v. 2.1 – 28 Jan. 2017  view/download PDF

2 families • 4 genera • 15 species/subspecies

Family ESOCIDAE Pikes

Esox Linnaeus 1758    latinized Gaulish word for a large fish from the Rhine, possibly originally applied to a salmon, now applied to pikes

Esox americanus americanus Gmelin 1789    American, distinguishing it from the circumpolar E. lucius

Esox americanus vermiculatus Lesueur 1846    referring to “narrow, winding” vermiculations on sides, “closer and more tight” on females (translations)

Esox aquitanicus Denys, Dettai, Persat, Hautecoeur & Keith 2014    icus, belonging to: Aquitaine, region of southwestern France, where it was discovered

Esox cisalpinus Bianco & Delmastro 2011    cis-, on this side; alpinus, alpine, referring to its distribution on one side (the Italian) of the Alps

Esox lucius Linnaeus 1758    Latin for pike, referring to its long, pointed snout

Esox masquinongy Mitchill 1824    Native American name for this species, from the Ojibway (Chippewa) mask, ugly; kinongé, fish [due to a bibliographic error, Mitchill’s description had been “lost” since its publication until 2015, when it was rediscovered by Ronald Fricke, upon which it was revealed that Mitchill used a vernacular name instead of proposing a new binomial; Jordan, who searched for Mitchill’s description but never found it, nevertheless treated the name as valid in 1885, a decision accepted by every fish taxonomist ever since; technically, name and/or author and/or date should change depending on first available name (not researched), but prevailing usage may apply]

Esox niger Lesueur 1818    black or dark, referring to its juvenile coloration

Esox reichertii Dybowski 1869    patronym not identified, probably in honor of Dybowski’s anatomy professor Karl Bogislaus Reichert (1811-1883)

Family UMBRIDAE Mudminnows

Dallia Bean 1880    ia, belonging to: malacologist and explorer William Healey Dall (1845-1927), United States Coast Survey, for contributions to the zoology of Alaska

Dallia admirabilis Chereshnev 1980    “astonishing or miraculous” (according to published English translation of the original Russian), allusion not explained, perhaps referring to the discovery of Dallia in the Amguema River basin (Chukotka, Russia) that differs markedly and occurs a “considerable distance” from the typical D. pectoralis, representing the westernmost occurrence of the genus on the Asian continent

Dallia delicatissima Smitt 1881    most delectable; according to Finnish explorer Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld (1832-1901), who led voyage that collected type and made Smitt’s name available in a popular account of the expedition, an “exceedingly delicious” fish, a “veritable delicacy, in taste somewhat resembling eel, but finer and more fleshy” (translations)

Dallia pectoralis Bean 1880    etymology not explained, presumably referring to “rounded and many-rayed” pectoral fins

Novumbra Schultz 1929    novus, new, i.e., a new Umbra, or type of mudminnow

Novumbra hubbsi Schultz 1929    in honor of ichthyologist Carl. L. Hubbs (1894-1979), who read Schultz’ manuscript, offered “valuable” suggestions and literature references, and loaned specimens for comparisons

Umbra Kramer 1777    shade or shadow, allusion not explained; according to Valenciennes (1846), name refers to belief among early naturalists that U. krameri is rarely seen because it “preferably lives in underground caves where light does not penetrate” (translation) [name first published in 1756 but not available until 1777]

Umbra krameri Walbaum 1792    in honor of German physician-naturalist Wilhelm Heinrich Kramer (d. 1765), who proposed genus and this species (as “Umbra umra”) in a pre-Linnaean publication (1756)

Umbra limi (Kirtland 1840)    limus, Latin for mud, described from a creek in Ohio (USA), where it “uniformly dwells in soft mud” (it is known to bury itself in mud or sand to avoid capture, hence the vernacular name “mudminnow”)

Umbra pygmaea (DeKay 1842)    dwarf-like, referring to small size (~25.4 mm) of type specimens (now lost), described as a “pigmy dace”