v. 19.0 – 29 Sept. 2017  view/download PDF

Subfamily LEUCISCINAE (Old World)

Abramis Cuvier 1816    ancient Greek for bream or mullet

Abramis brama (Linnaeus 1758)    derived from abramis, ancient Greek for bream or mullet

Acanthobrama Heckel 1843    acanthos, thorn or spine, referring to thickened, spine-like last unbranched dorsal fin ray; brama, derived from abramis, ancient Greek for bream or mullet, i.e., a “spiny bream”

Acanthobrama centisquama Heckel 1843    centum, hundred; squama, scale, referring to 100 scales on lateral line of holotype (ranges from 90 to 100 on specimens examined since description)

Acanthobrama hadiyahensis Coad, Alkahem & Behnke 1983    ensis, suffix denoting place: Wadi Hadiyah, near Hadiyah, Saudi Arabia, type locality

Acanthobrama lissneri Tortonese 1952    in honor of the late H. Lissner, a “keen ichthyologist who greatly furthered the investigations on the fishes of Lake Tiberias” (or Sea of Galilee), Israel, type locality

Acanthobrama marmid Heckel 1843    Arabic vernacular for this species

Acanthobrama microlepis (De Filippi 1863)    micro-, small; lepis, scale, “Squamae exiguae,” with 82 along the lateral line

Acanthobrama orontis Heckel 1843    latinization of Orontes, river basin in Turkey, where Lake Antioch (or Amik), type locality, is situated

Acanthobrama persidis (Coad 1981)    -is, genitive singular of: the Greek persis, a province of Persia or Iran, now known as Far, where it is endemic

Acanthobrama telavivensis Goren, Fishelson & Trewavas 1973    ensis, suffix denoting place: Tel Aviv, Israel, near type locality at Yarkon springs

Acanthobrama thisbeae Freyhof & Özuluğ 2014    named for Thisbe, who was in love with Pyramus in Ovid’s Metamorphoses; Pyramus is the ancient Greek and Latin name for the Ceyhan River, southern Anatolia, where this species is endemic   

Acanthobrama tricolor (Lortet 1883)    tri-, three, referring to “remarkable” (translation) coloration of living specimens: reddish-brown above lateral line, pearly whitish-pink below, the fins a silvery yellow

Acanthobrama urmianus (Günther 1899)    anus, belonging to: Urmi River, Iran, one of the type localities

Achondrostoma Robalo, Almada, Levy & Doadrio 2007    a-, without; chondros, cartilage; stoma, mouth, referring to absence of horny plate on mouth as seen in Chondrostoma

Achondrostoma arcasii (Steindachner 1866)    in honor of zoologist Laureano Pérez Arcas (1824-1894), University of Madrid, who shared specimens with Steindachner

Achondrostoma occidentale (Robalo, Almada, Sousa Santos, Moreira & Doadrio 2005)    western, referring to Oeste (West in English), Portugal, where it is endemic

Achondrostoma oligolepis (Robalo, Doadrio, Almada & Kottelat 2005)    oligo-, few; lepis, scale, referring to larger and therefore fewer scales compared to A. arcasii

Achondrostoma salmantinum Doadrio & Elvira 2007    inum, adjectival suffix: Salmantia, Roman name for Salamanca, Spanish city and province inhabited by this species

Alburnoides Jeitteles 1861    oides, having the form of: Alburnus, referring to original placement of A. maculatus in that genus

Alburnoides bipunctatus (Bloch 1782)    bi-, two; punctatus, spotted, referring to each scale of anterior half of lateral line with a pair of black specks, each composed of minute dots

Alburnoides coadi Mousavi-Sabet, Vatandoust & Doadrio 2015    in honor of Brian W. Coad (Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa), the “most famous ichthyologist who studied Iranian freshwater fishes, especially the genus Alburnoides

Alburnoides damghani Roudbar, Eagderi, Esmaeili, Coad & Bogutskaya 2016    of the Damghan River system at Cheshmeh Ali, Semnan Province, Iran, type locality

Alburnoides devolli Bogutskaya, Zupančič & Naseka 2010    of Devoll River, upper Seman River drainage, Albania, type locality

Alburnoides diclensis Turan, Bektaş, Kaya & Bayçelebi 2016    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Dicle, Turkish name for Tigris River, where it is known from two streams in the river’s upper drainage

Alburnoides eichwaldii (De Filippi 1863)    in honor of geologist-zoologist Charles Edward von Eichwald (also known as Karl Eduard von Eichwald, 1795-1876), who had previously identified this species as a variety of Alburnus alburnus

Alburnoides emineae Turan, Kaya, Ekmekçi & Doğan 2014    in honor of Emine Turan, “beloved” mother of first author

Alburnoides fangfangae Bogutskaya, Zupančič & Naseka 2010    in memory of cyprinid taxonomist Fang Fang Kullander (1962-2010), Swedish Museum of Natural History

Alburnoides fasciatus (Nordmann 1840)    banded, referring to double longitudinal dark black band

Alburnoides freyhofi Turan, Kaya, Bayçelebi, Bektaş & Ekmekçi 2017    in honor of Jörg Freyhof (b. 1964), Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (Berlin), for his contribution to the knowledge of the fishes of the Middle East

Alburnoides gmelini Bogutskaya & Coad 2009    in honor of Samuel Georg Gotlieb Gmelin (1744-1774), Russian naturalist who traveled through the River Don area and the Caucasus region and along the western and southern Caspian Sea coasts (1768-1774); he was captured by Usmey-Khan, held for ransom and died in captivity; the results of his expedition were published posthumously

Alburnoides holciki Coad & Bogutskaya 2012    in honor of the late Juraj Holcík (1934-2010), Bratislava, colleague and friend, for his many contributions to ichthyology

Alburnoides idignensis Bogutskaya & Coad 2009    ensis, suffix denoting place: Idigna, Sumerian name for Tigris River, referring to distribution in Tigris River system of Iran

Alburnoides kosswigi Turan, Kaya, Bayçelebi, Bektaş & Ekmekçi 2017    in honor of Curt Kosswig (1903-1982), the “father of ichthyology in Turkey” (where this cyprinid occurs)

Alburnoides kubanicus Bănărescu 1964    icus, belonging to: Kuban River drainage, Russia, type locality (also occurs in Laba River drainage)

Alburnoides kurui Turan, Kaya, Bayçelebi, Bektaş & Ekmekçi 2017    in honor of Mustafa Kuru (b. 1940), Başkent University (Ankara), for his contribution to the knowledge of the fishes of Turkey (where this cyprinid occurs)

Alburnoides maculatus (Kessler 1859)    spotted, referring to scales on sides of body with black spots that also outline lateral line

Alburnoides manyasensis Turan, Ekmekçi, Kaya & Güçlü 2013    ensis, suffix denoting place: Lake Manyas basin, Turkey, where it is endemic

Alburnoides namaki Bogutskaya & Coad 2009    of Namak Lake basin, Iran, where it is endemic to a qanat (underground water channel)

Alburnoides nicolausi Bogutskaya & Coad 2009    named after the Latin male name Nicolaus, alluding to (but not specifically named for) sons of both authors, Nikolay (Bogutskaya’s eldest son) and Nicholas (Coad’s)

Alburnoides oblongus Bulgakov 1923    oblong, presumably referring to “elongated, somewhat slender” (translation) body

Alburnoides ohridanus (Karaman 1928)    anus, belonging to: Lake Ohrid, Macedonia and Albania, where it is endemic

Alburnoides parhami Mousavi-Sabet, Vatandoust & Doadrio 2015    generally in honor of all the Iranian conservation officers who sacrificed their lives in order to protect the environment, but specifically for Saeid Parham (1980-2009), a conservation officer in Khorasan-e-Shomali Province, who was killed in a battle with illegal hunters near the type locality of this species near the Iran-Turkmenistan border

Alburnoides petrubanarescui Bogutskaya & Coad 2009    in honor of the late Petru Bănărescu (1921-2009), Institute of Biology, Bucharest, “a great freshwater ichthyologist who contributed significantly to our knowledge of fishes of Eurasia”

Alburnoides prespensis (Karaman 1924)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Lake Prespa and tributaries, Macedonia, type locality (also occurs in Albania and Greece)

Alburnoides qanati Coad & Bogutskaya 2009    of a qanat (an underground water channel), referring to habitat in which it was found, “now fast disappearing with the use of pump wells, and in recognition of the contribution to civilization made by the Iranian people through this innovative irrigation technique”

Alburnoides rossicus Berg 1924    Russian, referring to type localities in Dnieper and Volga rivers, Russia

Alburnoides samiii Mousavi-Sabet, Vatandoust & Doadrio 2015    in honor of Majid Samii (b. 1937), world-famous neurosurgeon and medical scientist, who was born in Rasht, Iran, capital city of Guilan Province, region where type locality (Sefidroud River) of this species is situated

Alburnoides smyrnae Pellegrin 1927    from a stream near Smyrna, Turkey, type locality

Alburnoides tabarestanensis Mousavi-Sabet, Anvarifar & Azizi 2015    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Tabarestan, historical name of Mazandaran Province, Iran, which includes the Tajan River, type locality

Alburnoides taeniatus taeniatus (Kessler 1874)    banded, referring to wide, straight dark band running along sides above lateral line

Alburnoides taeniatus drjagini Turdakov & Piskarev 1955    patronym not identified, probably in honor of Petr Amphilokhovich Drjagin (1893-?), ichthyologist, hydrobiologist and fisheries specialist, a pioneer of fisheries research in Russia and management of inland waters, who authored a study of Chu River (where this subspecies occurs) fishes in 1936

Alburnoides tzanevi Chichkoff 1933    in honor of Panayot Tzanev, a former assistant at the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, who collected large ichthyological samples (but there is no direct indication he collected type)    

Alburnoides varentsovi Bogutskaya & Coad 2009    in honor of Petr Aleksandrovich Varentsov, who lived and traveled in the Transcaspian Province of the former Russian Empire, collected type in 1896, and wrote a book on the geography and natural history of the area in 1907

Alburnoides velioglui Turan, Kaya, Ekmekçi & Doğan 2014    in honor of Hasan Basri Velioğlu, M.D., who “eased” and contributed to the authors’ earlier and present studies through the use of radiography

Alburnus Rafinesque 1820    proposed for European species but no species mentioned; type (Cyprinus alburnus) by absolute tautonymy

Alburnus akili Battalgil 1942    in honor of Akil Muhtar Özden (1877-1949), professor of pharmacodynamics and clinical therapy at Istanbul University Medical School and internal medicine expert

Alburnus albidus (Costa 1838)    whitish, referring to silvery-white coloration

Alburnus alburnus alburnus (Linnaeus 1758)    Latin for whitefish, from albus, white, referring to pale, silvery coloration; name also reflects British vernacular, bleak, a little-used synonym for pale

Alburnus alburnus charusini Herzenstein 1889    in honor of Alexei N. Charusin (also spelled Alexey N. Kharuzin, 1864-1932), Russian ethnographer, anthropologist and statesman, who collected type

Alburnus arborella (Bonaparte 1841)    presumably a misspelling of alborella, Italian vernacular for this species

Alburnus atropatenae Berg 1925    of Atropatene, ancient kingdom that includes modern-day Iran, Azarbaijan and Kurdistan, referring to distribution in northwestern Iran

Alburnus attalus Özuluğ & Freyhof 2007    named for Attalus I (269-197 BC), who ruled Pergamon, a Hellenistic polis in contemporary Turkey, where it is endemic

Alburnus baliki Bogutskaya, Küçük & Ünlü 2000    in honor of Suleyman Balik, for contributions to the knowledge of fishes of West Anatolia and the Mediterranean region of Turkey

Alburnus battalgilae Özuluğ & Freyhof 2007    in honor of Fahire Battalgil (later Battalgazi, 1902-1948), author of five papers on Anatolian fishes

Alburnus belvica Karaman 1924    Macedonian vernacular for this species at Lake Prespa (type locality), meaning “white fish”

Alburnus caeruleus Heckel 1843    sky-blue, referring to color of horizontal stripe on side

Alburnus carinatus Battalgil 1941    keeled, referring to well-developed ventral keel

Alburnus chalcoides (Güldenstädt 1772)    oides, having the form of: chalkos, copper, alluding to Greek vernacular, Harengus chalcois (copper herring), perhaps referring to copper sheen of head and opercular region of some specimens

Alburnus danubicus Antipa 1909    icus, belonging to: Danube River Delta, described as a Danube variety of A. chalcoides

Alburnus demiri Özuluğ & Freyhof 2007    in honor of Muzaffer Demir, for great contributions to the knowledge of Turkish benthic invertebrates and marine fishes

Alburnus derjugini Berg 1923    in honor of oceanographer Konstantin Mikhailovich Deryugin (1878-1938), who recognized this shemaya as a distinct form in 1899 but did not name it

Alburnus doriae De Filippi 1865    in honor of zoologist Giacoma Doria (1840-1913), president of the Italian Geographic Society, who led (or at least supported) expedition that collected type

Alburnus escherichii Steindachner 1897    in honor of entomologist Karl L. Escherich (1871-1951), who collected type

Alburnus filippii Kessler 1877    patronym not identified but probably in honor of Filippo de Filippi (1814-1867), presumably for his work on Central Asian fishes

Alburnus heckeli Battalgil 1943    patronym not identified but clearly in honor of Austrian ichthyologist Johann Jakob Heckel (1790-1857), whose 1843 Ichthyologie included many Turkish fishes

Alburnus hohenackeri Kessler 1877    in honor of Swiss-German missionary and botanist Rudolph Hohenhacker (1798-1874), who collected part of the type series

Alburnus istanbulensis Battalgil 1941    ensis, suffix denoting place: Istanbul, Turkey, near type locality at Kâathane (Kagithane) stream, Bosphorus River drainage

Alburnus kotschyi Steindachner 1863    in honor of botanist and explorer Theodor Kotschy (1813-1866), who collected type

Alburnus leobergi Freyhof & Kottelat 2007    in honor of Soviet ichthyologist Lev (also Leo) Semyonovich Berg (1876-1950), who first realized (1949) that there were different shemayas in the Black and Azov Sea basins

Alburnus macedonicus Karaman 1928    Macedonian, referring to type localities in Lake Dojran and Vardar River, Macedonia (also occurs in Greece)

Alburnus mandrensis (Drensky 1943)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Lake Mandras drainage, Black Sea basin, Bulgaria, type locality

Alburnus maximus (Fatio 1882)    greatest or largest, referring to larger size compared to A. arborella

Alburnus mento (Heckel 1837)    etymology not explained, probably mentus, chin, referring to lower jaw considerably projecting beyond upper

Alburnus mentoides Kessler 1859    oides, having the form of, referring to “very close” (translation) similarity to A. mento

Alburnus nasreddini Battalgil 1943    in honor of Nasrettin Hoca (also spelled Nasreddin Hodja), 13th-century populist philosopher and humorist, whose hometown (Akşehir, Turkey) is the type locality

Alburnus neretvae Buj, Šanda & Perea 2010    of the the Neretva River drainage, where it is endemic

Alburnus nicaeensis Battalgil 1941    ensis, suffix denoting place: Nicaea, ancient Greek name for what is now Iznik, Turkey, referring to Lake Iznik, where it is endemic (and feared extinct)

Alburnus orontis Sauvage 1882    latinization of Orontes, principal river in Syria, type locality

Alburnus qalilus Krupp 1992    Arabic word for few, referring to low number of lateral line scales and anal fin rays compared to congeners

Alburnus sarmaticus Freyhof & Kottelat 2007    icus, belonging to: the Sarmatians, a group of tribes that inhabited southern Russia, Ukraine and eastern Balkans from 5th century BC to 4th century AD, referring to distribution in Rivers South Bug and Danube (Bulgaria, Croatia, Romania, Slovenia, Ukraine)

Alburnus sava Bogutskaya, Zupančič, Jelić, Diripasko & Naseka 2017    referring to the Sava River drainage, Black Sea basin, where it appears to be endemic

Alburnus schischkovi (Drensky 1943)    in honor of Bulgarian biologist Georgi Chichkoff (also spelled Chichkov and Schischkov), who identified this cyprinid as unique in 1935 but assigned it to Chalcalnurnus chalcoides derjugini (=Alburnus derjugini) in 1935

Alburnus scoranza Heckel & Kner 1858    vernacular for this species in Lake Skadar (border of Montenegro and Albania), type locality

Alburnus selcuklui Elp, Şen & Özuluğ 2015    in honor of the Selcuklu Empire (1037-1194), originating from the branch of Oguz Turks, which controlled a vast area stretching from the Hindu Kush to eastern Anatolia (where this cyprinid occurs) and from Central Asia to the Persian Gulf

Alburnus sellal Heckel 1843    vernacular for this species in Aleppo, Syria

Alburnus tarichi (Güldenstädt 1814)    Georgian vernacular for this species (given in English as tarek)

Alburnus thessalicus (Stephanidis 1950)    -icus, belonging to: Thessaly, Greece, where Rivers Pinios and Sperchios, type localities, are situated (also occurs in Macedonia and Bulgaria)

Alburnus vistonicus Freyhof & Kottelat 2007    icus, belonging to: Lake Vistonis, Greece, only known area of occurrence

Alburnus volviticus Freyhof & Kottelat 2007    icus, belonging to: Lake Volvi, Greece, only known area of occurrence

Alburnus zagrosensis Coad 2009    ensis, suffix denoting place: Zagros Mountains, Iran, where it is endemic to Karun River basin

Anaecypris Collares-Pereira 1983    Anas, Latin name of Guadiana River, Spain, type locality of type species; cypris, a small carp, a common suffix for cyprinid genera

Anaecypris hispanica (Steindachner 1866)    Hispanic, a term that originally denoted a relationship to Hispania (now Iberian Peninsula), referring to distribution in Spain and Portugal

Aspiolucius Berg 1907    aspius, asp (see Aspius, below); lucius, pike, i.e., an Aspius-like cyprinid with a pike-like shape

Aspiolucius esocinus (Kessler 1874)    pike-like, referring to elongate shape, similar to pikes (Esox, Esocidae)

Aspius Agassiz 1832    tautonymous with Cyprinus aspius

Aspius aspius aspius (Linnaeus 1758)    latinization of asp, derived from esp or esping, Swedish vernacular for this species, perhaps alluding to how its spectacular April spawning run coincides with the blooming of the asp tree, Populus tremula (Sven O. Kullander, pers. comm.)

Aspius aspius taeniatus (Eichwald 1831)    banded, referring to several longitudinal black bands on sides

Aspius vorax Heckel 1843    voracious, translation of Arabian name kaschschasck, referring to how it “consumes everything it finds” (translation)

Ballerus Heckel 1843     tautonymous with Cyprinus ballerus

Ballerus ballerus (Linnaeus 1758)    latinization of baleros, ancient Greek name for this species, first mentioned by Aristotle (Ronald Fricke, pers. comm.)

Ballerus sapa (Pallas 1814)    latinization of Russian vernacular for this species, ssapà or ssopa

Blicca Heckel 1843    tautonymous with Cyprinus blicca Bloch 1782 (= B. bjoerkna), based on the German vernacular Blicke

Blicca bjoerkna (Linnaeus 1758)    latinization of björkna, Swedish vernacular for this species

Chondrostoma Agassiz 1832    chondros, cartilage; stoma, mouth, referring to presumed content of horny layer on lower lip

Chondrostoma angorense Elvira 1987    ensis, suffix denoting place: Angora (Ankara), capital of Turkey, country where it is endemic (name was coined by Franz Steindachner while labeling type specimens but never published)

Chondrostoma beysehirense Bogutskaya 1997    ensis, suffix denoting place: Beysehir Lake, Turkey, where it is endemic

Chondrostoma ceyhanense Küçük, Turan, Güçlü, Mutlu & Çiftci 2017    ensis, suffix denoting place: Ceyhan River, Turkey, only known area of occurrence

Chondrostoma colchicum Derjugin 1899    icus, belonging to: Colchis, ancient name for eastern coast of Black Sea in Georgia, type locality

Chondrostoma fahirae (Ladiges 1960)    in honor of Turkish zoologist Fahire Battalgazi (formerly Battalgil, 1902-1948), under whose research program type was collected

Chondrostoma holmwoodii (Boulenger 1896)    in honor of Frederic Holmwood, British Consul-General at Smyrna (now Izmir, Turkey), who collected type

Chondrostoma kinzelbachi Krupp 1985    in honor of Ragnar Kinzelbach, who placed holotype at Krupp’s disposal, for his contributions to the knowledge of Middle East zoology

Chondrostoma knerii Heckel 1843    patronym not identified but certainly in honor of Heckel’s Vienna colleague, ichthyologist Rudolf Kner (1810-1869)

Chondrostoma kubanicum Berg 1914    icum, belonging to: Kuban River drainage, Black Sea basin, where it is endemic

Chondrostoma meandrense Elvira 1987    ensis, suffix denoting place: Büyük Menderes river basin, western Anatolia, where it is endemic

Chondrostoma nasus (Linnaeus 1758)    nose, referring to its prominent snout (“rostro prominente”)

Chondrostoma orientale Bianco & Bănărescu 1982    eastern, being the easternmost member of the genus

Chondrostoma oxyrhynchum oxyrhynchum Kessler 1877    oxys, sharp; rhynchus, snout, referring to slightly prominent snout

Chondrostoma oxyrhynchum cyri Kessler 1877    of the Kura River (Cyrus in Latin), Georgia, type locality

Chondrostoma phoxinus Heckel 1843    referring to shape and scales similar to those of Cyprinus (=Phoxinus) phoxinus

Chondrostoma prespense Karaman 1924    ensis, suffix denoting place: Lakes Prespa basin (Greece, Macedonia and Albania)

Chondrostoma regium (Heckel 1843)    royal, translation of Zurri, Arabic vernacular for this species in Mosul

Chondrostoma scodrense Elvira 1987    ensis, suffix denoting place: Scodra, Latin name of Lake Scutari, border of Montenegro and Albania, where it is endemic

Chondrostoma soetta Bonaparte 1840    presumably a latinization of savetta, Italian vernacular for this species

Chondrostoma toros Küçük, Turan, Güçlü, Mutlu & Çiftci 2017    Turkish for Taurus, referring to the Central Taurus Mountains of Turkey, where it occurs

Chondrostoma vardarense Karaman 1928    ensis, suffix denoting place: Vardar River, Macedonia, type locality (occurs throughout Aegean and Adriatic basins in Turkey, Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia and Albania)

Chondrostoma variabile Yakovlev 1870    variable, referring to “inconsistency of species characteristics, which vary more or less highly” (translation), e.g., shape of pharyngeal bone, number of pharyngeal teeth, head and body shape, position of fins, coloration, and meristic counts

Delminichthys Freyhof, Lieckfeldt, Bogutskaya, Pitra & Ludwig 2006    Delminium, capital of pre-Roman Dalmatia, Croatia, where all species occur; ichthys, fish

Delminichthys adspersus (Heckel 1843)    besprinkled, “densely studded with black dots” (translation)

Delminichthys ghetaldii (Steindachner 1882)    in honor of Croatian mayor and horticulturalist Francesco Ghetaldi-Gondola (1833-1899), who apparently facilitated the collection of type from an underground cave in Herzegovina

Delminichthys jadovensis (Zupančič & Bogutskaya 2002)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Jadova River at Ploca, Croatia, type locality

Delminichthys krbavensis (Zupančič & Bogutskaya 2002)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Krbava, Croatia, type locality

Iberochondrostoma Robalo, Almada, Levy & Doadrio 2007    referring to Iberian Peninsula, where this genus, formerly recognized as Chondrostoma, is distributed

Iberochondrostoma almacai (Coelho, Mesquita & Collares-Pereira 2005)    in honor of Carlos Almaça (1934-2010), University of Lisbon, “for his long and outstanding contributions to the study of differentiation patterns and evolutionary processes of Euro-Mediterranean cyprinids”

Iberochondrostoma lemmingii (Steindachner 1866)    patronym not identified nor able to infer from available evidence (originally spelled leminingii by Steindachner, apparently in error)

Iberochondrostoma lusitanicum (Collares-Pereira 1980)    icus, belonging to: Lusitania, ancient name of Portugal, where it is endemic

Iberochondrostoma olisiponense (Gante, Santos & Alves 2007)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Oliispo, archaic name for Lisbon, Portugal, general vicinity where it occurs

Iberochondrostoma oretanum (Doadrio & Carmona 2003)    anum, adjectival suffix: referring to Oretania, area in south-central Spain formerly inhabited by the Oretano people, corresponding to its range

Iberocypris Doadrio 1980    ibero, referring to distribution on Southern Iberian Peninsula of Spain; cypris, a small carp, a common suffix for cyprinid genera

Iberocypris palaciosi Doadrio 1980    in honor of Fernando Palacios Arribas, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (Marid, Spain), for his “tireless” (translation) research of Spanish vertebrates

Ladigesocypris Karaman 1972    in honor of aquarist and ichthyologist Werner Ladiges (1910-1984), director, Zoologisches Staatsinstitut und Zoologischen Museum in Hamburg, who helped Karaman with the “linguistic structure” (translation) of his manuscript, and who described two of the three species of the genus; cypris, a small carp, a common suffix for cyprinid genera

Ladigesocypris ghigii (Gianferrari 1927)    in honor of zoologist Alessandro Ghigi (1875-1970), who collected type

Ladigesocypris irideus (Ladiges 1960)    rainbow-like, referring to coloration in life, with reddish-golden sides, iridescent purple on shoulder, and silver belly

Ladigesocypris mermere (Ladiges 1960)    referring to Mermere (Lake Marmara), Turkey, type locality

Leucalburnus Berg 1916    described as being intermediate between the genera Leuciscus and Alburnus

Leucalburnus satunini (Berg 1910)    in honor of zoologist Konstantin Alekseevich Satunin (1853-1916), who collected type

Leucaspius Heckel & Kner 1858    combining pharyngeal teeth morphology of Leucos and lower jaw placement (entering depression of upper jaw) of Aspius

Leucaspius delineatus (Heckel 1843)    de-, opposite of or removed; lineatus, lined, referring to seeming absence of lateral line (just 8-12 pored scales)

Leuciscus Cuvier 1816    tautonymous with Cyprinus leuciscus                 

Leuciscus baicalensis (Dybowski 1874)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Lake Baikal basin, Russia, where it is endemic

Leuciscus bearnensis (Blanchard 1866)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Béarn, French province that is home to Lake Mariscot, near Biarritz, type locality

Leuciscus bergi Kashkarov 1925    in honor of Lev (also Leo) Semyonovich Berg (1876-1950), an “eminent scientist in general, and ichthyologist in particular” (translation)

Leuciscus burdigalensis Valenciennes 1844    ensis, suffix denoting place: Burdigala, ancient name of Bordeaux, France, area of Gironde estuary, type locality

Leuciscus chuanchicus (Kessler 1876)    icus, belonging to: Chuanche (or Chuan Che, “Yellow”) River, Yangtze River drainage, Qinuhai Province, China, type locality

Leuciscus danilewskii (Kessler 1877)    in honor of Nikolai Danilewski (also spelled Nikolay Danilevsky, 1822-1885), Russian naturalist, economist, ethnologist, philosopher and historian, who collected two specimens in type series

Leuciscus dzungaricus Paepke & Koch 1998    icus, belonging to: Dzungarian Gobi (Mongolia and China), where it occurs

Leuciscus idus (Linnaeus 1758)    latinization of Swedish vernacular id, a reference to its bright color

Leuciscus latus (Keyserling 1861)    wide or broad, possibly referring to “broad, flat face” (translation)

Leuciscus lehmanni Brandt 1852    in honor of Russian biologist Alexander Lehmann, who led 1841-1842 expedition that collected type

Leuciscus leuciscus (Linnaeus 1758)    leukiskos, Greek word for chub, probably derived from leukos, white, referring to silvery sides

Leuciscus lindbergi Zanin & Eremejev 1934    in honor of Georgii Ustinovich Lindberg, Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia, who supervised the authors’ work

Leuciscus merzbacheri (Zugmayer 1912)    in honor of German geographer, mountaineer and explorer Gottfried Merzbacher (1843-1926), who collected type      

Leuciscus oxyrrhis (La Blanchère 1873)    oxy, sharp; rhis, nose, referring to long snout, “jutting out in a sharp point in front of mouth” (translation)

Leuciscus schmidti (Herzenstein 1896)    in honor of P. Schmidt (presumably Russian ichthyologist Petr Yulievich Schmidt [1872-1949]), who collected type

Leuciscus waleckii (Dybowski 1869)    patronym not identified but likely in honor of Dybowski’s Polish colleague, zoologist Antoni Wałecki

Leucos Heckel 1843    leucos or leukos, white, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to silver-white body color of L. cisalpinus (=L. aula) and/or congeners in life, or perhaps an abridgement of Leuciscus or Leucosomus (=Notemigonus), both derived from leukiskos, Greek word for chub

Leucos albus (Marić 2010)    white, referring to silver-white color in life

Leucos aula (Bonaparte 1841)    etymology not explained, possibly a latinization of avola, Italian or Venetian vernacular for a bleak (Alburnus sp.) but perhaps historically applied to this species as well

Leucos basak (Heckel 1843)    Croatian vernacular for this species

Leucos panosi (Bogutskaya & Iliadou 2006)    in honor of Greek ichthyologist Panos Economidis, who recognized this species as an undescribed taxon in 1991

Leucos ylikiensis (Economidis 1991)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Lake Yliki, Greece, type locality

Mirogrex Goren, Fishelson & Trewavas 1973    mirus, wonderful; grex, flock or shoal, referring to a “miraculous draught” of fishes (one of two miracles attributed to Jesus), which may have been M. terraesanctae or Sarotherodon galilaeus (Cichlidae)

Mirogrex hulensis Goren, Fishelson & Trewavas 1973    ensis, suffix denoting place: Lake Huleh, Israel (now extinct due to deliberate draining of lake in the 1950s)

Mirogrex terraesanctae (Steinitz 1952)    of the Holy Land (terra, land; sancta, holy), referring to distribution in Lake Tiberias (or Sea of Galilee), Israel, where it is endemic

Oreoleuciscus Warpachowski 1889    oreo-, mountain, referring to distribution in short upland streams that drain southern slopes of Tanny-Ula and Hangayin (Hangay), and northen slopes of the Mongolian Altai mountain ranges; leuciscus, possibly referring to similarity to and/or perceived affinity with European Leuciscus, or possibly used as a generic suffix for dace (hence English vernacular, “mountain daces”)

Oreoleuciscus angusticephalus Bogutskaya 2001    angustus, narrow; cephalus, head, referring to long, narrow neurocranium

Oreoleuciscus dsapchynensis Warpachowski 1889    ensis, suffix denoting place: Dsapchyn (also spelled Dsabchyn) River, northwestern Mongolia, type locality

Oreoleuciscus humilis Warpachowski 1889    low, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to low body compared to known congeners at time of description

Oreoleuciscus potanini (Kessler 1879)    in honor of Grigory Nikolayaevich Potanin (1835-1920), Russian explorer of Inner Asia, who collected type

Pachychilon Steindachner 1882    pachys, thick; cheilos, lip, referring to thick lips, the lower extending across the symphysis as a distinctly continuous fold

Pachychilon macedonicum (Steindachner 1892)    Macedonian, referring to distribution in Macedonia (and Greece)

Pachychilon pictum (Heckel & Kner 1858)    painted, probably referring to numerous dark brown marks of various shapes and sizes on body

Parachondrostoma Robalo, Almada, Levy & Doadrio 2007    para-, near, referring similarity to Chondrostoma

Parachondrostoma arrigonis (Steindachner 1866)    is, genitive singular of: Steindachner’s “dear friend” Prof. Arrigo of Valencia (forename not given), who died of cholera in 1865 in the “prime of his years and work” (translation)

Parachondrostoma miegii (Steindachner 1866)    patronym not identified, possibly in honor of Swiss-Spanish naturalist Juan Mieg (1779-1859)

Parachondrostoma toxostoma (Vallot 1837)    toxo-, bow; stoma, mouth, referring to curved, or crescent-shaped, mouth

Parachondrostoma turiense (Elvira 1987)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Turia River, Chulilla, Valencia, Spain, type locality

Pelasgus Kottelat & Freyhof 2007    based on the Pelasgians, groups of people who inhabited lands around Aegean Sea before arrival of Indo-European and proto-Greek-speaking invaders during the 2nd millennium BC, referring to distribution in Balkan Peninsula

Pelasgus epiroticus (Steindachner 1895)    icus, belonging to: Epirus, historical and geographical region straddling Greece and Albania (described from Albania but presently known only from Lake Pamvotis, Epirus, Greece)

Pelasgus laconicus (Kottelat & Barbieri 2004)    icus, belonging to: Lakonias District, Greece, type locality

Pelasgus marathonicus (Vinciguerra 1921)    icus, belonging to: Marathon, Greece, type locality

Pelasgus minutus (Karaman 1924)    small, referring to smaller scales compared to other members of Pseudophoxinus (genus in which it was described) and/or small size (up to 53 mm SL), the latter of which may have caused Steindachner to overlook its distinctiveness in an earlier collection

Pelasgus prespensis (Karaman 1924)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Lake Prespa and tributaries, Macedonia, type locality (also occurs in Albania and Greece)

Pelasgus stymphalicus (Valenciennes 1844)    icus, belonging to: Lake Zaraco, Greece, type locality, where a mythological man-eating bird, stymphalis, was slain by Hercules

Pelasgus thesproticus (Stephanidis 1939)    icus, belonging to: Thesprotia District, Greece, type locality (also occurs in Albania)

Pelecus Agassiz 1835    etymology not explained, probably from pelekys, axe, referring to knife-like shape

Pelecus cultratus (Linnaeus 1758)    knife-shaped, referring to knife- or razor-like shape

Petroleuciscus Bogutskaya 2002    latinization of Petr, forename of “famous freshwater ichthyologist” Petru Bănărescu (1921-2009) and of Bogutskaya’s son, Petr Naseka; Leuciscus, being leuciscine cyprinids previously placed in that genus

Petroleuciscus borysthenicus (Kessler 1859)    icus, belonging to: Borysthenes, name from classical antiquity usually referring to the Dnieper River, type locality

Petroleuciscus kurui (Bogutskaya 1995)    in honor of Turkish ichthyologist Mustafa Kuru (b. 1940), who collected type

Petroleuciscus smyrnaeus (Boulenger 1896)    eus, adjectival suffix: Smyrna (now Izmir), Turkey, type locality (also occurs in Greece)

Petroleuciscus squaliusculus (Kessler 1872)    diminutive of Squalius (genus in which it was described) or squalus, probably referring to small size (95-130 mm) compared to S. squalus (up to 600 mm)

Petroleuciscus ulanus (Günther 1899)    anus, belonging to: Ula (town) on the Zola Chai (river), northwestern Iran, type locality

Phoxinellus Heckel 1843    diminutive of Phoxinus, referring to similarity of size and shape of P. alepidotus to the common Cyprinus (=Phoxinus) phoxinus of Europe

Phoxinellus alepidotus Heckel 1843    a-, not; lepidotus, scaly, referring to scaleless body except for lateral line

Phoxinellus dalmaticus Zupančič & Bogutskaya 2000    icus, belonging to: Dalmatia, region in southern Croatia where it is endemic

Phoxinellus pseudalepidotus Bogutskaya & Zupančič 2003    pseudo-, false, i.e., although similar to P. alepidotus in body shape and scalelessness (except for lateral line), such an appearance is false

Phoxinus Rafinesque 1820    phoxinos, Greek for minnow, perhaps derived from phoxos, pointed or tapered (proposed for European species but no species mentioned; type [Cyprinus phoxinus] by absolute tautonymy

Phoxinus apollonicus Bianco & De Bonis 2015    -icus, belonging to: Apollonia, ancient name of Albania (i.e., ichthyographic district), where this species is endemic   

Phoxinus bigerri Kottelat 2007    name of Gaul tribe that inhabited area more or less corresponding with Adour drainage (France), type locality (also occurs in Spain)

Phoxinus brachyurus brachyurus Berg 1912    brachys, short; oura, tail, presumably referring to short, compressed caudal peduncle

Phoxinus brachyurus tschuensis Pivnev 1985    ensis, suffix denoting place: Chu River, Kyrgyzstan, where it appears to be endemic

Phoxinus colchicus Berg 1910    icus, belonging to: Colchis, ancient name for eastern coast of Black Sea in Georgia, type locality (also occurs in Russia)

Phoxinus grumi Berg 1907    in honor of lepidopterist Grigory Grumm-Grzhimaylo (1860-1936), who led Chinese expedition that collected type

Phoxinus issykkulensis issykkulensis Berg 1912    ensis, suffix denoting place: Lake Issyk-Kul, Kyrgyzstan, type locality

Phoxinus issykkulensis relictus Turdakov & Piskarev 1954    a relict form of P. issykkulensis from Upper Chu River, Kyrgyzstan (possibly extinct)

Phoxinus karsticus Bianco & De Bonis 2015    karstic, referring to the Karstic Popovo Polje-Trebinje endorheic river system of Bosnia-Herzegovina, where it appears to be endemic   

Phoxinus ketmaieri Bianco & De Bonis 2015    in honor of Valerio Ketmaier, a molecular biologist and friend with a long collaborative history with the senior author

Phoxinus keumkang (Chyung 1977)    referring to Kumgangsan, a mountain on the west coast of North Korea, near a stream where it was collected (and described but not named) by Uchida in the 1930s

Phoxinus kuldschiensis Warpachowski 1887    ensis, suffix denoting place: probably referring to Kuldja River at Kazakhstan-China border, near type locality at Lake Balkhash

Phoxinus likai Bianco & De Bonis 2015    of the Lika-Dinaric karstic region of Croatia, where it appears to be endemic

Phoxinus oxycephalus oxycephalus (Sauvage & Dabry de Thiersant 1874)    oxy, sharp; cephalus, head, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to fleshy snout that protrudes beyond premaxilla

Phoxinus oxycephalus jouyi (Jordan & Snyder 1901)    in honor of ornithologist Pierre Louis Jouy (d. 1894), who collected type

Phoxinus oxyrhynchus (Mori 1930)    oxy, sharp; rhynchus, snout, referring to long, much-produced snout, with a “pointed fleshy cone” that projects beyond lower lip

Phoxinus phoxinus phoxinus (Linnaeus 1758)    phoxinos, Greek for minnow, perhaps derived from phoxos, pointed or tapered

Phoxinus phoxinus tumensis Luo 1996    ensis, suffix denoting place: Tumen River, border between Jilin Province in Manchuria and North Hamgyong and Yanggang provinces in North Korea, type locality

Phoxinus poljakowii Kessler 1879    in honor of Siberian explorer and conservator J. S. Poljakow (d. 1887), who collected type

Phoxinus semotilus (Jordan & Starks 1905)    marked, referring to spot at dorsal fin base

Phoxinus septimaniae Kottelat 2007    of Septimania, a region of the Roman province Galia Narbonensis more or less corresponding with present-day Languedoc-Roussillon (France), where it is distributed

Phoxinus steindachneri Sauvage 1883    patronym not identified but almost certainly in honor of Austrian ichthyologist Franz Steindachner (1834-1919)

Phoxinus strandjae Drensky 1926    of Strandscha mountain range, Bulgaria, type locality (also occurs in Turkey)

Phoxinus strymonicus Kottelat 2007    icus, belonging to: Strymon, river in Macedonia, Greece, type locality

Phoxinus tchangi Chen 1988    in honor of Tchunlin (or Tchung-Lin) Tchang (1897-1963), Beijing Normal University, for his achievements in ichthyology

Phoxinus ujmonensis Kaschenko 1899    ensis, suffix denoting place: Uimon village, Siberia, Russia, near type locality in Katun River, Ob River basin

Protochondrostoma Robalo, Almada, Levy & Doadrio 2007    protos, first, referring to basal position of this genus among group of genera that formerly comprised Chondrostoma

Protochondrostoma genei (Bonaparte 1839)    in honor of Giuseppe Géné (1800-1847), zoology professor and director of the Royal Zoological Museum at Turin

Pseudaspius Dybowski 1869    pseudo-, false, i.e., although this genus may superficially resemble Aspius (which also has a wedge-shaped head), such an appearance is false

Pseudaspius leptocephalus (Pallas 1776)    leptos, thin; cephalus, head, referring to wedge-shaped head

Pseudochondrostoma Robalo, Almada, Levy & Doadrio 2007    pseudo-, false, i.e., although this genus is similar to Chondrostoma (as a “consequence of homoplasy in multiple traits”), such an appearance is false

Pseudochondrostoma duriense (Coelho 1985)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Douro River basin, Portugal, type locality (also occurs in Tambre River basin)

Pseudochondrostoma polylepis (Steindachner 1864)    poly, many; lepis, scale, presumably referring to 69-74 scales along lateral line, more than Chondrostoma nasus, with which, Steindachner later noted, this species had been confused

Pseudochondrostoma willkommii (Steindachner 1866)    patronym not identified but probably in honor of German botanist Heinrich Moritz Willkomm (1821-1895), who studied the flora of Spain and Portugal, where it occurs

Pseudophoxinus Bleeker 1860    pseudo-, false, presumably referring to similarity of P. zeregi to the common Cyprinus (=Phoxinus) phoxinus of Europe

Pseudophoxinus alii Küçük 2007    in honor of Ali, Küçük’s father

Pseudophoxinus anatolicus (Hankó 1925)    Anatolian, geographic and historical term denoting westernmost protrusion of Asia, comprising most of the Republic of Turkey, where it is endemic

Pseudophoxinus antalyae Bogutskaya 1992    of Antalya, Turkey, town near type locality in Stream Kirkgöz

Pseudophoxinus atropatenus (Derjavin 1937)    referring to Atropatena, ancient Greek name for a region of southern Azerbaijan, where it occurs

Pseudophoxinus battalgilae Bogutskaya 1997    in honor of Fahire Battalgil (later Battalgazi, 1902-1948), “who contributed considerably to the knowledge of Turkish freshwater fishes”

Pseudophoxinus burduricus Küçük, Gülle, Güçlü, Çiftçi & Erdoğan 2013    icus, belonging to: Burdur Province, Turkey, type locality

Pseudophoxinus callensis (Guichenot 1850)    ensis, suffix denoting place: La Calle, Algeria, type locality

Pseudophoxinus caralis (Battalgil 1942)    etymology not explained, perhaps latinization of karali, Turkish for “painted with black,” referring to dark streaks along sides

Pseudophoxinus chaignoni (Vaillant 1904)    in honor of the viscount H. de Chaignon, vice president, Société d’Histoire naturelle d’Autun, who collected type

Pseudophoxinus crassus (Ladiges 1960)    thick or fat, presumably referring to much stouter body compared to P. meandricus

Pseudophoxinus drusensis (Pellegrin 1933)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Jabal al-Druze, an autonomous state in the French Mandate of Syria from 1921 to 1936, where Al-Mazra’a, type locality, is situated (also occurs in Israel)

Pseudophoxinus egridiri (Karaman 1972)    of Lake Egirdir basin, Turkey, type locality

Pseudophoxinus elizavetae Bogutskaya, Küçük & Atalay 2006    in honor of Elizaveta Bogutskaya (relationship to senior author not explained)

Pseudophoxinus evliyae Freyhof & Özuluğ 2010    in honor of Evliya Çelebi (1611-1683), the “most famous Ottoman traveler,” whose travel notes were published in the 10-volume Seyahatname (Book of Travels)

Pseudophoxinus fahrettini Freyhof & Özuluğ 2010    in honor of Turkish zoologist Fahrettin Küçük, Süleyman Demirel University, for his contribution to the knowledge of Central Anatolian fishes

Pseudophoxinus firati Bogutskaya, Küçük & Atalay 2006    of Firat Nehri (Turkish name for Euphrates River), referring to distribution in Euphrates River drainage

Pseudophoxinus handlirschi (Pietschmann 1933)    in honor of Pietschmann’s Vienna colleague, entomologist Anton Handlirsch (1865-1935)

Pseudophoxinus hasani Krupp 1992    of Nab’ Hasan, source of Nahr Marqiya, where it is endemic

Pseudophoxinus hittitorum Freyhof & Özuluğ 2010    orum, commemorative suffix, plural: named for the Hittites, an ancient Anatolian culture (~1750-1180 BC), referring to a 13th-century Hittite monument built at Eflatun Pinar, Turkey, type locality

Pseudophoxinus iconii Küçük, Gülle & Güçlü 2016    of Iconium, ancient name of Konya Province, Central Anatolia, Turkey, where this species occurs

Pseudophoxinus libani (Lortet 1883)    of Liban (Lebanon), where it is endemic

Pseudophoxinus maeandri (Ladiges 1960)    of Menderes River headwaters, near Isikli, Turkey, type locality

Pseudophoxinus maeandricus (Ladiges 1960)    icus, belonging to: Menderes River, near Isikli, Turkey, type locality

Pseudophoxinus mehmeti Ekmekçi, Atalay, Yoğurtçuoğlu, Turan & Küçük 2015    in honor of hydrological engineer Mehmet Ekmekçi, for contributions to studies in hydrological description and characterization and interpretations of drainage networks and watersheds, plus his full support as the husband of the first author

Pseudophoxinus ninae Freyhof & Özuluğ 2010    in honor of ichthyologist Nina G. Bogutskaya, Russian Academy of Sciences, author of “important” papers on Anatolian Pseudophoxinus and other leuciscins

Pseudophoxinus punicus (Pellegrin 1920)    Latin for Phoenician, referring to Carthage in North Africa, region in modern-day Tunisia where it is endemic

Pseudophoxinus sojuchbulagi (Abdurakhmanov 1950)    of Sojuch-Bulag, a tributary of the Kura River, Azerbaijan, type locality

Pseudophoxinus syriacus (Lortet 1883)    Syrian, referring to country where it is endemic

Pseudophoxinus turani Küçük & Güçlü 2014    in honor of Turkish ichthyologist Davut Turan, for his contributions to our knowledge of the fishes of Anatolia

Pseudophoxinus zekayi Bogutskaya, Küçük & Atalay 2006    in honor of Zekay Atalay (relationship to third author not explained)

Pseudophoxinus zeregi (Heckel 1843)    Syrian vernacular for this species

Rhynchocypris Günther 1889    rhynchus, snout, referring to “conically protruding snout”; cypris, a small carp, a common suffix for cyprinid genera, although Günther may have used the suffix to reflect his belief that the genus “seems to come nearer to some of the small North-American members of Cyprinina than to any of the Old-World forms”

Rhynchocypris czekanowskii (Dybowski 1869)    patronym not identified, probably in honor of Dybowski’s Polish colleague, geologist and Siberian explorer Aleksander Czekanowski (1833-1876)

Rhynchocypris dementjevi (Turdakov & Piskarev 1954)    in honor of recently deceased ichthyologist Petr Petrovich Dementiev, who worked in Kyrgystan (type locality)

Rhynchocypris deogyuensis Lee & Sim 2017    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Deogyusan National Park, South Korea, where it occurs

Rhynchocypris lagowskii lagowskii (Dybowski 1869)    patronym not identified, probably in honor of Siberian revolutionary Mikhail Fedorovich Lagowski (1856-1903)

Rhynchocypris lagowskii chorensis (Rendahl 1928)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Chor River, Ussuri River drainage, Russia, type locality

Rhynchocypris lagowskii yamamotis (Jordan & Hubbs 1925)    -is, genitive singular of: Senzi Yamamoto, Imperial University of Kyoto, who helped Jordan acquire specimens from Japanese fish markets

Rhynchocypris percnurus percnurus (Pallas 1814)    etymology not explained; name was published as both percnurus and perenurus, the difference presumably due to a typographical error, but percnurus appears to be the intended name since it translates (percnos, eagle; ourus, tail, allusion not evident) whereas perenurus does not

Rhynchocypris percnurus sachalinensis (Berg 1907)    ensis, suffix denoting place: southern Sakhalin Island, Russia, where it is endemic

Rutilus Rafinesque 1820    tautonymous with Cyprinus rutilus

Subgenus Rutilus

Rutilus caspicus (Yakovlev 1870)    Caspian, referring to distribution in Caspian Sea basin

Rutilus heckelii (Nordmann 1840)    in honor of Nordmann’s friend, Johann Jakob Heckel (1790-1857), curator of fishes, Naturhistorisches Museum in Vienna, for advice and assistance

Rutilus ohridanus (Karaman 1924)    anus, belonging to: Lake Ohrid, Macedonia, type locality (also occurs in Albania and Montenegro)

Rutilus pigus (Lacepède 1803)    latinization of pigo, Italian name for this species, dating back to at least Rondelet in the 1550s

Rutilus prespensis (Karaman 1924)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Lakes Prespa (Albania, Greece, Macedonia), type locality (also occurs in Lake Skadar, Montenegro and Albania)

Rutilus rutilus rutilus (Linnaeus 1758)    ruddy, referring to general color of fins

Rutilus rutilus mariza Drensky 1926    referring to Mariza River, Bulgaria, type locality

Rutilus rutilus schelkovnikovi Derjavin 1926    in honor of A. B. Shelkovnikov (spelling as given in English abstract), director of the Armenian Museum, who helped Derjavin collect type

Rutilus stoumboudae Bianco & Ketmaier 2014    in honor of ichthyologist, colleague and friend, Maria Stoumboudi, for her research on the ecology and conservation of the freshwater fishes of Greece   

Rutilus virgo (Heckel 1852)    maiden, probably referring to German vernacular, Fraufisch (womanfish)

Subgenus Pararutilus Berg 1912    para-, near, referring to similarity to Rutilus, differing in how posterior portion of swim bladder is elongated and conical (as opposed to rounded)

Rutilus frisii (Nordmann 1840)    in honor of Scandinavian biologist B. F. Fries, whose multi-volume work on Scandinavian fishes (authored with C. U. Ekström) is cited in Nordmann’s description of this species

Rutilus kutum (Kamensky 1901)    Russian vernacular for this species

Rutilus meidingeri (Heckel 1851)    in honor of Baron Carl von Meidinger, who illustrated but misidentified this species (Cyprinus grislagine = Leuciscus leuciscus) circa 1794

Samarutilus Bianco & Ketmaier 2014    sarma, referring to Sarma Sea, an ancient European freshwater sea, where S. rubilio probably had its evolutionary roots; Rutilus, referring to previous placement in that genus

Samarutilus rubilio (Bonaparte 1837)    presumably a diminutive of rubella, referring to similarity of head shape and head proportion to Leuciscus rubella (now considered conspecific)

Scardinius Bonaparte 1837    probably latinization of scardafa, Roman and Italian vernacular for rudd

Scardinius acarnanicus Economidis 1991    icus, belonging to: Acarnania, region of west-central Greece that encompasses Acheleoos River basin, type locality

Scardinius dergle Heckel & Kner 1858    vernacular for this species in Dalmatia (southern Croatia)

Scardinius elmaliensis Bogutskaya 1997    ensis, suffix denoting place: Elmali, in Vilayet Antalya, southern Turkey, type locality

Scardinius erythrophthalmus (Linnaeus 1758)    erythros, red; opthalmus, eye, referring to red fleck on iris

Scardinius graecus Stephanidis 1937    Greek, referring to its country of origin

Scardinius hesperidicus Bonaparte 1845    icus, belonging to: the Hesperides, nymphs in Greek mythology who tend a blissful garden in a far western corner of the world, perhaps referring to type locality in the lakes of Piedmont in the far western corner of Italy (also occurs in Slovenia and Switzerland)

Scardinius knezevici Bianco & Kottelat 2005    in honor of the late Borivoj Knezevic (1948-1988), who dedicated his life to the study and conservation of the freshwater fishes of Montenegro

Scardinius plotizza Heckel & Kner 1858    local vernacular for this species, and perhaps for all species of “Weissfische” (whitefish) in Croatia and/or Bosnia-Herzegovina

Scardinius racovitzai Müller 1958    in memory of Romanian biospeologist E. G. Racovitza on the tenth anniversary of his death

Scardinius scardafa (Bonaparte 1837)    Roman and Italian vernacular for rudd

Squalius Bonaparte 1837    ius, having the nature of squalus, referring to type species, Leuciscus squalus

Squalius adanaensis Turan, Kottelat & Doğan 2013    ensis, suffix denoting place: city and eponymous province of Adana, Turkey, type locality

Squalius agdamicus Kamensky 1901    icus, pertaining to: near Agdam, Kuyra River basin, Azerbaijan, type locality

Squalius albus (Bonaparte 1838)    white, referring to silvery-white or ashen lateral surface

Squalius anatolicus (Bogutskaya 1997)    Anatolian, deriving from old name of Asia Minor: Anatolia

Squalius aphipsi (Aleksandrov 1927)    of Aphips River above Krepostnaya, Kuban Basin, Russia, type locality

Squalius aradensis (Coelho, Bogutskaya, Rodrigues & Collares-Pereira 1998)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Arade River, Silves, Arade basin, Portugal, type locality

Squalius aristotelis Özuluğ & Freyhof 2011    named for Aristotle (384-322 BC), Greek philosopher who lived from 348-245 BC in Assos, Turkey, type locality

Squalius berak Heckel 1843    Syrian vernacular for this species

Squalius cappadocicus Özuluğ & Freyhof 2011    icus, belonging to: Cappadocia, region in Central Anatolia where it occurs

Squalius carinus Özuluğ & Freyhof 2011    nut-brown, referring to dark brown color in life

Squalius carolitertii (Doadrio 1988)    latinization of Carlos III, in honor of the Spanish King who founded in 1777 the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid (where Doadrio and type are located)

Squalius castellanus Doadrio, Perea & Alonso 2007    anus, belonging to: Castille, Spanish region where it occurs

Squalius cephaloides (Battagil 1942)    oides, having the form of: referring to similarity to S. cephalus

Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758)    head, referring to its large, broad head, a name that dates back to capito of Ausonius (ca. 310-ca. 395)

Squalius cii (Richardson 1857)    of Cius, ancient name of Gemelik River, northwestern Turkey, type locality (also occurs in Greece)

Squalius fellowesii (Günther 1868)    in honor of archaeologist Charles Fellowes (1799-1860), who presented type to the British Museum (Natural History)

Squalius illyricus Heckel & Kner 1858    icus, belonging to: Illyria, ancient name for western part of Balkan Peninsula, referring to type locality in Dalmatia, Croatia

Squalius janae Bogutskaya & Zupančič 2010    in honor of Jana Zupančič, whose “enormous patience and assistance” made the authors’ study possible

Squalius keadicus (Stephanidis 1971)    icus, belonging to: Keadas (or Kaiadas), a chasm or precipice tributary to the Evrotas River (type locality), where ancient Spartans threw disabled and deformed babies to die

Squalius kosswigi (Karaman 1972)    in honor of Turkish zoologist and geneticist Curt Kosswig (1903-1982), who collected type

Squalius kottelati Turan, Yilmaz & Kaya 2009    in honor of Swiss ichthyologist Maurice Kottelat (b. 1957), for his contributions to knowledge of the fishes of Europe and Asia

Squalius laietanus Doadrio, Kottelat & de Sostoa 2007    anus, belonging to: the Laietani, a Bronze-Age tribe inhabiting an area partly corresponding to present-day Catalonia, Spain, where it occurs (also occurs in France)

Squalius lepidus Heckel 1843    elegant, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to its reddish fins

Squalius lucumonis (Bianco 1983)    latinization of Lucumone, a person of authority to the ancient Etruscians, the type locality being the former Etruscan region of Italy

Squalius malacitanus Doadrio & Carmona 2006    anus, belonging to: province of Málaga (Malaca in Latin), Spain, where it occurs

Squalius microlepis Heckel 1843    micro-, small; lepis, scale, referring to small scales, 74 along lateral line

Squalius moreoticus (Stephanidis 1971)    icus, belonging to: Morea, ancient name of Peloponnese peninsula in southern Greece, general area of type locality, Stymphalis Lake, Peloponnesus

Squalius namak Khaefi, Esmaeili, Sayyadzadeh, Geiger & Freyhof 2016    named for the Namak Lake basin, one of two basins in Iran where it occurs (the other is the Kavir basin)

Squalius orientalis (Nordmann 1840)    eastern, referring to type locality east of Europe (Abkhazia)

Squalius orpheus Kottelat & Economidis 2006    Orpheus, legendary Thracian musician and poet, son of Thracian river-god Oiagros and the Muse Calliopte (also spelled Calliope), referring to occurrence in Thrace, Greece

Squalius pamvoticus (Stephanidis 1939)    icus, belonging to: Lake Pamvotis, central Greece, type locality

Squalius peloponensis (Valenciennes 1844)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Peloponnese, Greece, where it is endemic

Squalius platyceps Zupančič, Marić, Naseka & Bogutskaya 2010    platys, broad or wide; ceps, head, referring to wide head (52-59% of head length)

Squalius prespensis (Fowler 1977)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Lake Prespa basin (Greece, Macedonia, Albania), where it is endemic

Squalius pursakensis (Hankó 1925)    ensis, suffix denoting place: probably from Pursaklar, Ankara Province, Central Anatolia region of Turkey, where it appears to be endemic

Squalius pyrenaicus (Günther 1868)    icus, belonging to: the Pyrenees, mountain range separating Iberian Peninsula from rest of continental Europe, presumably referring to distribution in Portugal (also occurs in Spain)

Squalius recurvirostris Özuluğ & Freyhof 2011    recurvus, curved upwards; rostris, snout, referring to upturned snout in large individuals

Squalius ruffoi (Bianco & Recchia 1983)    in honor of naturalist Sandro Ruffo (1915-2010), former Director of Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Verona

Squalius semae Turan, Kottelat & Bayçelebia 2017    in honor of Sema Turan, “beloved” wife of first author

Squalius seyhanensis Turan, Kottelat & Doğan 2013    ensis, suffix denoting place: Seyhan River drainage, Turkey, where it is endemic

Squalius spurius Heckel 1843    false, probably referring to close similarity to S. cephalopsis (=Leuciscus cephalus)

Squalius squalus (Bonaparte 1837)    ancient name for this species, dating back to at least the Roman scholar Varro (116 BC -27 BC), possibly derived from squalor, used by Pliny to denote a fish “delighting in muddy and impure places” (name also means shark)

Squalius svallize Heckel & Kner 1858    Croatian vernacular for this species

Squalius tenellus Heckel 1843    delicate, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to small scales, 80 along lateral line

Squalius torgalensis (Coelho, Bogutskaya, Rodrigues & Collares-Pereira 1998)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Torgal River, Mira basin, Portugal, type locality

Squalius turcicus De Filippi 1865    Turkish, referring to country to where it is endemic

Squalius valentinus Doadrio & Carmona 2006    inus, adjectival suffix: Roman name of Valencia, Spanish region where it occurs

Squalius vardarensis Karaman 1928    ensis, suffix denoting place: Vardar River drainage (Macedonia), type locality (also occurs in Greece)

Squalius zrmanjae Karaman 1928    of Zrmanja River, Croatia, type locality

Telestes Bonaparte 1837    etymology not explained, perhaps derived from telistos, farthest or end; Telestes is also the name of a murdered king of ancient Corinth (748 b.c.) and a poet of 5th-century Greece

Telestes alfiensis (Stephanidis 1971)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Alfios River drainage, Peloponnesus, type locality (also occurs in Pinios and Vergas drainages)

Telestes beoticus (Stephanidis 1939)    icus, belonging to: Boeotia, Greece, where Lake Yliki (type locality) is situated

Telestes comes (Costa 1838)    companion, referring to how it almost always occurs with (or accompanies) Cyprinus dobula (= Leuciscus leuciscus)

Telestes croaticus (Steindachner 1866)    Croatian, referring to country where it is endemic

Telestes dabar Bogutskaya, Zupančič, Bogut & Naseka 2012    referring to Dabarsko, or Dabar Polje, Bosnia-Herzegovina, type locality

Telestes fontinalis (Karaman 1972)    living in or near springs, referring to spring habitat (also occurs in clearwater streams and enters subterranean waters during winter and droughts)

Telestes karsticus Marčić & Mrakovčić 2011    karstic, referring to karst region in Croatia, where it is endemic

Telestes metohiensis (Steindachner 1901)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Metohia, Dalmatia, Yugoslavia (now Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina), type locality

Telestes miloradi Bogutskaya, Zupančič, Bogut & Naseka 2012    in honor of Croatian zoologist Milorad Mrakovčić, University of Zagreb, for his many contributions to the study of freshwater fishes in the Adriatic basin

Telestes montenigrinus (Vukovic 1963)    inus, pertaining to: Montenegro, where Drina River, Moraca, type locality, is situated (also occurs in Albania)

Telestes muticellus (Bonaparte 1837)    etymology not explained, probably latinization of muticello, Tuscan vernacular for this species in Italy

Telestes pleurobipunctatus (Stephanidis 1939)    pleuro-, side; bi-, two; punctatus, spotted, referring to a “double melanic or melanophore dotted line” (translation) along the sides

Telestes polylepis Steindachner 1866    poly, many; lepis, scale, referring to “small, extremely delicate scales” (translation), 68-71 along lateral line

Telestes savigny Bonaparte 1840    patronym not identified but probably in honor of French zoologist Marie Jules César Savigny (1777-1851)

Telestes souffia (Risso 1827)    derived from soufie and soufia, vernaculars for this species in France

Telestes turskyi (Heckel 1843)    in honor of Gen. Ritter von Tursky, governer of Dalmatia, whose support allowed Heckel to study the little-known fishes of present-day Croatia

Telestes ukliva (Heckel 1843)    presumably Croatian vernacular for this species

Tribolodon Sauvage 1883    tribolos, harrow (an agricultural tool consisting of many spikes, tines or discs used for breaking up and smoothing the surface of the soil); odon, tooth, presumably referring to curved hook on pharyngeal teeth, resembling the curved spikes or discs of some harrows

Tribolodon brandtii brandtii (Dybowski 1872)    patronym not identified but probably in honor of German naturalist Johann Friedrich von Brandt (1802-1879)

Tribolodon brandtii maruta Sakai & Amano 2014    traditional local name for this subspecies in the Kanto District, Japan

Tribolodon ezoe Okada & Ikeda 1937    of Ezo (also spelled Yezo or Yeso), a name historically used for the northern Japanese island of Hokkaido, type locality

Tribolodon hakonensis hakonensis (Günther 1877)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Lake Hakone, Japan, type locality

Tribolodon hakonensis phalacrocorax (Jordan & Fowler 1903)    phalacro-, bald; corax, raven (genus name of cormorant), referring to how type specimens were obtained “through the efforts of trained cormorants”

Tribolodon nakamurai Doi & Shinzawa 2000    in honor of Morizumi Nakamura (1914-1998), for his contribution to our knowledge of the classification of Japanese cyprinid fishes

Tribolodon sachalinensis (Nikolskii 1889)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Saghalin Island, Russia, where it is endemic

Tropidophoxinellus Stephanidis 1974    “very close” to Phoxinellus but tropidos, keeled, referring to scaleless keel between ventral fins and vent

Tropidophoxinellus alburnoides (Steindachner 1866)    oides, having the form of: Alburnus, referring to similarity of elongate body shape, narrow upward-facing mouth, and strongly notched teeth

Tropidophoxinellus hellenicus (Stephanidis 1971)Hellenic (i.e., Greek), referring to the only country where it occurs

Tropidophoxinellus spartiaticus (Schmidt-Ries 1943)    Spartan, referring to Sparta, prominent city-state in ancient Greece, situated on banks of the River Eurotas (also spelled Evrotas), referring to distribution in present-day Peloponnese

Vimba Fitzinger 1873    tautonymous with Cyprinus vimba

Vimba elongata (Valenciennes 1844)    presumably referring to elongate body

Vimba melanops (Heckel 1837)    melanos, black; ops, appearance, presumably referring to overall dark coloration

Vimba mirabilis (Ladiges 1960)    striking or remarkable, referring to distribution in western Anatolia, far from normal distribution of Acanthobrama (e.g., eastern Anatolia, Syria, Palestine), genus it which it had initially been described

Vimba vimba vimba (Linnaeus 1758)    likely derived from its Swedish vernacular, vimma

Vimba vimba persa (Pallas 1814)    Persia, referring to distribution in Iran (southern Caspian Sea drainage)

Vimba vimba tenellus (Nordmann 1840)    delicate, referring to small size (“barely reaching five inches,” the smallest Abramis [original genus] Nordmann knew of), and/or its small, thin scales