Order CYPRINIFORMES: Family CYPRINIDAE: Subfamily LEUCISCINAE (New World)

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Subfamily LEUCISCINAE (New World)   

Acrocheilus Agassiz 1855    acro, sharp; cheilus, lip, referring to chisel-shaped mouth

Acrocheilus alutaceus Agassiz & Pickering 1855    leathery, referring to brownish coloration

Agosia Girard 1856    a Native American word, chosen presumably because Girard liked the sound of it

Agosia chrysogaster Girard 1856    chryso, yellow; gaster, belly, referring to light-yellow bellies of males

Algansea Girard 1856    a Native American word, chosen presumably because Girard liked the sound of it

Algansea amecae Pérez-Rodríguez, Pérez-Ponce de León, Domínguez-Domínguez & Doadrio 2009    of Río Ameca basin, Jalisco, México, type locality

Algansea aphanea Barbour & Miller 1978    concealed, referring to hidden differences between it and other Algansea

Algansea avia Barbour & Miller 1978    remote, being the most western Algansea

Algansea barbata Álvarez & Cortés 1964    barbled (only Algansea known at time of description to possess barbels)

Algansea lacustris Steindachner 1895    lacustrine (belonging to a lake), referring to distribution in Lake Pátzcuaro, Michoacán, México

Algansea monticola monticola Barbour & Contreras-Balderas 1968    of the mountains, referring to “rugged nature” of the area in which it occurs

Algansea monticola archidion Barbour & Miller 1978    archidi, petty position, referring to subspecific status

Algansea popoche (Jordan & Snyder 1899)    Mexican name for this chub

Algansea tincella (Valenciennes 1844)    diminutive of Tinca, i.e., like a small tench

Aztecula Jordan & Evermann 1898    ula, diminutive ending: in remembrance of the Aztec culture that dominated 15th-century central México, alluding to where this cyprinid occurs              

Aztecula sallaei (Günther 1868)    patronym not identified but probably in honor of Auguste Sallé (1820-1896), French traveler and entomologist, who supplied Mexican fishes to the British Museum (Natural History)

Campostoma Agassiz 1855    campo, curved; stoma, mouth, referring to U-shaped mouth

Campostoma anomalum anomalum (Rafinesque 1820)    anomalous, differing from all other Ohio minnows by its “unequal bilobed tail” (not different or abnormal appearance of ridge on lower jaw, as reported by some authorities)

Campostoma anomalum michauxi Fowler 1945    in honor of French botanist André Michaux (1746-1802), “probably the first naturalist to explore the region of the upper Catawba watershed”

Campostoma anomalum pullum (Agassiz 1854)    young animal, referring to small size compared to similar European minnows (Chondrostoma)

Campostoma oligolepis Hubbs & Greene 1935    oligo-, few; lepis, scales, referring to larger and therefore fewer scales compared to C. anomalum

Campostoma ornatum Girard 1856    ornate, referring to ornamental coloration of breeding males

Campostoma pauciradii Burr & Cashner 1983    paucus, few, referring to low number of gill rakers (radii) on first arch

Campostoma spadiceum (Girard 1856)    nut-brown, referring to brown-red coloration on upper part of body

Chrosomus Rafinesque 1820    chroma, color; soma, body, referring to vibrant coloration of C. erythrogaster

Subgenus Chrosomus                      

Chrosomus cumberlandensis (Starnes & Starnes 1978)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Cumberland River drainage (North Carolina and South Carolina, USA), where it is endemic

Chrosomus eos Cope 1862    dawn, probably referring to bright-red belly 

Chrosomus erythrogaster (Rafinesque 1820)  erythro, red; gaster, belly, referring to bright ventral coloration

Chrosomus oreas Cope 1868    of the mountains, referring to occurrence in montane and upland regions 

Chrosomus saylori (Skelton 2001)    in honor of Charles F. Saylor, Tennessee Valley Authority ichthyologist, part of crew that first collected this species, for contributions to the knowledge of southeastern USA fishes

Chrosomus tennesseensis (Starnes & Jenkins 1988)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Tennessee River drainage, USA

Subgenus Pfrille Jordan 1924    German name for Phoxinus phoxinus, genus of which previously included Chrosomus

Chrosomus neogaeus (Cope 1867)    neo, new; gaia, world, being a New World version of the Old World Phoxinus phoxinus   

Clinostomus Girard 1856    clino, inclined; stoma, mouth, referring to its oblique shape

Clinostomus elongatus (Kirtland 1841)    elongated, referring to streamlined shape of body

Clinostomus funduloides funduloides Girard 1856    oides, having the form of: referring to superficial resemblance to topminnows (Fundulus, Fundulidae)

Clinostomus funduloides estor (Jordan & Brayton 1878)    eater, referring to its considerably large mouth

Codoma Girard 1856    a Native American word, chosen presumably because Girard liked the sound of it

Codoma ornata Girard 1856    adorned, referring to “rich and profuse” coloration of breeding males

Couesius Jordan 1878    in honor of surgeon-ornithologist Elliot Coues (1842-1899, pronounced “cows”), who collected type

Couesius plumbeus (Agassiz 1850)    lead-colored, referring to body coloration

Cyprinella Girard 1856    diminutive of cypris, carp, i.e., a small carp or minnow

Cyprinella alvarezdelvillari Contreras-Balderas & Lozano-Vilano 1994    in honor of José Alvarez del Villar (1903-1986), “founder of modern Mexican ichthyology”

Cyprinella analostana Girard 1859    ana, belonging to: Analostan (now Theodore Roosevelt) Island, Potomac River, Washington, D.C., USA, type locality

Cyprinella bocagrande (Chernoff & Miller 1982)    boca, Spanish for mouth; grande, Spanish for large, referring to long upper jaw

Cyprinella caerulea (Jordan 1877)   blue, referring to bright steel-blue coloration

Cyprinella callisema (Jordan 1877)    calli-, beautiful; sema, sign, referring to extremely high dorsal fin of breeding males

Cyprinella callistia (Jordan 1877)    calli-, beautiful; histia, sail, referring to iridescent dorsal fin of breeding males

Cyprinella callitaenia (Bailey & Gibbs 1956)    calli-, beautiful; taenia, band, referring to lateral blue stripe

Cyprinella camura (Jordan & Meek 1884)    turned inward, referring to blunt snout

Cyprinella chloristia (Jordan & Brayton 1878)  chloros, green; histia, sail, referring to green dorsal fin

Cyprinella formosa (Girard 1856)   beautiful, referring to breeding coloration

Cyprinella galactura (Cope 1868)    galactos, milk; oura, tail, referring to two clear-to-white areas on caudal fin base

Cyprinella garmani (Jordan 1885)    in honor of Harvard ichthyologist-herpetologist Samuel Garman (1843-1927)

Cyprinella gibbsi (Howell & Williams 1971)    in honor of ichthyologist Robert H. Gibbs, Jr. (1929-1988), U.S. National Museum, for his contributions to the knowledge of Cyprinella

Cyprinella labrosa (Cope 1870)    thick-lipped, referring to its “prominent” lips

Cyprinella leedsi (Fowler 1942)    in honor of the late Arthur N. Leeds (1870-1939), botanist, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadephia, “who had been much attracted to the charm of the Ohoopee” River, Georgia, USA (type locality), and who was present when type was collected

Cyprinella lepida Girard 1856    scaled, referring to larger scales compared to any known congeners at the time

Cyprinella lutrensis lutrensis (Baird & Girard 1853)    ensis, suffix denoting place: lutra, otter, referring to Otter Creek, Oklahoma (erroneously reported as Arkansas), USA, type locality

Cyprinella lutrensis blairi Hubbs 1940    in honor of zoologist W. Frank Blair (1912-1985), University of Texas at Austin, who helped collect type

Cyprinella lutrensis forlonensis Meek 1904    ensis, suffix denoting place: Río Forlon, Tamaulipas, México, where it is endemic

Cyprinella nivea (Cope 1870)    snow, referring to white fins of breeding males

Cyprinella panarcys (Hubbs & Miller 1978)  pan, all; arcys, net, referring to net-like pattern of scales

Cyprinella proserpina (Girard 1856)   latinization of Persephone, queen of the infernal regions, referring to Devils River, Texas, USA, type locality

 Cyprinella pyrrhomelas (Cope 1870)    pyrrhos, flame; melas, black, referring to red-black caudal fin of    males

Cyprinella rutila (Girard 1856)    reddish yellow, referring to golden sides and abdomen

Cyprinella spiloptera (Cope 1867)    spilos, spot; pterus, fin, referring to black spot on dorsal fin

Cyprinella trichroistia (Jordan & Gilbert 1878)    tri-, three; chros, color; histion, sail, referring to black-red-white tail of nuptial males

Cyprinella venusta venusta Girard 1856    attractive, perhaps referring to “gracefully compressed” profile

Cyprinella venusta cercostigma Cope 1868    kertos, tail; stigma, spot; referring to spot at base of caudal fin

Cyprinella venusta stigmatura (Jordan 1877)    stigma, spot; oura, tail, referring to spot at base of caudal fin

Cyprinella whipplei Girard 1856    in honor of Lieut. Amiel Weeks Whipple (1818-1863), military engineer and surveyor, who led boundary survey team that collected type

Cyprinella xaenura (Jordan 1877)    xaina, scratch; oura, tail, presumably referring to large tubercles on caudal peduncle

Cyprinella xanthicara (Minckley & Lytle 1969)    xanthos, yellow; kara, head, referring to color of breeding males

Cyprinella zanema (Jordan & Brayton 1878)    za, very; nemus, thread, referring to “extremely long [barbels], probably longer than in any other of our Cyprinoids”

Dionda Girard 1856    a Native American word, presumably chosen because Girard liked the sound of it [description does not support supposition that name derives from the Greek Dione, mother of Venus, as reported in some references]

Dionda argentosa Girard 1856    silvery, referring to color of sides and abdomen

Dionda diaboli Hubbs & Brown 1957    of the devil, referring to Devils River, Texas, USA, type locality

Dionda episcopa Girard 1856    pope, referring to United States Army officer John Pope (1822-1892), who led party that collected type

Dionda flavipinnis (Cope 1880)    flavus, yellow; pinnis, fins, referring to “generally pale yellow” fins

Dionda melanops Girard 1856    melanos, black; ops, appearance, its blackish dorsal region and black spots on sides and abdomen “giving the whole fish a dark appearance”

Dionda nigrotaeniata (Cope 1880)    nigro, black; taeniata, striped, referring to blacker lateral band compared to D. flavipinnis

Dionda serena Girard 1856    fair, possibly referring to fairer complexion (light brown vs. blackish brown) compared to D. episcopa

Dionda texensis Girard 1856    ensis, suffix denoting place: Texas, USA, referring to type locality in Nueces River

Eremichthys Hubbs & Miller 1948    eremia, desert, referring to habitat in northwest Nevada, USA; ichthys, fish

Eremichthys acros Hubbs & Miller 1948    acer, sharp; os, mouth, referring to the sharp-edged sheath on jaws

Ericymba Cope 1865    eri-, very; cymba, cavity, referring to externally visible mucous channels on interopercle, suborbital and dentary bones

Ericymba amplamala (Pera & Armbruster 2006)    ampla, enlarged; mala, jaw, referring to long jaw and expanded infraorbital and preoperculomandibular canals

Ericymba buccata Cope 1865    bucca, cavity or cheek, referring to mucous channels (cavities) and where they occur (cheek)

Erimonax Jordan 1924    eri-, very; monax, solitary, referring to isolated suite of characters of E. monachus

Erimonax monachus (Cope 1868)    solitary, referring to its isolated suite of characters and the fact that Cope only saw it “singly or in pairs”

Erimystax Jordan 1882    eri-, very; mystax, moustached, referring to barbels

Erimystax cahni (Hubbs & Crowe 1956)    in honor of biologist Alvin R. Cahn, who collected type

Erimystax dissimilis (Kirtland 1841)    not similar, i.e., to other shiners in Luxilus, genus in which it was described

Erimystax harryi (Hubbs & Crowe 1956)    in honor of George V. Harry, for his extensive survey of Missouri, USA, fishes (he also helped collect type)

Erimystax insignis insignis (Hubbs & Crowe 1956)    conspicuous, referring to blotches on sides

Erimystax insignis eristigma (Hubbs & Crowe 1956)    eri-, very; stigma, mark, referring to blotches on sides

Erimystax x-punctatus x-punctatus (Hubbs & Crowe 1956)    spotted, referring to x-shaped spots along body

Erimystax x-punctatus trautmani (Hubbs & Crowe 1956)    in honor of Milton B. Trautman (1899-1991), Ohio State University, for his “his life-long thorough investigation of the fishes of Ohio”

Evarra Woolman 1894    Mexican forename that achieved some level of fame in an 1890 verse by Rudyard Kipling, “Evarra and His Gods,” which drew upon an Indian tradition of producing idols from oddly shaped stones, trees and other objects into “gods” that are recognizably in the image of the maker, who, in the verse, is named Evarra, a “maker of gods in lands beyond the sea” (Woolman did not explain his selection of the Evarra epithet; perhaps he simply gave a nice-sounding Mexican name to a uniquely Mexican fish)

Evarra bustamantei Navarro 1955    in honor of Miguel Bustamante y Septien (1790-1844), first Mexican to scientifically describe a Mexican fish, the goodeid Cyprinus (=Girardinichthys) viviparus, in 1837

Evarra eigenmanni Woolman 1894    in honor of ichthyologist Carl H. Eigenmann (1863-1927)

Evarra tlahuacensis Meek 1902    ensis, suffix denoting place: Tláhuac, near type locality at Chalco Lake in the Valley of Mexico

Exoglossum Rafinesque 1818    ex-, outside; glossa, tongue, referring to bony tongue-like extension of lower jaw

Exoglossum laurae (Hubbs 1931)    in honor of Hubbs’ wife, Laura (1893-1988)

Exoglossum maxillingua (Lesueur 1817)    maxilla, jawbone; lingua, tongue, referring to bony tongue-like extension of lower jaw

Gila Baird & Girard 1853    allusion not explained, presumably referring to Gila River of Arizona and western New Mexico (USA), but Baird & Girard said the three taxa they included in the genus were all from the Zuni River of New Mexico; perhaps the authors believed the Zuni was part of the nearby but separate Gila basin, or selected Gila (reportedly derived from a Spanish contraction of Hah-quah-sa-eel, a Yuma Indian word meaning “running water which is salty”) as nothing more than a locally flavored name from the American Southwest

Subgenus Gila                  

Gila brevicauda Norris, Fischer & Minckley 2003    brevis, short; cauda, tail, referring to unusually abbreviated tail

Gila conspersa Garman 1881    to sprinkle, referring to brown spots on scales

Gila cypha Miller 1946    humpbacked, referring to large scaleless hump on large adults

Gila elegans Baird & Girard 1853    elegant, referring to slim elegance of thin caudal peduncle

Gila jordani Tanner 1953    in honor of David Starr Jordan (1851-1931), “a great ichthyologist and educator, which is but a small way to show my appreciation for his and Mrs. Jordan’s many kindnesses to me while I was a student at Stanford University”

Gila minacae Meek 1902    of Miñaca, Río Yaqui basin, Chihuahua, México, type locality

Gila modesta (Garman 1881)    modestly colored compared to G. nigrescens

Gila nigrescens (Girard 1856)    blackish, referring to “crowded” black dots on scales and/or “almost black” color of back and sides

Gila pandora (Cope 1872)    etymology not explained; Cope was unsure of the “truer affinities” of the species and mentions several genera to which it may belong, so perhaps its taxonomic ambiguity was a Pandora’s box, i.e., a source of troubles for Cope  (Mark Sabaj Pérez, pers. comm.)

Gila pulchra (Girard 1856)    beautiful, referring to “brilliant” coloration of males (reddish or blackish brown above, golden yellow below)

Gila robusta Baird & Girard 1853    stout, body “very much swollen anteriorly”

Gila seminuda Cope & Yarrow 1875    semi-, half; nudus, naked, referring to absence of ventral scales

Subgenus Klamathella Miller 1945    ella, a diminutive, named after Klamath River system (southern Oregon and northern California, USA), where type species, Tigoma bicolor (=G. coerulea), is abundant

Gila coerulea (Girard 1856)    blue, “the upper regions a greyish azur[e]”

Subgenus Siboma Girard 1856    a Native American word chosen presumably because Girard liked the sound of it

Gila atraria (Girard 1856)    blackish, referring to color of sides and back

Gila crassicauda (Baird & Girard 1854)    crassus, fat; cauda, tail, referring to “largely developed” caudal peduncle compared to narrow caudal peduncle of Lavinia exilicauda

Subgenus Temeculina Cockerell 1909    ina, adjectival suffix: presumably referring to Temecula River in California, USA, type locality of type species, G. orcuttii

Gila ditaenia Miller 1945    di-, two; taenia, band, referring to black bands above and below lateral line

Gila eremica DeMarais 1991    of the desert, referring to its habitat

Gila orcuttii (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1890)    in honor of naturalist Charles Russell Orcutt (1864-1929), who collected type using a blanket as a seine

Gila purpurea (Girard 1856)    purple, referring to purplish black color of back and sides

Hemitremia Cope 1870    hemi-, half; tremia, aperture, referring to incomplete lateral line

Hemitremia flammea (Jordan & Gilbert 1878)    flaming, referring to bright-red breeding colors

Hesperoleucus Snyder 1913    hesperus, western, probably referring to distribution in California, USA, on the western side of North America; leukiskos, Greek word for chub, i.e., a western chub

Hesperoleucus symmetricus symmetricus (Baird & Girard 1854)    referring to symmetrical caudal fin, compared to asymmetrical caudal fin of Pogonichthys

Hesperoleucus symmetricus mitrulus Snyder 1913    turban, allusion not explained, possibly referring to its convex scales, which can be said to resemble a turban

Hesperoleucus symmetricus navarroensis Snyder 1913    ensis, suffix denoting place: Navarro River, California, USA, type locality (also occurs in Russian River)

Hesperoleucus symmetricus parvipinnis Snyder 1913    parvus, short; pinnis, fin, referring to short, rounded fins

Hesperoleucus symmetricus subditus Snyder 1913    subdued, allusion not explained; perhaps Snyder thought its more robust body and shorter fins had a more subdued beauty compared to the “trim and well proportioned” H. venustus (= s. symmetricus)

Hybognathus Agassiz 1855    hybos, hump; gnathus, jaw, referring to slight protrusion of lower jaw

Hybognathus amarus (Girard 1856)    bitter, allusion not evident, perhaps referring to brackish lagoon type locality

Hybognathus argyritis Girard 1856    silvery, probably referring to its color

Hybognathus hankinsoni Hubbs 1929    in honor of zoologist T. L. Hankinson, University of North Dakota, who conducted an early survey of fishes from that state

Hybognathus hayi Jordan 1885    in honor of paleontologist-zoologist Oliver P. Hay (1846-1930), Field Museum of Natural History, who collected type

Hybognathus nuchalis Agassiz 1855    nuchal, referring to dark dorsal stripe that begins at nape

Hybognathus placitus Girard 1856    pleasing, allusion not evident, perhaps referring to ventral coloration (“metallic white or yellow”)

Hybognathus regius Girard 1856    royal, a “large and beautiful species, the largest [member of genus] that has, so far, come to our knowledge, some of the specimens measuring seven inches in length”

Hybopsis Agassiz 1854    hybos, hump; ops, face or appearance, probably referring to “obtuse prominent snout” of H. gracilis (= amblops)

Hybopsis amblops (Rafinesque 1820)    amblys, blunt; ops, face or appearance, referring to “round” snout

Hybopsis amnis (Hubbs & Greene 1951)    river, referring to its typical habitat

Hybopsis hypsinotus (Cope 1870)    hypselos, high; notos, back, referring to strongly arched back

Hybopsis lineapunctata Clemmer & Suttkus 1971    linea, line, referring to lateral stripe; punctata, spot, referring to spot on tail

Hybopsis rubrifrons (Jordan 1877)    rubrum, red; frons, forehead, referring to rosy-red color of anterior portion of body of breeding males

Hybopsis winchelli Girard 1856    in honor of geologist-paleontologist Alexander Winchell (1824-1891), University of Michigan, who collected type

Iotichthys Jordan & Evermann 1896    io, smallest letter of Greek alphabet, referring to small size (to 6.4 cm); ichthys, fish

Iotichthys phlegethontis (Cope 1874)    phlegethon, blazing, probably referring to red-gold color of breeding males

Lavinia Girard 1854    classical feminine name, presumably chosen because Girard liked the sound of it

Lavinia exilicauda exilicauda Baird & Girard 1854    exilis, slender; cauda, tail, referring to narrow caudal peduncle compared to thick caudal peduncle of L. (=Gila) crassicauda

Lavinia exilicauda chi Hopkirk 1973    Pomo Indian name for this minnow in northern California, USA

Lavinia exilicauda harengus Girard 1856    herring, allusion not explained; since Girard’s specimens were missing scales, he may have been referring to a herring’s proclivity to shed scales when handled

Lepidomeda Cope 1874    like the genus Meda, but lepid, scaled

Lepidomeda albivallis Miller & Hubbs 1960    albus, white; vallis, valley, referring to White River Valley, Nevada, USA, where it is endemic

Lepidomeda aliciae (Jouy 1881)    in honor of Jouy’s wife, Alice

Lepidomeda altivelis Miller & Hubbs 1960    altus, high; velum, sail, referring to large dorsal fin

Lepidomeda copei (Jordan & Gilbert 1881)    in honor of zoologist-paleontologist Edward Drinker Cope (1840-1897), who described dozens of North American minnows 

Lepidomeda mollispinis mollispinis Miller & Hubbs 1960    mollis, soft; spinis, spine, referring to soft-tipped main dorsal spine   

Lepidomeda mollispinis pratensis Miller & Hubbs 1960    ensis, suffix denoting place: pratum, meadow, referring to meadowlands of Big Spring, Nevada, USA, where it is endemic

Lepidomeda vittata Cope 1874    striped, referring to lateral and dorsal bands

Luxilus Rafinesque 1820    lux, light, connoting the American vernacular shiner; –illus, diminutive suffix, i.e., a small, shiny fish            

Luxilus albeolus (Jordan 1889)    whitish, the sides and fins a “pure silvery white”    

Luxilus cardinalis (Mayden 1988)    red, referring to red fins of breeding males             

Luxilus cerasinus (Cope 1868)    cherry red, referring to body color of breeding males              

Luxilus chrysocephalus chrysocephalus Rafinesque 1820    chryso, golden; cephalus, head, referring to “gilt” head            

Luxilus chrysocephalus isolepis (Hubbs & Brown 1927)    iso, equal; lepis, scales, presumably referring to less variation in number of predorsal scales (12-15) compared to L. c. chrysocephalus (14-29)              

Luxilus coccogenis (Cope 1868)    coccom, berry; geneion, cheek, referring to red mark on side of head   

Luxilus cornutus cornutus (Mitchill 1817)    horned, referring to head tubercles of breeding males         

Luxilus cornutus frontalis (Agassiz 1850)    alis, pertaining to: front or forehead, probably referring to tubercles of breeding males (“Small circular shields with depressed surface, surmounted with very small conical and acute points, cover the surface of the head”)            

Luxilus pilsbryi (Fowler 1904)    in honor of invertebrate zoologist Henry A. Pilsbry (1862-1957), who collected type         

Luxilus zonatus (Agassiz 1863)    banded, referring to black lateral band on males   

Luxilus zonistius Jordan 1880    zonatus, banded; histion, sail, referring to band on dorsal fin   

Lythrurus Jordan 1876    lythrum, gore; oura, tail, referring to blood-red caudal fin often seen on males                

Lythrurus alegnotus (Snelson 1972)    a-, without; legnotos, colored border, referring to absence of black marginal bands on fins   

Lythrurus ardens (Cope 1868)    ardent, referring to bright colors of breeding males                

Lythrurus atrapiculus (Snelson 1972)    atra, black; piculus, apex, referring to black tip at top (apex) of dorsal fin               

Lythrurus bellus (Hay 1881)    beautiful, referring to vivid coloration: orange fins, jet-black tips of fins, and “almost flame-color” of lower part of body in living specimens

Lythrurus fasciolaris (Gilbert 1891)    -aris, adjectival suffix: fasciola, diminutive of fascia, band, referring to 5-8 dark, steel-blue, vertical bars on breeding males

Lythrurus fumeus (Evermann 1892)    smoky, referring to dusky coloration       

Lythrurus lirus (Jordan 1877)    lily white, referring to pallid coloration   

Lythrurus matutinus (Cope 1870)    of the morning, or rosy, referring to “rufous” muzzle and chin                                 

Lythrurus roseipinnis (Hay 1885)    roseus, rosy; pinnis, fins, referring to pale to bright red fins of breeding males        

Lythrurus snelsoni (Robison 1985)    in honor of ichthyologist Franklin F. Snelson, Jr., Florida Museum of Natural History, for “outstanding contributions” to the knowledge of Lythrurus      

Lythrurus umbratilis umbratilis (Girard 1856)    shady, “backs, sides and fins as if shaded”              

Lythrurus umbratilis cyanocephalus Copeland 1877    cyan, blue; cephalus, head, top of head being a “bright glaucous blue” in living specimens

Macrhybopsis Cockerell & Allison 1909    macro-, long, being a more elongate form of Hybopsis

Macrhybopsis aestivalis (Girard 1856)    of the summer, allusion not explained, possibly referring to later or longer spawning season compared to Gobio vernalis (of the spring, =M. storeriana) described in same paper

Macrhybopsis australis (Hubbs & Ortenburger 1929)    southern, probably referring to more southerly distribution compared to M. tetranema

Macrhybopsis gelida (Girard 1856)    frozen or stiff, allusion not explained nor evident 

Macrhybopsis hyostoma (Gilbert 1884)    hyo-, hog; stoma, mouth, referring to long snout

Macrhybopsis marconis (Jordan & Gilbert 1886)    –is, genitive singular of: San Marcos River, Texas, USA, type locality 

Macrhybopsis meeki (Jordan & Evermann 1896)    in honor of ichthyologist Seth Eugene Meek (1859-1914), then at the University of Arkansas, who helped collect type 

Macrhybopsis storeriana (Kirtland 1845)    ana, belonging to: David H. Storer, author of first synopsis of North American fishes (1846)  

Macrhybopsis tetranema (Gilbert 1886)    tetra, four; nema, thread, referring to its four threadlike barbels        

Margariscus Cockerell 1909    iscus, a diminutive: margarita, presumably referring to its sometimes pearly scales

Margariscus margarita margarita (Cope 1867)    pearl, presumably referring to its sometimes pearly scales

Margariscus margarita koelzi (Hubbs & Lagler 1949)    in honor of fisheries biologist Walter Koelz (1895-1989), for his contribution to the ichthyology of Isle Royale, Michigan, USA, where it is endemic

Margariscus nachtriebi (Cox 1896)    in honor of Henry F. Nachtrieb (1859-1942), state zoologist of Minnesota, USA, where Mille Lacs Lake, type locality, is situated

Meda Girard 1856    a classical name, presumably chosen because Girard like the sound of it

Meda fulgida Girard 1856    shining, referring to bluish silver sides

Moapa Hubbs & Miller 1948    referring to Moapa River, Nevada, USA, where it is endemic (moapa is Paiute Indian word for muddy)

Moapa coriacea Hubbs & Miller 1948    leathery, referring to how small, deeply embedded scales give its skin a “distinctly leathery texture”

Mylocheilus Agassiz 1855    mylo, grinder; cheilus, lip, referring to bony sheath around lips

Mylocheilus caurinus (Richardson 1836)    northwestern, from caurus, northwest wind, referring to distribution in Pacific Northwest (Washington, USA, type locality)

Mylopharodon Ayres 1855    mylo, grinding; pharynx, throat; odon, teeth, referring to molariform pharyngeal teeth

Mylopharodon conocephalus (Baird & Girard 1854)    conus, cone; cephalus, head, referring to its rounded shape  

Nocomis Girard 1856    a Native American word, presumably chosen because Girard like the sound of it [Nookomis is the name of a grandmother in traditional stories among the indigenous Ojibwe people of North America and was made famous in Longfellow’s 1855 epic poem “The Song of Hiawatha,” in which a major female character named Nokomis falls from the moon]

Nocomis asper Lachner & Jenkins 1971    rough, referring to tubercles on scales on breeding males 

Nocomis biguttatus (Kirtland 1841)    bi-, two; guttatus, spotted, probably referring to red spot on each side of head on breeding males  

Nocomis effusus Lachner & Jenkins 1967    effusive, referring to numerous breeding tubercles on body and head 

Nocomis leptocephalus leptocephalus (Girard 1856)    leptos, small or slender; cephalus, head, referring to smaller head compared to Ceratichthys (=Hybopsis) amblops

Nocomis leptocephalus bellicus Girard 1856    war-like, referring to Black Warrior River, Alabama, USA, type locality

Nocomis leptocephalus interocularis Lachner & Wiley 1971    inter, between; ocular, eyes, referring to location of tubercles on head   

Nocomis micropogon (Cope 1865)    micro-, small; pogon, beard, referring to very small barbels on holotype (which was later discovered to be a Luxilus cornutus x N. micropogon hybrid; name validated by substituting holotype with a neotype)

Nocomis platyrhynchus Lachner & Jenkins 1971    platy, wide; rhynchus, snout, referring to large gape width

Nocomis raneyi Lachner & Jenkins 1971    in honor of ichthyologist Edward C. Raney (1909-1984), Cornell University, “whose enthusiasm and guidance placed many American students on the professional pathway to ichthyology”

Notemigonus Rafinesque 1819    notos, back; [h]emi-, half; gonia, angle, referring to obtusely angled, or carinated, back, from which it differs from the superficially similar herring genus Clupea

Notemigonus crysoleucas crysoleucas (Mitchill 1814)    chrysos, golden, referring to color of eyes and gill cover and “tinge of the same along the belly”; leucos, white, referring to “shining white scales”

Notemigonus crysoleucas auratus Rafinesque 1819    gilded, referring to silver and golden sheen

Notropis    Rafinesque 1818    notos, back; tropis, keeled, referring to ridged or keeled back, possibly due to shrinkage of the N. atherinoides specimen Rafinesque examined

Subgenus Notropis                           

Notropis amabilis (Girard 1856)    attractive, a “very slender and graceful species”

Notropis amoenus (Abbott 1874)    pleasing, or “beautiful,” as Abbott described it

Notropis ariommus (Cope 1867)    ari-, large; omma, eye, referring to its large eyes (largest in Notropis)

Notropis atherinoides atherinoides Rafinesque 1818    oides, having the form of: a silverside (atherina)

Notropis atherinoides acutus (Lapham 1854)    sharp or pointed, referring to sharper snout compared to N. a. atherinoides

Notropis girardi Hubbs & Ortenburger 1929    in honor of ichthyologist-herpetologist Charles Girard (1822-1895), who, with Spencer Fullerton Baird, “were among the first to make known the rich fish fauna of the [American] southwest”

Notropis jemezanus (Cope 1875)    anus, belonging to: Jemez Mountains, New Mexico, USA, type locality

Notropis megalops (Girard 1856)    mega-, large; ops, eye, referring to larger eye compared to N. amabilis   

Notropis micropteryx (Cope 1868)    micro-, small; pteryx, fin, referring to smaller fins compared to Alburnellus jaculus (=Notropis rubellus)  

Notropis oxyrhynchus Hubbs & Bonham 1951    oxys, sharp; rhynchus, snout, referring to sharp muzzle

Notropis percobromus (Cope 1871)    perco, percoid; bromus, a forage grass, allusion not evident but here is a guess: since Cope’s specimens were collected with sunfishes and darters, maybe he thought this small minnow was “percoid forage” (Mark Sabaj Pérez, pers. comm.)

Notropis perpallidus Hubbs & Black 1940    per, all over; pallid, pale, referring to its “extreme pallor”

Notropis photogenis (Cope 1865)    photo-, light; genis, cheek, referring to its “bright silvery” sides, “especially brilliant” on the operculum

Notropis rubellus (Agassiz 1850)    reddish, referring to color around jaws of males

Notropis scepticus (Jordan & Gilbert 1883)    observant, referring to its large eyes

Notropis stilbius Jordan 1877    shining, referring to lateral silver stripe 

Notropis suttkusi Humphries & Cashner 1994    in honor of Royal D. Suttkus (1929-2009), noted authority on southeastern fishes and mentor to many ichthyologists

Notropis telescopus (Cope 1868)    far seeing, referring to its large eyes

Subgenus Alburnops Girard 1856    ops, appearance, referring to “striking external resemblance” to minnows Girard had placed in the Old World leucisin genus Alburnus

Notropis aguirrepequenoi Contreras-Balderas & Rivera-Teillery 1973    in honor of biologist Eduardo Aguirre Pequeño (1904-1988), founder of Escuela de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey, for his teachings and guidance

Notropis anogenus Forbes 1885    ano-, without; genys, chin, referring to small upturned mouth

Notropis atrocaudalis Evermann 1892    ater, black; cauda, tail, referring to black spot on tail

Notropis bairdi Hubbs & Ortenburger 1929    in honor of Spencer Fullerton Baird (1823-1887), “an early student of the fishes of the southwest, and one of the outstanding figures in American zoology”

Notropis bifrenatus (Cope 1867)    bi-, two, frenatus, brindled, referring to black bars across snout

Notropis blennius (Girard 1856)    blenny-like, presumably referring to convex profile (“snout most prominently rounded”)

Notropis braytoni Jordan & Evermann 1896    in honor of physician-naturalist Alembert Winthrop Brayton (1848-1926), “with pleasant memories of our explorations in Georgia and the Carolinas” in the 1870s

Notropis buccula Cross 1953    diminutive of bucca, mouth, i.e., little mouth, referring to size compared to closely related N. bairdi

Notropis chihuahua Woolman 1892    referring to Chihuahua, México, type locality (also occurs in Texas and Durango)

Notropis edwardraneyi Suttkus & Cremmer 1968    in honor of  ichthyologist Edward C. Raney (1909-1984), Cornell University, for his contributions to North American ichthyology and “his guidance and imparted enthusiasm toward a multitude of students”

Notropis hudsonius (Clinton 1824)    ius, adjectival suffix: Hudson River, New York, USA, type locality

Notropis mekistocholas Snelson 1971    mekisto, longest; cholas, intestine, referring to elongate, convoluted intestine, an adaptation to its herbivorous diet

Notropis nazas Meek 1904    referring to headwaters of the Río Nazas, Durango, México, type locality 

Notropis orca Woolman 1894    killer whale, referring to its resemblance to the head of a dolphin

Notropis potteri Hubbs & Bonham 1951    in honor of George E. Potter, Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas, who collected type and sent them to Hubbs for study

Notropis procne (Cope 1865)    Prokne, from Greek mythology, whom the gods transformed into a swallow, alluding to its deeply forked tail

Notropis rupestris Page 1987    living among rocks, referring to bedrock pool habitat

Notropis saladonis Hubbs & Hubbs 1958    is, genitive singular of: Río Salado basin (Nuevo León and Coahuila, México), where it was endemic (now likely extinct)

Notropis simus simus (Cope 1875)    blunt-nosed, referring to blunt snout

Notropis simus pecosensis Gilbert & Chernoff 1982    ensis, suffix denoting place: Pecos River, New Mexico, USA, where it is endemic

Notropis stramineus stramineus (Cope 1865)    straw-like, referring to its coloration

Notropis stramineus missuriensis (Cope 1871)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Missouri River drainage and/or state of Missouri, USA, referring to type locality near St. Joseph

Notropis topeka (Gilbert 1884)    referring to Topeka, Kansas, USA, type locality

Subgenus Hydrophlox Jordan 1878    hydro, water; phlox, flame, referring to red or orange colors of breeding males

Notropis baileyi Suttkus & Raney 1955    in honor of Reeve M. Bailey (1911-2011), then Curator of Fishes, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, for contributions to the knowledge of North American freshwater fishes and for helping the authors in their studies

Notropis chiliticus (Cope 1870)    lipped, referring to vermilion lips (and snout) on males

Notropis chlorocephalus (Cope 1870)    chloros, green; cephalus, head, referring to head coloration of breeding males

Notropis chrosomus (Jordan 1877)    chroma, color; soma, body, referring to overall vibrant coloration

Notropis leuciodus (Cope 1868)    leucos, white; eidus, form or resemblance, i.e., whitish, presumably referring to silver sides

Notropis lutipinnis (Jordan & Brayton 1878)    luteus, yellow; pinnis, fin, referring to color of fins on breeding males

Notropis nubilus (Forbes 1878)    dusky, referring to body color

Notropis rubricroceus (Cope 1868)    ruber, red; croceus, saffron, referring to dominant colors of body and fins, respectively, of breeding males

Incertae sedis                    

Notropis albizonatus Warren & Burr 1994    albus, white; zonatus, banded, referring to white band above lateral line

Notropis alborus Hubbs & Raney 1947    albus, white; oris, mouth, referring to unpigmented lips and mouth 

Notropis altipinnis (Cope 1870)    altus, high; pinna, fin, referring to “much elevated” dorsal fin compared to other minnows (Alburnellus) Cope grouped with this species

Notropis amecae Chernoff & Miller 1986    of Río Ameca, Jalisco, México, type locality

Notropis ammophilus Suttkus & Boschung 1990    ammos, sand; philo, to love, referring to preferred habitat  

Notropis asperifrons Suttkus & Raney 1955    asper, rough; frons, face or forehead, referring to tuberculate snout

Notropis aulidion Chernoff & Miller 1986    aulos, tube or pipe; –idion, a diminutive suffix, referring to short infraorbital canal 

Notropis boops Gilbert 1884    bo, ox; ops, eye, referring to large eyes

Notropis boucardi (Günther 1868)    in honor of ornithologist Alphonse Boucard, who collected type

Notropis buchanani Meek 1896    in honor of John L. Buchanan, president of Arkansas Industrial University, where Meek was teaching

Notropis cahabae Mayden & Kuhajda 1989    of the Cahaba River, from a Choctaw word meaning “waters above,” referring to water from sky, mountain springs, or gift from above

Notropis calabazas Lyons & Mercado-Silva 2004   referring to Río Calabazas, San Luis Potosí, México, where it is endemic

Notropis calientis Jordan & Snyder 1899    referring to Aquascalientes, México, type locality

Notropis candidus Suttkus 1980    shining white, referring to white sides

Notropis chalybaeus (Cope 1867)    steel-colored, referring to dark lateral stripe

Notropis cumingii (Günther 1868)    in honor of amateur conchologist Hugh Cuming (1791-1865), whose natural history collection (sold to the Natural History Museum in 1866) contained type

Notropis cummingsae Myers 1925    in honor of Mrs. J. H. Cummings, amateur naturalist, for her “investigation of the Wilmington [North Carolina, USA] fauna and flora” (she and her husband also hosted Myers in their houseboat during his North Carolina field work)

Notropis dorsalis dorsalis (Agassiz 1854)    of the back, referring to narrow black band that extends from neck to caudal fin base along the dorsal surface

Notropis dorsalis keimi Fowler 1909    in honor of Fowler’s friend, Thomas D. Keim, who helped collect type and other fishes for the Academy of Natural Sciences (Philadelphia)

Notropis grandis Domínguez-Domínguez, Pérez-Rodríguez, Escalera-Vázquez & Doadrio 2010    large, referring to its larger size relative to other members of the N. calientis complex

Notropis greenei Hubbs & Ortenburger 1929    in honor of Hubbs’ student C. Willard Greene, “who is now engaged in making an ichthyological survey of Wisconsin”

Notropis heterodon (Cope 1865)    heteros, different; don, tooth, referring to variations in dentition, with features at times characteristic of Alburnops (in which it was described) and other times representative of Cyprinella

Notropis heterolepis heterolepis Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1893    heteros, different; lepis, scales, presumably referring to scale variation (scales along median line with a deep notch near middle of posterior margin; scales above lateral band dotted with black; dorsal scales with dark markings)

Notropis heterolepis regalis Hubbs & Lagler 1949    royal, referring to both large size (up to 81 mm SL) and occurrence on Isle Royale, Michigan, USA

Notropis hypsilepis Suttkus & Raney 1955    hypsi-, high; lepis, scale, referring to elevated anterior lateral line scales 

Notropis longirostris (Hay 1881)    longus, long; rostris, nose, referring to long, rounded snout  

Notropis maculatus (Hay 1881)    spotted, referring to large caudal spot  

Notropis marhabatiensis Domínguez-Domínguez, Pérez-Rodríguez, Escalera-Vázquez & Doadrio 2010    ensis, suffix denoting place: Marhabatio, Michoacan, México, type locality

Notropis melanostomus Bortone 1989    melanos, black; stomus, mouth, referring to color of floor of mouth

Notropis moralesi de Buen 1956    in honor of water resource engineer Salvador Morales, who helped collect type

Notropis ortenburgeri Hubbs 1927    in honor of Arthur I. Ortenburger, “who is initiating an Oklahoma Fish Survey”

Notropis ozarcanus Meek 1891    anus, belonging to: the Ozarks, referring to distribution in the Ozark region above the Fall Line in the White and Black River systems, Missouri and Arkansas, USA

Notropis petersoni Fowler 1942    in honor of C. Bernard Peterson, Fowler’s editor at the Academy of Natural Sciences (Philadelphia), who helped collect type

Notropis rafinesquei Suttkus 1991    in honor of “one of our early American naturalists,” Constantine Samuel Rafinesque (1783-1840) 

Notropis sabinae Jordan & Gilbert 1886    of the Sabine River, Texas, USA, type locality

Notropis scabriceps (Cope 1868)    scaber, rough; ceps, head, referring to abrasive tubercles on heads of breeding males

Notropis semperasper Gilbert 1961    semper, always; asper, rough, referring to tubercles on young-of-the-year and juveniles, and to retention of tubercles on adults not just during breeding season but throughout year

Notropis shumardi (Girard 1856)    in honor of geologist George C. Shumard, who collected type      

Notropis spectrunculus (Cope 1868)    specca, spot; trunculus, stem, referring to spot at end of caudal peduncle

Notropis texanus (Girard 1856)    Texan, referring to type localities in Rio Salado and Turkey Creek, both in Texas, USA

Notropis tropicus Hubbs & Miller 1975    tropical, being one of the southernmost species in the family (occurring in the Río Pánuco basin of México)

Notropis uranoscopus Suttkus 1959    urano, sky; scopus, watcher, referring to its skyward (upturned) eyes

Notropis volucellus (Cope 1865)    dimunutive of volucer, flying or swift, probably referring to its “elongate fins, especially the dorsal” 

Notropis wickliffi Trautman 1931    in honor of Trautman’s “loyal friend,” Edward L. Wickliff, “who has done much in carrying on and furthering ichthyological research in Ohio”

Notropis xaenocephalus (Jordan 1877)    xaeno, to scratch; cephalus, head, referring to head tubercles of breeding males

Opsopoeodus Hay 1881    opsopoeos, to feed daintily; odus, tooth, referring to “thoroughness with which the food is prepared by the numerous serrated pharyngeal teeth”

Opsopoeodus emiliae emiliae Hay 1881    in honor of Hay’s wife, Emily

Opsopoeodus emiliae peninsularis (Gilbert & Bailey 1972)    referring to distribution in peninsular Florida, USA

Oregonichthys Hubbs 1929    ichthys, fish, of Oregon, USA, where O. crameri is endemic

Oregonichthys crameri (Snyder 1908)    in honor of Stanford University biologist Frank Cramer, who helped collect type   

Oregonichthys kalawatseti Markle, Pearsons & Bills 1999    “Oregon [USA] once had a remarkable diversity of native peoples with more native languages than all of Europe. The Kalawatset, a tidewater Umpqua people . . . , were part of this lost human diversity and serve to forewarn of a parallel decline in diversity of Oregon’s native freshwater fishes.”  

Orthodon Girard 1856    orthos, straight; don, teeth, referring to knifelike teeth

Orthodon microlepidotus (Ayres 1854)    micro-, small; lepidotus, scaled, referring to smaller scales compared to Pogonichthys macrolepidotus

Phenacobius Cope 1867    phenax, imposter; bios, life; i.e., looks like an herbivore and superficially like a sucker (Catostomidae: Catostomus) but is neither

Phenacobius catostomus Jordan 1877    cato, low; stoma, mouth, referring to downward pointing mouth and superficial resemblance to suckers (Catostomidae: Catostomus

Phenacobius crassilabrum Minckley & Craddock 1962    crassus, fat; labrum, lip, referring to large, fleshy lips

Phenacobius mirabilis (Girard 1856)    strange; Girard said it belonged to the “most curious genus” of American minnows, Exoglossum  

Phenacobius teretulus Cope 1867    referring to terete body form

Phenacobius uranops Cope 1867    urano-, sky; ops, eye, referring to upward-pointing eyes

Pimephales Rafinesque 1820    pimele, fat, cephales, head, the head of P. promelas being “soft and fat all over,” a clear reference to fleshy growth on nape of breeding males [Rafinesque twice incorrectly translated name as “Flat-head” in description of genus, possibly a typesetting error, but correctly translated it as “Fat-head” in description of P. promelas]

Pimephales notatus (Rafinesque 1820)    marked, probably referring to caudal fin spot

Pimephales promelas promelas Rafinesque 1820    pro-, in front of; melas, black; referring to black head of breeding males  

Pimephales promelas harveyensis Hubbs & Lagler 1949    ensis, suffix denoting place: Harvey Lake on Lake Superior’s Isle Royale, Michigan, USA, where it is endemic

Pimephales tenellus tenellus (Girard 1856)    delicate, probably referring to more slender form compared to Hyborhynchus perspicuus (= P. vigilax perspicuus)

Pimephales tenellus parviceps (Hubbs & Black 1947)    parvus, small; ceps, head, presumably referring to shorter head compared to P. t. tenellus

Pimephales vigilax vigilax (Baird & Girard 1853)    alert or watchful, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to vigilance of nest-guarding males    

Pimephales vigilax perspicuus (Girard 1856)    probably referring to perspicuous red and yellow colors 

Plagopterus Cope 1874    plago, wound; pterus, fin, referring to spinose armature of dorsal fin

Plagopterus argentissimus Cope 1874    most silvery, referring to coloration

Platygobio Gill 1863    platy, broad, presumably referring to broad, depressed head; gobio, the similar-looking gudgeon of Europe

Platygobio gracilis gracilis (Richardson 1836)    slender, probably referring to rather elongate body     

Platygobio gracilis gulonellus (Cope 1865)    diminutive of gula, throat, i.e., small throat, perhaps referring to “Breadth between eyes scarcely half length of cranium above” compared to P. g. gracilis

Pogonichthys Girard 1854    pogon, beard, referring to well-developed barbel; ichthys, fish, i.e., “bearded fish”

Pogonichthys ciscoides Hopkirk 1974    -oides, having the form of: referring to similarity to a cisco (Salmonidae: Coregonus)

Pogonichthys macrolepidotus (Ayres 1854)    macro, large; lepid, scale, referring to larger scales compared to Orthodon microlepidotus

Pteronotropis Fowler 1935    ptero-, winged, i.e., Notropis species with enlarged dorsal fin on breeding males

Pteronotropis euryzonus (Suttkus 1955)    eury, broad; zonus, band, referring to broad lateral band  

Pteronotropis grandipinnis (Jordan 1877)    grand, large; pinnis, fins, referring to enlarged dorsal fin of breeding males

Pteronotropis harperi (Fowler 1941)    in honor of naturalist Francis Harper (1886-1972), who collected type while retracing routes of 18th-century naturalists John and William Bartram

Pteronotropis hubbsi (Bailey & Robison 1978)    in honor of ichthyologist Carl L. Hubbs (1894-1979), “who has played a key role in the development of knowledge of Notropis

Pteronotropis hypselopterus (Günther 1868)    hypselo, high; pterus, wing, referring to high dorsal fin of breeding males

Pteronotropis merlini (Suttkus & Mettee 2001)    in honor of Merlin G. Suttkus, who helped his brother Royal collect fishes 

Pteronotropis metallicus (Jordan & Meek 1884)    referring to metallic dusky lateral band 

Pteronotropis signipinnis (Bailey & Suttkus 1952)   signum, banner; pinnis, fins, referring to striking color of median fins

Pteronotropis stonei (Fowler 1921)    in honor of naturalist Witmer Stone (1866-1939), who collected type

Pteronotropis welaka (Evermann & Kendall 1898)    referring to St. Johns River near Welaka, Florida, USA, type locality (welaka is Native American name for St. Johns River, meaning “chain-of-lakes”)

Ptychocheilus Agassiz 1855    ptycho-, folded; cheilus, lip, referring to skin fold behind jaws

Ptychocheilus grandis (Ayres 1854)    large, up to 1.4 m in length

Ptychocheilus lucius Girard 1856    pike, referring to pike-like shape

Ptychocheilus oregonensis (Richardson 1836)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Oregon, USA (the territory, not the state; type locality is probably Fort Vancouver, Washington)

Ptychocheilus umpquae Snyder 1908    of the Umpqua River and its tributaries, Oregon, USA, where it is endemic

Relictus Hubbs & Miller 1972    a relict fish, left behind when pluvial waters dried up

Relictus solitarius Hubbs & Miller 1972    alone, being the only fish in any of the lake basins in which it occurs     

Rhinichthys Agassiz 1849    rhinos, nose, referring to prominent snout of R. atronasus (=atratulus); ichthys, fish

Rhinichthys atratulus (Hermann 1804)    dressed in black, referring to stripe on body and around snout

Rhinichthys cataractae cataractae (Valenciennes 1842)    of cataracts, referring to area around Niagara Falls, North America, type locality

Rhinichthys cataractae dulcis (Girard 1856)    sweet, referring to Sweetwater River, Wyoming, USA, type locality 

Rhinichthys cataractae smithi Nichols 1916    in honor of archaeologist Harlan I. Smith (1872-1940), who collected type

Rhinichthys cobitis (Girard 1856)    similar to European loaches (Cobitis)

Rhinichthys deaconi Miller 1984    in honor of James E. Deacon, University of Nevada, “whose concern about the conservation status of many fishes from the Southwest has aroused interest on their behalf and whose ecological studies have provided the necessary biological information needed to aid their survival”

Rhinichthys evermanni Snyder 1908    in honor of Barton Warren Evermann (1853-1932), who surveyed the Pacific Northwest fish fauna of North America and later served as chief scientist of the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries, which published Snyder’s paper

Rhinichthys falcatus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1893)    falcate or sickle-shaped, referring to large dorsal fin with prolonged anterior rays 

Rhinichthys obtusus Agassiz 1854    blunt, referring to more blunt body compared to R. marmoratus (=cataractae)  

Rhinichthys osculus osculus (Girard 1856)    little mouth, allusion uncertain, perhaps referring to “comparatively small head”

Rhinichthys osculus adobe (Jordan & Evermann 1891)    Spanish for clay, referring to its color (“grayish-olivaceous above”) and “the bottom it frequents”

Rhinichthys osculus carringtonii (Cope 1872)    in honor of Campbell Carrington, U.S. government survey naturalist who collected type

Rhinichthys osculus klamathensis (Evermann & Meek 1898)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Klamath River drainage, Oregon and California, USA, where it is endemic

Rhinichthys osculus lariversi Lugaski 1972    in honor of zoologist Ira La Rivers (1915-1977), University of Nevada, for his work on the fishes of Nevada

Rhinichthys osculus lethoporus Hubbs & Miller 1972    lethos, forgetful; porus, pore, referring to extreme reduction of lateral line

Rhinichthys osculus moapae Williams 1978    of the Moapa River, Nevada, USA, where it is endemic

Rhinichthys osculus nevadensis Gilbert 1893    ensis, suffix denoting place: Nevada, USA, where it is endemic

Rhinichthys osculus nubilus (Girard 1856)    dusky, referring to blackish-brown color

Rhinichthys osculus oligoporus Hubbs & Miller 1972    oligo, few; porus, pore, referring to reduced lateral line

Rhinichthys osculus reliquus Hubbs & Miller 1972    relict, being the only surviving native fish in Grass Valley, Nevada, USA (until 1938, that is, when it was last collected) 

Rhinichthys osculus robustus (Rutter 1903)    stout, referring to its “heavy” body 

Rhinichthys osculus thermalis (Hubbs & Kuhne 1937)    Latin for hot spring, referring to Kendall Warm Spring, Wyoming, USA, where it is endemic 

Rhinichthys osculus velifer Gilbert 1893    velum, sail; fero, to bear, probably referring to long pectoral fins, which overlap front of anal fin

Rhinichthys osculus yarrowi Jordan & Evermann 1891    in honor of surgeon-naturalist Henry C. Yarrow (1840-1929), for his work on the fishes of the Colorado River

Rhinichthys umatilla (Gilbert & Evermann 1894)    referring to Umatilla, Oregon, USA, type locality (also occurs in Idaho, Washington and British Columbia)

Richardsonius Girard 1856    ius, pertaining to: surgeon-naturalist John Richardson (1787-1865), who described R. balteatus

Richardsonius balteatus balteatus (Richardson 1836)    girdled, possibly referring to “broad scarlet-red stripe” on breeding males 

Richardsonius balteatus hydrophlox (Cope 1872)    hydro, water; phlox, flame, referring to brilliant breeding colors          

Richardsonius egregius (Girard 1858)    exceptional, probably referring to its vivid coloration, being one of the most colorful fishes of the American West 

Semotilus Rafinesque 1820    marked, referring to spot on dorsal fin of S. atromaculatus

Semotilus atromaculatus (Mitchill 1818)    atro, black; maculatus, spotted, referring to prominent spot on dorsal fin    

Semotilus corporalis (Mitchill 1817)    of the body, perhaps referring to chubby physique

Semotilus lumbee Snelson & Suttkus 1978    referring to Lumbee Indians who inhabited Lumber River system in North Carolina, USA, type locality

Semotilus thoreauianus Jordan 1877    anus, belonging to: author and philosopher Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862), “an excellent ichthyologist, one of the first to say a good word for the study of Cyprinidae” (in 1842, Thoreau wrote: “I am the wiser in respect to all knowledge, and the better qualified for all fortunes, for knowing that there is a minnow in the brook.”)

Siphateles Cope 1883    siphon, tube; ateles, imperfect, referring to “undeveloped” lateral line of S. vittatus (=juvenile S. bicolor)

Siphateles alvordensis (Hubbs & Miller 1972)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Alvord River basin of Oregon and Nevada, where it is endemic

Siphateles bicolor bicolor (Girard 1856)    two-colored, referring to darker coloration above, white or silvery below 

Siphateles bicolor columbianus (Snyder 1908)    anus, belonging to: Columbia River, Oregon, USA, which at one time was connected to the Harney basin, where it is endemic

Siphateles bicolor euchila (Hubbs & Miller 1972)    eu-, good or well; chila, lip, referring to large mouth and fleshy lips  

Siphateles bicolor eurysoma (Williams & Bond 1981)    eury, wide; soma, body, referring to wide head and body

Siphateles bicolor isolata (Hubbs & Miller 1972)    isolated, i.e., confined to Warm Springs Marsh, Elko County, Nevada, USA

Siphateles bicolor mohavensis Snyder 1918    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Mojave River basin, California, USA, where it is endemic

Siphateles bicolor newarkensis (Hubbs & Miller 1972)    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Newark Valley and pluvial Lake Newark, Nevada, USA, where it is endemic

Siphateles bicolor obesa (Girard 1856)    plump, referring to chubby form of some specimens

Siphateles bicolor oregonensis (Snyder 1908)    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Oregon, USA, where it is endemic to the Albert Lake basin

Siphateles bicolor pectinifer (Snyder 1917)    comb-like, referring to gill rakers, which are finer and more numerous compared to S. b. obesa

Siphateles bicolor snyderi (Miller 1973)    in honor of John Otterbein Snyder (1867-1943), pioneer ichthyologist of the American West  

Siphateles bicolor thalassinus (Cope 1883)    sea-green, referring to “light, translucent green” coloration when “fresh”

Siphateles bicolor vaccaceps (Bills & Bond 1980)    vacca, cow; ceps, head, referring to Cow Head Basin, California and Nevada, USA, where it is endemic

Siphateles boraxobius (Williams & Bond 1980)    –ius, adjectival suffix: referring to Borax Lake, Oregon, USA, where it is endemic; bios, life, i.e., living in borax

Stypodon Garman 1881    stypo, stump; don, tooth, referring to snail-grinding teeth

Stypodon signifer Garman 1881    signum, mark; fero, to bear, perhaps referring to promiment lateral band

Tampichthys Schönhuth, Doadrio, Dominguez-Dominguez, Hillis & Mayden 2008    tamp, referring to Tampico Embayment drainage of México, where all species occur; ichthys, fish

Tampichthys catostomops (Hubbs & Miller 1977)    ops, appearance, resembling a sucker (Catostomidae: Catostomus)

Tampichthys dichroma (Hubbs & Miller 1977)    di-, two; chroma, color (sooty above, light below)

Tampichthys erimyzonops (Hubbs & Miller 1974)    ops, appearance, resembling, a young chubsucker (Catostomidae: Erimyzon)

Tampichthys ipni (Álvarez & Navarro 1953)    in honor of Instituto Politecnio Nacional (IPN), México, where the authors worked

Tampichthys mandibularis (Contreras-Balderas & Verduzco-Martínez 1977)    referring to long mandible, or jaw

Tampichthys rasconis (Jordan & Snyder 1899)    –is, genitive singular of: Rascon, San Luis Potosí, México, type locality

Yuriria Jordan & Evermann 1896    referring to Lake Yuriria in Guanajuato, México, where Y. alta is abundant

Yuriria alta (Jordan 1880)    high, referring to elevated back

Yuriria amatlana Domínguez-Domínguez, Pompa-Domínguez & Doadria 2007    –ana, belonging to: Amatlan de Cañas (a town), Nayarit, México, type locality

Yuriria chapalae (Jordan & Snyder 1899)    of Lago de Chapala, Jalisco, México, type locality