like snout, “much depressed, flat, thin, projecting horizontally much beyond the mouth”

Mataeocephalus adustus Smith & Radcliffe 1912    brown or swarthy, presumably referring to light brown color in alcohol

Mataeocephalus cristatus Sazonov, Shcherbachev & Iwamoto 2003    crested, referring to slightly enlarged middle row of spinules on most body scales

Mataeocephalus tenuicauda (Garman 1899)    tenuis, thin; caudatus, tailed, referring to “very slender” tail

Subgenus Hyomacrurus Gilbert & Hubbs 1920    hyo-, hog, presumably referring to fleshy lips of type species, M. hyostomus; Macrourus, type genus of family

Mataeocephalus hyostomus (Smith & Radcliffe 1912)    hyo-, hog; stoma, mouth, presumably referring to its “fleshy” lips

Mataeocephalus kotlyari Sazonov, Shcherbachev & Iwamoto 2003    in honor of colleague Alexander Kotlyar (b. 1950), P. P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, for his contributions to the knowledge of deep-sea fishes and his “untiring efforts” in collecting them, including specimens studied by the authors

Mesovagus Nakayama & Endo 2016    mesos, middle; vagus, a wanderer, referring to bathypelagic habitat of genus [replacement name for Mesobius Hubbs & Iwamoto 1977, preoccupied in centipedes; original name also referred to its bathypelagic habitat]

Mesovagus antipodum (Hubbs & Iwamoto 1977)    genitive of antipodum, “referring to persons dwelling at opposite points of the globe,” probably referring to New Zealand occurrence of type specimen and presumed distribution across the Southern Hemisphere

Mesovagus berryi (Hubbs & Iwamoto 1977)    in honor of marine biologist Frederick H. Berry (1927-2001), National Marine Fisheries Service, who first collected this species and brought it to Hubbs’ attention

Nezumia Jordan 1904    nezumi, Japanese for rat, referring to long, rat-like tail                          

Nezumia aequalis (Günther 1878)    equal, referring to how scales are “equally rough over the whole of their surface”

Nezumia africana (Iwamoto 1970)    African, known only from the Gulf of Guinea off Liberia

Nezumia aspidentata Iwamoto & Merrett 1997   asper, rough; dentatus, toothed, referring to prominent cardiform bands of teeth in the jaws

Nezumia atlantica (Parr 1946)    Atlantic, possibly referring to the Atlantis oceanographic station in the Gulf of Mexico, type locality

Nezumia bairdii (Goode & Bean 1877)    in honor of Spencer Fullerton Baird (1823-1887), Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Director of the U.S. National Museum, and U.S. Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries, the latter of which sponsored expedition that collected type

Nezumia brevibarbata (Barnard 1925)    brevis, short; barbatus, bearded, referring to shorter barbels compared to the similar N. brevirostris

Nezumia brevirostris (Alcock 1889)    brevis, short; rostris, snout, referring to its “conspicuously short” snout

Nezumia burragei (Gilbert 1905)    in honor of Lieut. G. H. Burrage, United States Navy, navigating and executive officer of the Albatross (which collected type), who greatly contributed to the success of the expedition

Nezumia cliveri Iwamoto & Merrett 1997    in honor of Clive D. Roberts (presumably Clive R.), Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa, who collected type (and many other grenadiers) and made them available for study

Nezumia coheni Iwamoto & Merrett 1997    in honor of Daniel M. Cohen, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, “esteemed colleague and fellow student of deep-sea fishes”

Nezumia condylura Jordan & Gilbert 1904    Condylura, genus of the Star-nosed Mole, presumably referring to this grenadier’s mole-like snout, which terminates in a “median and a pair of lateral tubercles bearing rosettes of short spines”

Nezumia convergens (Garman 1899)    convergent, referring to keel-like series of small sharp spines on scales, the outer series “somewhat convergent [coming closer together] backward to the stronger median series”

Nezumia cyrano Marshall & Iwamoto 1973    etymology not explained but almost certainly referring to Cyrano de Bergerac, main character in an 1897 comedy by Edmond Rostand, characterized by his large nose, alluding to its “relatively long” snout

Nezumia darus (Gilbert & Hubbs 1916)    latinization of dara, the “Japanese name of certain Macrouroid fishes”

Nezumia duodecim Iwamoto 1970    twelve, referring to usual number of pelvic-fin rays

Nezumia ectenes (Gilbert & Cramer 1897)    stretched, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to compressed body with “very slender” tail

Nezumia evides (Gilbert & Hubbs 1920)    pretty, described as a “pretty little species”

Nezumia holocentra (Gilbert & Cramer 1897)    holo-, entire; centrum, spine or point, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to “25 to 50 very long slender backwardly directed spinelets” on scales

Nezumia infranudis (Gilbert & Hubbs 1920)    infra-, below; nudis, bare, referring to scaleless undersurface of head

Nezumia investigatoris (Alcock 1889)   is, genitive singular of: HM Indian Marine Survey steamer Investigator, which collected type

Nezumia kamoharai Okamura 1970    patronym not identified, probably in honor of ichthyologist Toshiji Kamohara (1901-1972), Kochi University, who offered “pertinent criticism and helpful advice”

Nezumia kapala Iwamoto & Williams 1999    named for the former New South Wales Fisheries research vessel Kapala, from which type and many other grenadiers from the region were collected

Nezumia kensmithi Wilson 2001    in honor of Kenneth L. Smith, Jr., Scripps Institution of Oceanography, who has “contributed significantly to our knowledge of the ecology and behavior of deep-sea fishes, particularly macrourids, and to our general knowledge of the biology of Pacific Ocean seamounts, including Fieberling Guyot,” where this species occurs

Nezumia latirostrata (Garman 1899)    latus, wide; rostratus, beaked, referring to its wide snout, wider than the similar N. convergens

Nezumia leucoura Iwamoto & Williams 1999    leukos, white; oura, tail, referring to pale tail tip

Nezumia liolepis (Gilbert 1890)    leios, smooth; lepis, scale, referring to undeveloped spines on scales, only traces of which can be observed

Nezumia longebarbata (Roule & Angel 1933)    longus, long; barbatus, barbled, proposed as a subspecies of Lionorus (now Sphagemacrurus) pumiliceps, referring to its longer chin barbel

Nezumia loricata loricata (Garman 1899)    armored, referring to spiny scales, which “form an armature” on head and snout “quite as rough and heavy as on the body”

Nezumia loricata atomos Iwamoto 1979    Greek for indivisible or uncut, referring to terminal snout not divided into distinctly separated halves, unlike nominate form

Nezumia merretti Iwamoto & Williams 1999    in honor of friend and colleague Nigel R. Merrett (b. 1940), British Museum (Natural History), for his contributions to deep-sea biology

Nezumia micronychodon Iwamoto 1970    micro-, small; onyx, talon or claw; odon, tooth, referring to small, claw-like teeth

Nezumia milleri Iwamoto 1973    in honor of George C. Miller, National Marine Fisheries Service, whose collecting efforts off Angola provided specimens for Iwamoto, including type of this species

Nezumia namatahi McCann & McKnight 1980    nama tahi, a Maori phrase for this New Zealand fish, meaning “number one,” allusion not explained nor evident

Nezumia obliquata (Gilbert 1905)    oblique, referring to “snout terminating in a very spinous tubercle directed very obliquely upward”

Nezumia orbitalis (Garman 1899)    orbital, presumably referring to how posterior half of orbit appears “subcircular or deeper”

Nezumia parini Hubbs & Iwamoto 1977    in honor of “esteemed” Soviet colleague Nikolai Vasil’evich Parin (1932-2012), Russian Academy of Sciences, who also recognized this species as undescribed and “very generously” provided his specimens to the authors

Nezumia polylepis (Alcock 1889)    poly, many; lepis, scales, referring to small and therefore more numerous scales above lateral line in contrast to most of the species Alcock included in the genus Macrourus

Nezumia propinqua (Gilbert & Cramer 1897)    near, presumably referring to similarity to and/or close relationship with N. holocentra, described in the same paper

Nezumia proxima (Smith & Radcliffe 1912)    near, allusion not explained; according to Gilbert & Hubbs (1920), refers to “supposed close relationship” with Coryphaenoides nasutus, its presumed congener at the time

Nezumia pudens Gilbert & Thompson 1916    modest or bashful, allusion not explained nor evident

Nezumia pulchella (Pequeño 1971)    diminutive of pulcher, beautiful, “one of the most beautiful macrourids, both for its blue-purple color as it comes out of the sea, as well as for its lines, devoid of rough ridges, which are so common in these animals” (translation)

Nezumia sclerorhynchus (Valenciennes 1838)    sclero-, hard; rhynchus, snout, presumably referring to rough protuberance at end of conically projecting snout

Nezumia semiquincunciata (Alcock 1889)    semi-, partial; quincunx, a geometric pattern consisting of five coplanar points, allusion not explained, presumably referring in some way to arrangement of, or pattern formed by, “spinigerous imbricating scales” on body

Nezumia shinoharai Nakayama & Endo 2012    in honor of Gento Shinohara, National Museum of Nature and Science (Tokyo), for his “great” contributions to our knowledge of deep-sea fishes around Japan

Nezumia soela Iwamoto & Williams 1999    named for former CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) fisheries research vessel Soela, from which were collected many of the specimens the authors used in their study of western Australian grenadiers

Nezumia spinosa (Gilbert & Hubbs 1916)    spiny, referring to longer dorsal-fin spine and/or longer scale spinules compared to N. proxima

Nezumia stelgidolepis (Gilbert 1890)    stelgid, scraper; lepis, scale, referring to scales “thickly beset with spines”

Nezumia suilla Marshall & Iwamoto 1973    Latin for pork, allusion not explained; according to Tomio Iwamoto (pers. comm.), Marshall liked to call grenadiers “snoot nose,” presumably referring to their protruding snout and supposed feeding habit of rooting around along the deep-sea bottom the way a pig roots in mud

Nezumia tinro Sazonov 1985    named after TINRO, Pacific Scientific Research Fisheries Centre, which organized expedition that collected type

Nezumia tomiyamai (Okamura 1963)    in honor of Ichiro Tomiyama, Tokyo University, for his “kindness” in letting Okamura examine his “precious” collection

Nezumia umbracincta Iwamoto & Anderson 1994    umbra, shadow or dark; cinctum, belt or girdle, referring to broad dark band encircling body

Nezumia ventralis Hubbs & Iwamoto 1979    of or belonging to the belly, referring to well-developed ventral light organ

Nezumia wularnia Iwamoto & Williams 1999    from Yindjibarndi (Indigenous Australian) word meaning “from the west,” known only from off Western Australia, from Exmouth Plateau to west of Mandurah

Odontomacrurus Norman 1939    odontos, tooth, presumably referring to strong, curved and “canine-like” uniserial teeth in both jaws; macrurus, a macrourid fish, from Macrourus, type genus of family

Odontomacrurus murrayi Norman 1939    in honor of John Murray (1841-1914, later the founder of modern oceanography), president and treasurer of the John Murray Expedition that collected type

Paracetonurus Marshall 1973    para-, near, presumably referring to similarity to Cetonurus (yet Marshall said it is “most closely related to Kumba”)

Paracetonurus flagellicauda (Koefoed 1927)    flagellum, whip; cauda, tail, referring to how body gradually tapers to a long, slender tail, which is almost string-like posteriorly

Paracetonurus occidentalis (Iwamoto 1979)    western, referring to its occurrence in the southeastern Pacific compared to Echinomacrurus mollis, its presumed congener at time of description, which is known only from the eastern North Atlantic and western Indian oceans

Pseudocetonurus Sazonov & Shcherbachev 1982    pseudo-, false, referring to similarity to Cetonurus (without, however, indicating a close kinship)

Pseudocetonurus septifer Sazonov & Shcherbachev 1982    fero, to bear: septum, referring to “strongly developed and clearly noticeable septa in the postorbital seismosensory canal” (translation)

Pseudonezumia Okamura 1970    pseudo-, false, i.e., although it “approaches” Nezumia in “general physiognomy” and other characters, such an appearance is false

Pseudonezumia cetonuropsis (Gilbert & Hubbs 1916)    opsis, appearance, “apparently related to Cetonurus, as their common characters indicate”

Pseudonezumia japonicus Okamura 1970    Japanese, probably referring to type locality, off Choshi, Chiba Prefecture, Japan

Pseudonezumia parvipes (Smith & Radcliffe 1912)    parvus, small; pes, foot, referring to its small ventral fins, their “rays reduced in number”

Pseudonezumia pusilla (Sazonov & Shcherbachev 1982)    tiny, referring to very small size of sexually mature specimens compared to congeners

Sphagemacrurus Fowler 1925    sphagos, throat, presumably referring to forward position of pelvic fins of S. hirundo to near or on throat; macrurus, a macrourid fish, from Macrourus, type genus of family

Sphagemacrurus decimalis (Gilbert & Hubbs 1920)    ten, referring to number of ventral-fin rays

Sphagemacrurus gibber (Gilbert & Cramer 1897)    humpbacked, referring to dorsal profile, which “ascends somewhat to origin of first dorsal, drops abruptly under this fin, which is therefore attached to the posterior slope of a prominent hump”

Sphagemacrurus grenadae (Parr 1946)    of Grenada, referring to type locality off coast of Grenada in the Caribbean Sea

Sphagemacrurus hirundo (Collett 1896)    swallow (bird), Latin transliteration of L’Hirondelle, Prince Albert of Monaco’s yacht, from which type was collected

Sphagemacrurus pumiliceps (Alcock 1894)    pumila, dwarf; ceps, head, referring to its “singularly small” head, its length ~1/8 length of body

Sphagemacrurus richardi (Weber 1913)    patronym not identified, probably in honor of Jules Richard (1863-1945), scientific director, Oceanographic Institute of Monaco; he published a series of papers on the instruments of deep-sea exploration, which Weber cited in his 1902 introductory Siboga expedition report [see Hymenocephalus grimaldii, above]

Spicomacrurus Okamura 1970    etymology not explained, presumably from spica or spiculum, dart or spike, possibly referring to dart-like shape of S. kuronumai; macrurus, a macrourid fish, from Macrourus, type genus of family

Spicomacrurus adelscotti (Iwamoto & Merrett 1997)    of Adelscott, a “notably fine French ale,” with which the authors celebrated the discovery of this species

Spicomacrurus dictyogadus Iwamoto, Shao & Ho 2011    Greek for net or mesh, referring to net- or mesh-like epithelium of gular membrane; gadus, a cod or gadiform fish

Spicomacrurus kuronumai (Kamohara 1938)    in honor of Katsuzô Kuronuma, University of Michigan, who helped Kamohara in “various ways”

Spicomacrurus mccoskeri Iwamoto, Shao & Ho 2011    in honor of John E. McCosker (b.1945), California Academy of Sciences, “intrepid adventurer, diver, raconteur, expert fly fisherman, conservationist, ichthyological colleague and friend”

Trachonurus Günther 1887    trachos, rough, referring to how skin of T. villosus is “densely studded with erect spines”; –urus, proposed as a subgenus of Macrourus

Trachonurus gagates Iwamoto & McMillan 1997    Greek for velvety black, referring to dark scales covering body

Trachonurus robinsi Iwamoto 1997    in honor of C. Richard Robins (b. 1928), “esteemed ichthyologist, mentor, and compassionate human”

Trachonurus sentipellis Gilbert & Cramer 1897    sentis, thorn; pellis, skin, referring to “strong spinelets” on scales

Trachonurus sulcatus (Goode & Bean 1885)    furrowed, referring to 8-10 spinelets on scales, “which feel bristly to the touch, separated by wide deep furrows (hence the specific name)”

Trachonurus villosus (Günther 1877)    villous, referring to erect spines on skin, “which give to the body and head the appearance of being covered with short villosities”

Trachonurus yiwardaus Iwamoto & Williams 1999    from the Yindjibamdi (Indigenous Australian) word meaning ashes, referring to its grayish color

Ventrifossa Gilbert & Hubbs 1920    referring to scaleless fossa between ventral fins of type species, V. garmani

Subgenus Ventrifossa

Ventrifossa atherodon (Gilbert & Cramer 1897)    ather, spine; odon, tooth, referring to “outer series of widely set canines with distinctly arrow-shaped tips” on premaxillary

Ventrifossa ctenomelas (Gilbert & Cramer 1897)    cteno, comb; melas, dark or black, referring to brownish-black branchiostegal membranes

Ventrifossa divergens Gilbert & Hubbs 1920    diverging, referring to how it differs from V. garmani, its “representative in Japan”

Ventrifossa garmani (Jordan & Gilbert 1904)    in honor of Harvard ichthyologist Samuel Garman (1843-1927)

Ventrifossa gomoni Iwamoto & Williams 1999    in honor of “ichthyological friend and colleague” Martin F. Gomon (b. 1945), senior curator of fishes, Museum of Victoria (Melbourne)

Ventrifossa longibarbata Okamura 1982    longus, long; barbatus, barbeled, referring to its long and slender barbel

Ventrifossa macrodon Sazonov & Iwamoto 1992    macro-, long; odon, tooth, referring to enlarged teeth in outer row of premaxillary (“a not uncommon character in this genus”)

Ventrifossa macropogon Marshall 1973    macro-, long; pogon, beard, referring to longer barbel compared to V. mucocephalus

Ventrifossa macroptera Okamura 1982    macro-, long; ptera, fin, referring to its long pectoral fin, >2/3 of head length

Ventrifossa mucocephalus Marshall 1973    mucus, slime; cephalus, head, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to a somewhat more inflated head compared to congeners, with spaces in the head filled with mucous (Tomio Iwamoto, pers. comm.)

Ventrifossa mystax Iwamoto & Anderson 1994    mustache, referring to characteristic black blotch on ascending process of premaxillae

Ventrifossa nasuta (Smith 1935)    long-nosed, referring to its more elongated snout compared to other South African species of Lionurus (original genus) known at the time

Ventrifossa nigrodorsalis Gilbert & Hubbs 1920    nigro-, black; dorsalis, dorsal, referring to black spot on first dorsal fin

Ventrifossa obtusirostris Sazonov & Iwamoto 1992    obtusus, blunt; rostris, snout, referring to its short, blunt snout compared to congeners

Ventrifossa paxtoni Iwamoto & Williams 1999    in honor of John R. Paxton, former curator, Australian Museum (Sydney), for his many contributions to ichthyology

Ventrifossa petersonii (Alcock 1891)    in honor of E. Peterson, the gunner of the Investigator (ship from which type was collected), “whose unabating zeal on behalf of our zoological collections led on one occasion to his getting his fingers almost amputated by the dredging-wire, and on another occasion to his falling overboard almost into the mouth of a shark”

Ventrifossa rhipidodorsalis Okamura 1984    rhipido-, fan or fan-like; dorsalis, of the back, allusion unclear; according to Okamura, name refers to “first dorsal fin colored by black and white” (perhaps resembling a Japanese folding fan?)

Ventrifossa saikaiensis Okamura 1984    ensis, suffix denoting place: Saikai or Seikai, Japanese name for northern part of East China Sea, type locality

Ventrifossa sazonovi Iwamoto & Williams 1999    in honor of “Russian colleague and fellow student of grenadiers” Yuri I. Sazanov (d. 2002), curator of ichthyology, Zoological Museum, Moscow State University

Ventrifossa teres Sazonov & Iwamoto 1992    terete, referring to its slender, cylindrical body

Ventrifossa vinolenta Iwamoto & Merrett 1997    Latin for drunk on wine, but also meaning wine-colored, referring to overall tint of trunk and tail of this species, and the nose of the second author

Subgenus Sokodara Iwamoto 1979    Japanese name for grenadiers

Ventrifossa fusca Okamura 1982    dusky, presumably referring to “dark brown” body coloration

Ventrifossa johnboborum Iwamoto 1982    orum, commemorative suffix, plural: in honor of ichthyologists John R. Paxton (Australian Museum, Sydney), and Robert “Bob” J. Lavenberg (Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, USA), who first recognized this species as new

Ventrifossa misakia (Jordan & Gilbert 1904)    ia, adjectival suffix: near Misaki, Japan, type locality (authors define Misaki as “red point, a headland at the mouth of the bay of Sagami, famous for zoological work”)

Family TRACHYRINCIDAE Rough Rattails
3 genera · 8 species


Macrouroides Smith & Radcliffe 1912    oides, having the form of: described as a “Degenerate” macrourid

Macrouroides inflaticeps Smith & Radcliffe 1912    inflatus, puffed up or swollen; ceps, head, referring to “very large, ellipsoidal” head

Squalogadus Gilbert & Hubbs 1916    squalus, shark, allusion not explained, possibly referring to prickly scales that resemble denticulate skin surfaces of most sharks (Tomio Iwamoto, pers. comm.); gadus, a cod or gadiform fish

Squalogadus modificatus Gilbert & Hubbs 1916   modified, allusion not explained, possibly referring to its huge bulbous head, which appears to be an extreme example of morphological change (i.e., modified) from a basically cod-like body plan (Tomio Iwamoto, pers. comm.)


Trachyrincus Giorna 1809    trachys, rough, rhynchus, snout, referring to rough scales, with a median serrated ridge, on head and snout of T. scabrus

Trachyrincus aphyodes McMillan 1995    whitish, referring to its grayish white body and reflecting its common name, “White Rattail”

Trachyrincus helolepis Gilbert 1892    helo-, tubercle; lepis, scale, referring to “tubercle-like” projection at center of scales

Trachyrincus longirostris (Günther 1878)    longus, long; rostris, snout, referring to how snout is “produced into a long flattened process, pointed anteriorly, and not quite twice as long as the large eye”

Trachyrincus murrayi Günther 1887    in honor of John Murray (1841-1914, later the founder of modern oceanography), who discovered this species during the cruise of the Knight Errant in the Faröe Channel, North Atlantic (1880)

Trachyrincus scabrus (Rafinesque 1810)    rough, referring to its spinigerous scales

Trachyrincus villegai Pequeño 1971    in honor of marine biologist Luis Villegas, who examined two specimens of this species and told Pequeño they were unfamiliar