Order CYPRINIFORMES: Family CYPRINIDAE: Subfamily CYPRININAE (m-p)

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v. 24.0 – 14 Oct. 2017  view/download PDF

Subfamily CYPRININAE (Mekongina through Puntius)
Taxonomic note: includes taxa historically placed in subfamilies Barbinae and Labeoninae.

Mekongina Fowler 1937    ina, belonging to: Mekong River, referring to distribution in Mekong River drainage of Thailand (also occurs in Cambodia and Laos)

Mekongina bibarba Nguyen 2001    bi-, two; barba, beard, referring to pair of barbels at corners of mouth, compared to absence of barbels on M. erythrospila

Mekongina erythrospila Fowler 1937    erythros, red; spilos, spot, referring to bright vermilion spot on each scale

Mekongina lancangensis Yang, Chen & Yang 2008    ensis, suffix denoting place: Lancang River tributary, Mengla County, Yunnan Province, China, type locality

Mesopotamichthys Karaman 1971    referring to distribution of M. sharpeyi in Mesopotamia (i.e., Tigris River system and modern-day Iraq); ichthys, fish

Mesopotamichthys sharpeyi (Günther 1874)    in honor of anatomist and physiologist William Sharpey (1802-1880), who presented type, collected by his nephew in Baghdad, to the British Museum (Natural History)

Mystacoleucus Günther 1868    etymology not explained and allusions not evident, but may translate as “barbeled leuciscin” with the following explanation: mystax, moustache, referring to small pair of barbels on M. padagensis; leucus, referring to Leuciscina, the next group of cyprinids in Günther’s classification, which, unlike Mystaleucus and other genera of the Xenocypridina group, lack barbels

Mystacoleucus argenteus (Day 1888)    silvery, referring to “brilliant silvery” coloration

Mystacoleucus atridorsalis Fowler 1937    ater, black; dorsum, back, referring to jet-black apex on dorsal fin

Mystacoleucus chilopterus Fowler 1935    cheilos, edge or rim; pterus, fin, referring to dark borders of caudal and dorsal fins

Mystacoleucus ectypus Kottelat 2000    embossed, referring to small hump with procurrent spine

Mystacoleucus greenwayi Pellegrin & Fang 1940    in honor of ornithologist John Greenway (1903-1989), member of 1939 French-American expedition to Laos that collected type

Mystacoleucus lepturus Huang 1979    leptos, thin; oura, tail, presumably referring to thinner caudal peduncle (14 scales around) compared to M. padangensis (18 scales around)

Mystacoleucus marginatus (Valenciennes 1842)    margined, referring to black border on caudal and dorsal fins in front of dorsal fin origin

Mystacoleucus padangensis (Bleeker 1852)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Padang, Indonesia, type locality

Mystacoleucus obtusirostris (Valenciennes 1842)    obtusus, blunt; rostris, snout, referring to truncated snout (“museau tronqué”)

Naziritor Mirza & Javed 1985    in honor of Nazir Ahmad, Director of Fisheries, East Pakistan (1955-1960) and West Pakistan (1960-1969); tor, proposed as a subgenus of Tor

Naziritor chelynoides (McClelland 1839)    oides, having the form of (although this suffix appears to be used incorrectly): chelyne, lip, presumably referring to “round, smooth, and thick” lips

Naziritor zhobensis (Mirza 1967)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Zhob River basin, Pakistan, type locality

Neobarynotus Bănărescu 1980    neo-, new, i.e., a new genus split from Barynotus Günther 1868 (=Barbus) [bary-, very; notus, back, probably referring to profile of back ascending from snout to dorsal]

Neobarynotus microlepis (Bleeker 1851)    micro-, small; lepis, scale, referring to numerous (and therefore smaller) scales, 55 in longitudinal series and 16 in vertical series

Neolissochilus Rainboth 1985    neo, new, being a new genus of Lissochilus Weber & de Beaufort 1916 (a junior homonym of Lissochilus Zittel 1882 in fossil gastropods)

Neolissochilus acutirostris Arunachalam, Sivakumar & Murugan 2017    acutus, sharp; rostris, snout, referring to its “sharp pointed” snout 

Neolissochilus baoshanensis (Chen & Yang 1999)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Baoshan, Yunnan Province, China, type locality

Neolissochilus benasi (Pellegrin & Chevey 1936)    in honor of M. (Monsieur) Bénas, deputy inspector, Eaux et Forêts (Waters and Forests), Hanoi (type locality in Viêt Nam)

Neolissochilus blanci (Pellegrin & Fang 1940)    in honor of explorer-naturalist François Edmund Blanc (1908-1996), part of the three-man French-American expedition that collected type

Neolissochilus blythii (Day 1870)    patronym not identified but clearly in honor of Edward Blyth (1810-1873), curator, Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal, who described many Indian cyprinids

Neolissochilus capudelphinus Arunachalam, Sivakumar & Murugan 2017    caput, head; delphinus, dolphin, referring to its “dolphin headed appearance”

Neolissochilus compressus (Day 1870)    referring to its “much compressed” head

Neolissochilus dukai (Day 1878)    in honor of Theodore Duka (1825-1908), Bengal Army medical officer, who sent specimens of this species to Day

Neolissochilus hendersoni (Herre 1940)    in honor of M. R. Henderson, director, Penang Botanical Garden, through whose hospitality and cooperation Herre was able to collect freshwater fishes on the “beautiful isle” of Penang, Malaysia

Neolissochilus heterostomus (Chen & Yang 1999)    heteros, different; stomus, mouth, referring to different mouth morphology between males and females

Neolissochilus hexagonolepis (McClelland 1839)    referring to hexagonal shape of exposed surface of lepis, scales

Neolissochilus hexastichus (McClelland 1839)    hexa-, six; stichus, line or row, referring to six rows of scales along sides

Neolissochilus longipinnis (Weber & de Beaufort 1916)    longus, long; pinnis, fin, referring to anal fin, which is “much higher than the dorsal and reaches the caudal,” and/or pectoral fins, which are “conspicuously longer than the height of dorsal”

Neolissochilus micropthalmus Arunachalam, Sivakumar & Murugan 2017    micro-, small; ophthalmus, eye, referring to its small eyes, 17.21-29.00% of head length

Neolissochilus minimus Arunachalam, Sivakumar & Murugan 2017   small, referring to smaller size among congeners of the Western Ghat mountain ranges of peninsular India

Neolissochilus nigrovittatus (Boulenger 1893)    nigro-, black; vittatus, banded, referring to blackish stripe above lateral line

Neolissochilus paucisquamatus (Smith 1945)    paucus, few; squamatus, scaled, “easily recognizable by the possession of only 22 tubule-bearing scales in the lateral line and only 6.5 scales in transverse series to the base of the ventral fin”

Neolissochilus qiaojiensis (Wu 1977)    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Qiaojie, Yunnan Province, China, type locality

Neolissochilus soro (Valenciennes 1842)    local name for this species in Java, Indonesia

Neolissochilus soroides (Duncker 1904)    oides, having the form of: referring to same general appearance (“Habitus”) as N. soro

Neolissochilus spinulosus (McClelland 1845)    diminutive of spinosus, thorn, presumably referring to third spiny ray of dorsal fin, which is “more slender than usual in this genus [Barbus]”

Neolissochilus stevensonii (Day 1870)    in honor of Col. Stevenson (first name not given), who collected fishes for Day in Myanmar, including type of this one

Neolissochilus stracheyi (Day 1871)    in honor of Gen. Richard Strachey (1817-1908), British soldier and Indian administrator, for assistance in enabling Day “to prosecute [his] enquiries into the fish and fisheries of India”

Neolissochilus subterraneus Vidthayanon & Kottelat 2003    underground, referring to its habitat, Tham Phra Wang Daeng cave, Phitsanulok Province, Thailand

Neolissochilus sumatranus (Weber & de Beaufort 1916)    Sumatran, referring to Sumatra, Indonesia, where it is endemic

Neolissochilus tamiraparaniensis Arunachalam, Sivakumar & Murugan 2017   ensis, suffix denoting place: Tamiraparani River basin, southern Tamil Nadu, India, where it is endemic

Neolissochilus thienemanni (Ahl 1933)    in honor of limnologist and zoologist August Thienemann (1882-1960), who collected type

Neolissochilus vittatus (Smith 1945)    banded, referring to black band from head to base of caudal fin

Nukta Hora 1942    tautonymous with Cyprinus nukta

Nukta nukta (Sykes 1839)    local name among Maratha fishermen of India, which, as Sykes explained in 1841, he adopted “so that naturalists who travel the country can always obtain” the species

Oliotius Kottelat 2013    combination of part of the species name oligolepis and the genus name Puntius, in which it had been placed

Oliotius oligolepis (Bleeker 1853)    oligo-, few; lepis, scale, referring to large and therefore fewer scales, 15-16 along lateral line

Onychostoma Günther 1896    onco-, hook; stoma, mouth, probably referring to “horny sharp sheath” on mandible (i.e., sharp lower jaw)                                

Onychostoma alticorpus (Oshima 1920)    altus, high; corpus, body, referring to deep, elongate, slightly compressed body, deepest in front of dorsal

Onychostoma angustistomata (Fang 1940)    angustus, narrow; stomata, mouthed, referring to smaller width of mouth compared to O. simum

Onychostoma barbatulum (Pellegrin 1908)    diminutive of barbatus, bearded, referring to “quite rudimentary” (translation) barbels (>1 mm in length)

Onychostoma barbatum (Lin 1931)    bearded, referring to two pairs of small (⅔-¾ eye diameter) barbels on lower jaw

Onychostoma breve (Wu & Chen 1977)    brevis, short, referring to shorter length-to-height ratio compared to O. (=Scaphiodonichthys) macracanthus

Onychostoma daduense Ding 1994    ensis, suffix denoting place: Dadu River, Ebian County, Sichuan Province, China, type locality

Onychostoma dongnaiensis Hoang, Pham & Tran 2015       ensis, suffix denoting place: middle Dong Nai drainage, Lam Dong Province, Viêt Nam, type locality

Onychostoma elongatum (Pellegrin & Chevey 1934)    elongate, referring to more elongate body shape compared to Crossochilus (=Acrossocheilus) monticola

Onychostoma fangi Kottelat 2000    in honor of Chinese ichthyologist P.-W. Fang, who described this species as Varicorhinus elongatus in 1940, a name now considered a junior secondary homonym of O. elongatum

Onychostoma fusiforme Kottelat 1998    fusus, spindle; formis, shape, referring to elongated shape compared to congeners

Onychostoma gerlachi (Peters 1881)    patronym not identified but probably in honor of physician Carl Gerlach (1843-1913), member of Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft (Senckenberg Natural History Society), who lived parts of his life in Hong Kong and sent a collection of fishes from there, including type of this one

Onychostoma krongnoense Hoang, Pham & Tran 2015    ensis, suffix denoting place: upper Krong No drainage, Lam Dong Province, Viêt Nam, type locality

Onychostoma leptura (Boulenger 1900)    leptos, thin; oura, tail, referring to thin caudal peduncle, “thrice as long as deep”

Onychostoma lini (Wu 1939)    in honor of Chinese ichthyologist Lin Shu-Yen

Onychostoma macrolepis (Bleeker 1871)    macro-, long; lepis, scale, referring to large scales, ~50 on the lateral line

Onychostoma meridionale Kottelat 1998    southern, being the southernmost species of the genus

Onychostoma minnanense Jang-Liaw & Chen 2013    ensis, suffix denoting place: “Min-Nan,” i.e., southern region of Fujian Province, China, only known area of occurrence

Onychostoma ovale ovale Pellegrin & Chevey 1936    oval, referring to oval body shape, which distinguishes it from O. rarum

Onychostoma ovale rhomboides (Tang 1942)    referring to “more or less rhomboid” body shape

Onychostoma rarum (Lin 1933)    rare, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to only two known specimens at time of description

Onychostoma simum (Sauvage & Dabry de Thiersant 1874)    blunt-nosed, referring to short, obtuse snout

Onychostoma virgulatum Xin, Zhang & Cao 2009    striped, referring to dark-brown stripe extending along lateral line

Onychostoma uniforme (Mai 1978)    uniform, referring to plain color pattern compared to black longitudinal stripe on O. elongatum

Oreichthys Smith 1933    oreas, of the mountains, referring to “free-swimming existence” of O. parvus in mountain streams; ichthys, fish

Oreichthys andrewi Knight 2014    in honor of ornamental-fish collector Andrew Arunava Rao, Malabar Tropicals, who collected type, for his “enthusiasm and support to ichthyology around the world”

Oreichthys coorgensis (Jayaram 1982)     –ensis, suffix denoting place: Coorg District, Karnataka, India, type locality

Oreichthys cosuatis (Hamilton 1822)   latinization of Koswati, local Bengali name for this species

Oreichthys crenuchoides Schäfer 2009    oides, having the form of: referring to how male dorsal fin resembles that of the neotropical Crenuchus spilurus (Characiformes: Crenuchidae)

Oreichthys duospilus Knight & Kumar 2015    duo, two; spilos, spot, referring to conspicuous spots on dorsal and anal fins

Oreichthys incognito Knight & Kumar 2015    having one’s true identity concealed, referring to its probably being overlooked in earlier ichthyofaunal surveys due to its similarity to Puntius vittatus

Oreichthys parvus Smith 1933    little, presumably referring to small size, “little or no larger than” 3 cm

Oreinus McClelland 1838    oreinos, from the mountains or mountain-dwelling, referring to high-elevation “Mountain Barbels” of India [Indian species now placed in Schizothorax and Chinese species provisionally restricted to Oreinus pending a review of “schizothoracine” taxonomy and nomenclature]

Oreinus dulongensis (Huang 1985)    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Dulong River basin, Yunnan Province, China, where it appears to be endemic

Oreinus elongatus (Huang 1985)    elongate, referring to longer body length-to-depth ratio compared to O. molesworthi and O. dulongensis

Oreinus malacathus (Huang 1985)    malacos, soft; acanthus, spine, referring to “weak, smooth” dorsal-fin spine [malacathus is a misspelling of malacanthus but must be retained]

Oreinus meridionalis (Tsao 1964)    southern, proposed as a southern subspecies of O. molesworthi

Oreinus molesworthi Chaudhuri 1913    in honor of Capt. Alick Lindsay Mortimer Molesworth of the 8th Gurkha Rifles (British Army regiment in Nepal)

Oreinus myzostomus (Tsao 1964)    myzo, sucker; stomus, mouth, referring to sucker-shaped lower lip

Oreinus oligolepis (Huang 1985)    oligo-, few; lepis, scale, referring to fewer lateral lines scales (89-93) compared to O. molesworthi (94-99)

Oreinus rotundimaxillaris (Wu & Wu 1992)    rotund, round or circular; maxillaris, of the jaw, referring to curved lower jaw

Osteobrama Heckel 1843    osteo-, bone, presumably referring to dorsal-fin spine; brama, derived from abramis, Greek for bream or mullet, i.e., a “bony bream”

Osteobrama alfredianus (Valenciennes 1844)   anus, belonging to: Alfred Duvaucel (1793-1824), naturalist and explorer who supplied type

Osteobrama bakeri (Day 1873)    in honor of missionary Henry Baker, Jr., who collected type

Osteobrama belangeri (Valenciennes 1844)    in honor of botanist and explorer Charles Paulus Bélanger (1805-1881), who collected type

Osteobrama cotio cotio (Hamilton 1822)    latinization of Koti, local Bengali name for this species

Osteobrama cotio dayi (Hora & Misra 1940)    in honor of Francis Day (1829-1889), Inspector-General of Fisheries in India, who had identified earlier collections of this subspecies as Rohtee (=Osteobrama) belangeri and R. ogilbii

Osteobrama cotio peninsularis Silas 1952    referring to Peninsular India, where the subspecies is a “Peninsular Isolate”

Osteobrama cunma (Day 1888)    derived from Nga-koon-ma, Burmese vernacular for this species

Osteobrama feae Vinciguerra 1890    in honor of explorer and zoologist Leonardo Fea (1852-1903), who collected type

Osteobrama neilli (Day 1873)    in honor of “esteemed friend” A. C. Brisbane Neil, Madras Medical Service (retired), who helped Day bring his 1865 Fishes of Malabar to press

Osteobrama vigorsii (Sykes 1839)    in honor of Sykes’ friend Nicholas Aylward Vigors (1785-1840), ornithologist, politician and co-founder of the Zoological Society of London

Osteochilichthys Hora 1942    ichthys, fish, originally proposed as a subgenus of Osteochilus

Osteochilichthys brevidorsalis (Day 1873)    brevis, short; dorsalis, back, allusion not explained, possibly referring to short length of dorsal fin

Osteochilus Günther 1868    osteo-, bone; cheilos, lip, referring to hard, sharp, chisel-like transverse edge on lower lip

Subgenus Osteochilus                     

Osteochilus bellus Popta 1904    pretty, presumably referring to purple and purple-pink body coloration with pinkish fins and eight longitudinal spots

Osteochilus bleekeri Kottelat 2008    in honor of Dutch medical doctor and ichthyologist Pieter Bleeker (1819-1878), who misidentified this species as Rohita triporos (=O. [Neorohita] microcephalus) in 1852

Osteochilus borneensis (Bleeker 1856)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Borneo, type locality (also occurs in Sumatra)

Osteochilus brachynotopteroides Chevey 1934    oides, having the form of: referring to similarity with O. brachynotopterus (=microcephalus)

Osteochilus chini Karnasuta 1993    in honor of Chin Khuikong, Department of Agriculture, State of North Borneo, for his efforts in collecting type

Osteochilus enneaporos (Bleeker 1852)    ennea, nine; porus, presumably referring to eight pores or tubercles on snout (one central pore surrounded by eight others in a circle)

Osteochilus flavicauda Kottelat & Tan 2009    referring to its flavus (yellow) cauda (tail)

Osteochilus harrisoni Fowler 1905    in honor of Alfred C. Harrison, Jr., of Philadelphia, explorer of Borneo and Sumatra, who collected type

Osteochilus ingeri Karnasuta 1993    in honor of Robert F. Inger, Field Museum of Natural History (Chicago), who collected type

Osteochilus jeruk Hadiaty & Siebert 1998    Bahasa Indonesian word for orange, referring to bright orange coloration in life

Osteochilus kahajanensis (Bleeker 1856)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Kahajan River, Borneo, type locality

Osteochilus kappenii (Bleeker 1856)    in honor of Dutch health officer E. F. J. Van Kappen, who collected Bornean fishes for Bleeker

Osteochilus kelabau Popta 1904    indigenous name for this fish in central Borneo

Osteochilus kerinciensis Tan & Kottelat 2009    ensis, suffix denoting place: Lake Kerinci, Sumatra, type locality

Osteochilus lini Fowler 1935    in honor of Lin Shu-Yen, for his “valuable studies on Chinese fishes”

Osteochilus longidorsalis (Pethiyagoda & Kottelat 1994)    longus, long; dorsalis, of the dorsum, referring to “remarkably long” dorsal fin

Osteochilus melanopleurus (Bleeker 1852)    melanos, black; pleurus, of the side, referring to large, blackish, vertical blotch on side of body above pectoral fin

Osteochilus nashii (Day 1869)    in honor of “Dr. Nash,” probably John Pearson Nash, Surgeon, H.M. Madras Army, who collected type

Osteochilus partilineatus Kottelat 1995    partialis, incomplete; lineatus, striped, referring to “irregular and partly incomplete striped pattern”

Osteochilus pentalineatus Kottelat 1982    penta-, five; lineata, lined, referring to five longitudinal stripes on body

Osteochilus repang Popta 1904    indigenous name for this fish in central Borneo

Osteochilus salsburyi Nichols & Pope 1927    in honor of Clarence G. Salsbury, M.D., American Presbyterian Mission of Hainan, for his interest and aid in Nichols’ work

Osteochilus sarawakensis Karnasuta 1993    ensis, suffix denoting place: Sarawak state, Borneo, East Malaysia, only known area of occurrence

Osteochilus scapularis Fowler 1939    scapular, referring to dark shoulder blotch

Osteochilus schlegelii (Bleeker 1851)    in honor of the “eminent” (translation) herpetologist Hermann Schlegel (1804-1884)

Osteochilus serokan Hadiaty & Siebert 1998    Bahasa Indonesian word generally applied to members of Osteochilus

Osteochilus spilurus (Bleeker 1851)    spilos, spot; oura, tail, referring to large black spot at caudal peduncle

Osteochilus striatus Kottelat 1998    striped, referring to conspicuous dark longitudinal stripe along lateral line, ending on median caudal rays

Osteochilus waandersii (Bleeker 1853)    in honor of Henri Louis van Bloemen Waanders (1821-1883), administrator of the tin mines of Banka (an island in Sumatra), to whom the knowledge of this species, and other freshwater fishes from the island, are due

Subgenus Neorohita Fowler 1937    neo-, new, i.e., a new subgenus for Rohita hasseltii (=O. vittatus), type species

Osteochilus intermedius Weber & de Beaufort 1916    intermediate, differing from O. vittatus in number of scales between lateral line and dorsal but resembling O. triporus (=microcephalus) in dorsal and caudal fin markings

Osteochilus microcephalus (Valenciennes 1842)    micro-, small; cephalus, head, referring to smaller head compared to Rohita hasseltii (=O. vittatus)

Osteochilus sondhii Hora & Mukerji 1934    in honor of V. P. Sondhi, Geological Survey of India, who collected type

Osteochilus vittatoides Popta 1904    oides, having the form of: referring to close similarity to O. vittatus

Osteochilus vittatus (Valenciennes 1842)    striped, presumably referring to single median stripe (description does not mention this character)

Oxygymnocypris Tsao 1964    oxy, sharp, referring to conical, pointed snout of O. stewartii; proposed as a subgenus of Gymnocypris

Oxygymnocypris stewartii (Lloyd 1908)    in honor of Capt. F. H. Stewart, Indian Medical Service, who collected type

Paracrossochilus Popta 1904    para-, near, referring to similarity to Crossocheilus, from which it differs in the structure of the mouth

Paracrossochilus acerus Inger & Chin 1962    a-, without; cerus, horn, referring to absence of large rostral tubercles seen on P. vittatus males

Paracrossochilus vittatus (Boulenger 1894)    banded, presumably referring to blackish stripe along lateral line scales, and half of each adjoining scale separated from dark dorsal color by a light, metallic, iridescent streak

Parapsilorhynchus Hora 1921    para-, near, referring to close resemblance to Psilorhynchus (Cypriniformes: Psilorhynchidae)

Parapsilorhynchus discophorus Hora 1921    disco, disc; phoreus, bearer or carrier, referring to small, rudimentary disc behind lower lip

Parapsilorhynchus elongatus Singh 1994    extended, referring to long pectoral fins

Parapsilorhynchus odishaensis Baliarsingh, Kosygin & Swain 2017    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Odisha, India, type locality

Parapsilorhynchus prateri Hora & Misra 1938    in honor of Stanley Henry Prater (1890-1960), curator, Bombay Natural History Society, and editor of the Society’s journal, in which description was published

Parapsilorhynchus tentaculatus (Annandale 1919)    tentacule, feeler, i.e., small tentacle; –atus, provided with, presumably referring to minute tubercles covering lower lip

Paraqianlabeo Zhao, Sullivan, Zhang & Peng 2014    para-, associated with, referring to close similarity to Qianlabeo

Parasinilabeo lineatus Zhao, Sullivan, Zhang & Peng 2014    lined, referring to longitudinal dark stripe along sides of body

Parasikukia Doi 2000    para-, near, referring to similarity with Sikukia (Cyprininae), both genera having deep bodies and adipose eyelids

Parasikukia maculata Doi 2000    spotted, referring to small, distinct, dark, saddle-shaped spot anterior to dorsal fin origin, unique among barbs of Southeast Asia

Parasinilabeo Wu 1939    para-, near, referring to presumed close relationship with Sinilabeo

Parasinilabeo assimilis Wu & Yao 1977    similar, referring to similarity to and previous identification as P. (=Rectoris) mutabilis

Parasinilabeo longibarbus Zhu, Lan & Zhang 2006    longus, long; barbus, barbel, distinguished from congeners by possessing a pair of well-developed maxillary barbels

Parasinilabeo longicorpus Zhang 2000    longus, long; corpus, body, referring to elongated body, 14.7-18.9% SL

Parasinilabeo longiventralis Huang, Chen & Yang 2007    longus, long; ventralis, ventral, referring to longer pelvic fin compared to congeners

Parasinilabeo maculatus Zhang 2000    spotted, presumably referring to black marking below fifth lateral line scale and above pectoral fin

Parasinilabeo microps (Su, Yang & Cui 2001)    micro-, small; ops, eyes, referring to relatively small eyes, about 20% of head length

Paraspinibarbus Chu & Kottelat 1989    para-, close or near to Spinibarbus (which also have a spine in front of dorsal fin), original genus of P. macracanthus

Paraspinibarbus macracanthus (Pellegrin & Chevey 1936)    macro-, long; acanthus, spine, referring to strong spine partly concealed under skin in front of dorsal fin

Parator Wu, Yang, Yue & Huang 1963    para-, near, referring to similarity to Tor

Parator zonatus (Lin 1935)    banded, referring to five vertical bands on sides

Percocypris Chu 1935    perco, perch, referring to how head of P. pingi “strongly resembles that of a perch”; cypris, a small carp, a common suffix for cyprinid genera

Percocypris pingi (Tchang 1930)    patronym not identified but probably in honor of Chi Ping, professor of zoology, Southeastern University, Nanking

Percocypris regani (Tchang 1935)    in honor of ichthyologist Charles Tate Regan (1878-1943), Natural History Museum (London), who studied the fishes of Yunnan, China

Percocypris tchangi (Pellegrin & Chevey 1936)    in honor of ichthyologist Tchunlin (or Tchung-Lin) Tchang (1897-1963), who described the other species in the genus

Pethia Pethiyagoda, Meegaskumbura & Maduwage 2012    vernacular name for small cyprinids in Sinhala (Sri Lanka)

Pethia atra (Linthoingambi & Vishwanath 2007)    black, referring to black longitudinal stripe on body

Pethia aurea Knight 2013     golden, referring to golden-yellow body coloration

Pethia bandula (Kottelat & Pethiyagoda 1991)    in honor of Ranjit Bandula, who discovered this barb in an unnamed spring-fed stream at a natural rubber plantation near Galapitamada, Sri Lanka, and helped junior author collect type series

Pethia canius (Hamilton 1822)     etymology not explained, perhaps a latinization of kani, from kanipunte, a local Bengali name for an unidentified cyprinid

Pethia conchonius (Hamilton 1822)    latinization of Kongchon, local Bengali vernacular for this species

Pethia cumingii (Günther 1868)    in honor of amateur conchologist Hugh Cuming (1791-1865), whose natural history collection (sold to the Natural History Museum in 1866) contained type

Pethia didi (Kullander & Fang 2005)    in honor of the authors’ (husband and wife) son Didi who, along with his brother (see P. tiantian) “had to repeatedly suffer their parents’ absence searching for these and other fish in faraway lands”; Didi (Mandarin Chinese for earth) also connotes how this species, in contrast to P. tiantian, is a “species of the lowlands, steady on earth”

Pethia erythromycter (Kullander 2008)    erythros, red; mykter, nose, referring to red snout of males

Pethia expletiforis Dishma & Vishwanath 2013    expletus, complete; foris, opening, referring to complete lateral line

Pethia gelius (Hamilton 1822)    latinization of Geli, from Geli pungti, Bengali vernacular for this species

Pethia guganio (Hamilton 1822)    latinization of Gugani, Bengali vernacular for this species

Pethia khugae (Linthoingambi & Vishwanath 2007)    of Khuga River, Chindwin Basin, Churachandpur District, Manipur, India, type locality

Pethia longicauda Katwate, Paingankar, Raghavan & Dahanukar 2014    longus, long; cauda, tail, referring to long caudal peduncle

Pethia lutea Katwate, Raghavan, Paingankar & Dahanukar 2014    yellow, referring to its bright yellow-colored body in life

Pethia macrogramma (Kullander 2008)    macro-, long; gramma, line, referring to complete or near-complete lateral line compared to short, abbreviated lateral line of others in the P. conchonius group

Pethia manipurensis (Menon, Rema Devi & Vishwanath 2000)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Manipur, India, type locality

Pethia meingangbii (Arunkumar & Tombi Singh 2003)    derived from Manipuri word Meingangbi, meaning red-colored tail, referring to “distinctly red” caudal fin

Pethia melanomaculata (Deraniyagala 1956)    melanos, black; maculatus, spotted, referring to row of small black dots or dusting along sides

Pethia nankyweensis (Kullander 2008)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Nan Kywe Chaung (a stream), near Myitkyina, Myanmar, type locality

Pethia nigripinnis (Knight, Rema Devi, Indra & Arunachalam 2012)    niger, black; pinnis, fins, referring to black dorsal, pectoral, pelvic and anal fins in mature males

Pethia nigrofasciata (Günther 1868)    nigro-, dark or dusky; fasciatus, banded, referring to three dark indigo-blue vertical bands on body

Pethia ornata (Vishwanath & Laisram 2004)    referring to ornamental band around caudal peduncle

Pethia padamya (Kullander & Britz 2008)    Burmese for ruby, referring to “Ruby Barb” vernacular used in ornamental fish trade, and to bright red color of males

Pethia phutunio (Hamilton 1822)    latinization of Phutini, from Phutuni pungti, Bengali vernacular for this species

Pethia pookodensis (Mercy & Jacob 2007)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Pookode Lake, Wayanad district, Kerala, India, only known area of occurrence

Pethia punctata (Day 1865)    spotted, referring to diffused black spot on caudal peduncle

Pethia reval (Meegaskumbura, Silva, Maduwage & Pethiyagoda 2008)    combiantion of the Sinhalese -, root word for red, and val, noun for fins, referring to its distinctively colored fins

Pethia rutila Lalramliana, Knight & Laltlanhlu 2014    reddish, referring to its coloration

Pethia sanjaymoluri Katwate, Jadhav, Raghavan & Dahanukar 2016    in honor of Sanjay Molur, Executive Director, Zoo Outreach Organization (a nature and wildlife conservation NGO based in India) for his contribution to the conservation of threatened taxa in the South Asian region

Pethia setnai (Chhapgar & Sane 1992)    in honor of the late S. B. Setna, “first Director of Fisheries of the erstwhile Bombay State, whose dynamism led to the establishment of a separate Department of Fisheries, which was prior to 1945, only a Section of the Industries Department”

Pethia shalynius (Yazdani & Talukdar 1975)    latinization of shalyni, local (Khasi and Jaintia) name for this species

Pethia sharmai (Menon & Rema Devi 1993)    in honor of V. P. Sharma, Director, Malaria Research Center, New Dehli, for his “keen interest in the study of indigenous larvivorous fishes of India”

Pethia stoliczkana (Day 1871)    ana, belonging to: patronym not identified but clearly in honor of paleontologist Ferdinand Stoliczka (1838-1874), who collected many of the fishes that Day described

Pethia striata Atkore, Knight, Rema Devi & Krishnaswamy 2015    striped, referring to dark outer edges of body scales, which produce a striped pattern along the sides

Pethia thelys (Kullander 2008)    Greek for feminine, referring to predominance of females in specimens sampled

Pethia tiantian (Kullander & Fang 2005)    in honor of the authors’ son, Tiantian, who, along with his brother (see P. didi), “had to repeatedly suffer their parents’ absence searching for these and other fish in faraway lands”; Tiantian (Mandarin Chinese for heaven) also connotes how this species inhabits streams at the foot of the Himalayas and therefore is “somewhat close to heaven”

Pethia ticto (Hamilton 1822)    derived from Tikto sophore, Bengali vernacular for this species

Pethia yuensis (Arunkumar & Tombi Singh 2003)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Yu River system, Manipur, India, type locality

Phreatichthys Vinciguerra 1924    phreatos, well or spring, referring to this subterranean minnow’s presence in springs and hand-dug wells; ichthys, fish

Phreatichthys andruzzii Vinciguerra 1924    in honor of Alcibiade Andruzzi, naval medical major and director of Colonial Health Service of Somalia, who facilitated natural history investigations for the Museo Civivo di Storie Naturale di Genova and shipped type specimens to Vinciguerra

Placocheilus Wu 1977    placo-, plate; cheilus, lip, referring to lower lip modified into an oval (i.e., plate-like) adhesive disc

Placocheilus bibarbatus Nguyen 2001    bi-, two; barbatus, bearded, described as only congener with a pair of barbels

Placocheilus caudofasciatus (Pellegrin & Chevey 1936)    cauda, tail; fasciata, banded, referring to two dark, semicircular marks on middle of each lobe of caudal fin

Placocheilus cryptonemus Cui & Li 1984    crypto-, hidden or concealed; nema, thread, presumably referring to absence of barbels

Placocheilus dulongensis Chen, Pan, Xiao & Yang 2012    ensis, suffix denoting place: Dulong River, Dulongjing County, Yunnan Province, China, where it is endemic

Placocheilus imbarbatus Nguyen 2001    im-, not; barbatus, bearded, referring to lack of barbels compared to P. bibarbatus described in same publication

Placocheilus robustus Zhang, He & Chen 2002    stout, referring to stouter caudal peduncle compared to congeners

Platypharodon Herzenstein 1891    platy, flat; pharo-, throat; odon, tooth, referring to its flat, comb-like pharyngeal teeth

Platypharodon extremus Herzenstein 1891    referring to distinctiveness of pharyngeal teeth, described as an “extreme form” (translation) of the teeth found in Gymnocypris

Poropuntius Smith 1931    porus, pore, referring to rows of large pores on median part of snout, a feature not shared by the otherwise similar Puntius

Poropuntius alloiopleurus (Vaillant 1893)    allo-, other; pleuro-, of the side, presumably referring to simple lateral line pores compared to the bifid pores of the otherwise similar Barbus (=Cyclocheilichthys) enoplos

Poropuntius aluoiensis (Nguyen 1997)    ensis, suffix denoting place: A Luoi district, Thua Thien, Hue, Viêt Nam, type locality

Poropuntius angustus Kottelat 2000    narrow, presumably referring to horizontal dorsal profile and/or shallow body depth

Poropuntius baolacensis (Nguyen 2001)    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Bao Lac County, Cao Bàng Province, Viêt Nam, where it is endemic

Poropuntius bantamensis (Rendahl 1920)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Ban Tam, eastern foothills of Doi Chieng Dao, northwestern Thailand, type locality

Poropuntius bolovenensis Roberts 1998    ensis, suffix denoting place: Bolovens Plateau, Sekong watershed, southern Laos, where it is endemic

Poropuntius brevispinus (Nguyen & Doan 1969)    brevis, short; spinus, spined, referring to spinous dorsal fin rays being shorter than branched rays

Poropuntius burtoni (Mukerji 1933)    in honor of Lt.-Col. R. W. Burton, Indian Army, who collected type

Poropuntius carinatus (Wu & Lin 1977)    keeled, referring to pre-dorsal keel, or carina

Poropuntius chonglingchungi (Tchang 1938)    in honor of Chong Ling Chung, Fan Memorial Institute, who collected “some interesting fishes” from Yunnan, China

Poropuntius cogginii (Chaudhuri 1911)    in honor of geologist J. Coggin Brown (1884-1962), who collected type

Poropuntius consternans Kottelat 2000    “to dismay, to scare, to disconcert,” allusion not explained, perhaps referring to Kottelat’s difficulties in determining the taxonomic status of several “morphs” attributed to P. bolovenensis, and whether to make available infraspecific names for them proposed by another ichthyologist (Tyson R. Roberts)

Poropuntius deauratus (Valenciennes 1842)    gilded, referring to golden highlights on entire body

Poropuntius exiguus (Wu & Lin 1977)    small or scanty, referring to much smaller size as sexually mature adults compared to sympatric P. daliensis (=P. cogginii)

Poropuntius faucis (Smith 1945)    throat or pharynx, allusion not explained nor evident, perhaps referring to small, oblique mouth, with lower jaw shorter than upper jaw

Poropuntius fuxianhuensis (Wang, Zhuang & Gao 1982)   ensis, suffix denoting place: Lake Fuxianhu, Yunnan Province, China, type locality

Poropuntius genyognathus Roberts 1998    genys, jaw, ax or ax-blade; gnathus, jaw, referring to sharp cutting edge of lower horny jaw sheath

Poropuntius hampaloides (Vinciguerra 1890)    oides, having the form of: referring to resemblance to Barbus hampal (=Hampala macrolepidota)

Poropuntius hathe Roberts 1998    referring to Hathe Rapids, one of the collecting sites in Moei River, Thailand

Poropuntius heterolepidotus Roberts 1998    heteros, different or special; lepidotus, scaled or scaly, referring to abrupt change in scale size on body (posterior scales markedly smaller than anterior scales)

Poropuntius huangchuchieni (Tchang 1962)    in honor of Huang Chu-Chien, Institute of Zoology, Academia Sinica, Beijing, China

Poropuntius kontumensis kontumensis (Chevey 1934)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Lake Kontum, southern Viêt Nam, type locality

Poropuntius kontumensis rasorius Roberts 1998    scraper-like, probably referring to shovel-shaped lower horny jaw sheath (compared to rounded sheath on P. k. kontumensis) used to scrape algae and associated organisms from filamentous or gelatinous mats

Poropuntius krempfi (Pellegrin & Chevey 1934)    in honor of marine biologist Armand Krempf (1879-?), who supplied the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (Paris) with many specimens from Indo-China (although apparently not the type of this one)

Poropuntius laoensis (Günther 1868)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Laos Mountains, Cochinchine (now southern Viêt Nam), type locality (type country may be in error as species appears to occur in Myanmar, Laos, Thailand and Cambodia, but not Viêt Nam)

Poropuntius lobocheiloides Kottelat 2000    oides, having the form of: referring to “superficially similar appearance” to the genus Lobocheilus

Poropuntius margarianus (Anderson 1879)    anus, belonging to: the “lamented” Augustus Raymond Margary (1846-1875), British diplomat and explorer, who “took a lively interest in the scientific objects of the [Yunnan] Expedition of 1875, but was ruthlessly murdered by the Chinese at Manwyne”

Poropuntius melanogrammus Roberts 1998    melanos, black or dark; grammus, line, referring to bold midlateral stripe

Poropuntius normani Smith 1931    in honor of ichthyologist J. R. (John Roxborough) Norman (1898-1944), “in charge of the collection of fishes in the British Museum”

Poropuntius opisthopterus (Wu 1977)    ophisto-, behind; ptera, fin, referring to origin of dorsal fin behind ventral fin

Poropuntius rhomboides (Wu & Lin 1977)    oides, having the form of: rhomboid, referring to tall body with curved dorsal and ventral surfaces, which give body a rhomboid-like shape

Poropuntius shanensis (Hora & Mukerji 1934)    –ensis, suffix denoting place: southern Shan States, Myanmar, type locality

Poropuntius smedleyi (de Beaufort 1933)    in honor of Norman Smedley, former curator of the Raffles Museum, Singapore

Poropuntius solitus Kottelat 2000    usual or ordinary, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to “plain olive brown” coloration

Poropuntius speleops (Roberts 1991)    speleum, cave, referring to underground habitat; ops, eyes, referring to nearly normal eyes on young up to 60 mm, which become vestigial as adults

Poropuntius susanae (Banister 1973)    in honor of Banister’s wife, Susan

Poropuntius tawarensis (Weber & de Beaufort 1916)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Lake Laut Tawar, Sumatra, Indonesia, where it is endemic

Poropuntius yalyensis (Nguyen 2001)    –ensis, suffix denoting place: etymology not explained, presumably from Yali Falls, located within Sesan River system (type locality), Kon Tum Province, Viêt Nam

Probarbus Sauvage 1880    pro-, before, forward or in front of, allusion not explained, perhaps alluding in some way to similarity and/or close relationship with Barbus (“mouth shaped like that of Barbus” [translation])

Probarbus jullieni Sauvage 1880    in honor of J. Jullien (no other information available), who collected type

Probarbus labeamajor Roberts 1992    labia, lips; major, great, referring to greatly enlarged lips and bifurcate lower labial lobe diagnostic of the species

Probarbus labeaminor Roberts 1992    labia, lips; minor, less, referring to relatively small and morphologically distinctive lips diagnostic of the species

Procypris Lin 1933    pro-, before, allusion not evident; cypris, a small carp, a common suffix for cyprinid genera

Procypris mera Lin 1933    merus, pure, allusion not evident

Procypris rabaudi (Tchang 1930)    in honor of zoologist Étienne Rabaud (1868-1956), l’Université de Paris

Prolabeo Norman 1932    pro-, forward; labeo, one with large lips, probably referring to transverse flap in front of mouth, which overhangs upper lip

Prolabeo batesi Norman 1932    in honor of farmer and ornithologist George Latimer Bates (1863-1940), who collected specimens for the Natural History Museum (London), including type of this one

Prolabeops Schultz 1941    opsis, appearance, referring to similarity to Prolabeo

Prolabeops melanhypopterus (Pellegrin 1928)    melano-, black; hypo-, under or less than; pterus, fin, presumably referring to large black band on lower half of dorsal fin

Prolabeops nyongensis Daget 1984    ensis, suffix denoting place: Nyong River, Mbalmayo, Cameroon, type locality

Prolixicheilus Zheng, Chen & Yang 2016    prolixus, broad; cheilos, lip, referring to its broad lips

Prolixicheilus longisulcus (Zheng, Chen & Yang 2010)    longus, long; sulcus, furrow, referring to longer postlabial grooves compared to Pseudogyrinocheilus prochilus, its presumed congener at the time

Protolabeo Zhang, Zhao & An 2010    protos, first, referring to “relatively primitive structure of mouth” (translation) among labeonine cyprinids

Protolabeo protolabeo Zhang, Zhao & Liu 2010    as for genus

Pseudobarbus Smith 1841    pseudo-, false, originally proposed as a subgenus of Barbus (i.e., not representing the true form of the genus)

Pseudobarbus afer (Peters 1864)    African (citizen); described in Capoeta (then a subgenus of Barbus), possibly reflecting that it was the only Capoeta known from Africa at the time

Pseudobarbus asper (Boulenger 1911)    rough, referring to spine-like tubercles on snout and upper surface of head of breeding males

Pseudobarbus burchelli (Smith 1841)    in honor of naturalist-explorer William John Burchell (1781-1863), who collected over 50,000 specimens (plants, animal skins, skeletons, insects, seeds, bulbs and fishes) in South Africa between 1810 and 1815

Pseudobarbus burgi (Boulenger 1911)    of the Burg River, Paarl Division, Cape Province, South Africa, type locality

Pseudobarbus calidus (Barnard 1938)    hot, referring to brightness of red patches on fins and summertime heat of Olifants River valley (South Africa), type locality (etymology explained in Barnard’s 1943 revision of southwest Cape fishes)

Pseudobarbus capensis (Smith 1841)    ensis, suffix denoting place: the Cape Colony, referring to type locality in what is now South Africa

Pseudobarbus erubescens (Skelton 1974)    becoming red, referring to fins of males and females turning red in breeding season

Pseudobarbus hospes (Barnard 1938)    host or guest, referring to Goodhouse, name of farm on south bank of Orange River at Raman’s Drift (Namaqualand, South Africa, type locality), owned by the “hospitable” Mr. C. Weidner (etymology explained in Barnard’s 1943 revision of southwest Cape fishes)

Pseudobarbus phlegethon (Barnard 1938)    flame, probably referring to red patches on fins of breeding males

Pseudobarbus senticeps (Smith 1936)    sentis, thorn or bramble; ceps, head, referring to distinctly pointed tubercles on snout, along inner edges of the nares and orbits, and top of head of sexually mature males

Pseudobarbus serra (Peters 1864)     saw, referring to serrated primary dorsal fin ray

Pseudobarbus skeltoni Chakona & Swartz 2013    in honor of Paul H. Skelton (b. 1948), for his “lifelong service to taxonomic and systematic research on freshwater fishes in southern Africa, his contribution to the taxonomic revision and systematics of Pseudobarbus and specifically for his mentoring of students on this group of fishes”

Pseudobarbus swartzi Chakona & Skelton 2017    in honor of Ernst R. Swartz, South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity, for his contribution to the biogeography and systematics of Pseudobarbus and the role he played in mentoring students of southern African freshwater fishes   

Pseudobarbus tenuis (Barnard 1938)   thin or slender, presumably referring to depth of body less than length of head, even in gravid females

Pseudobarbus trevelyani (Günther 1877)    in honor of sportsman-naturalist H. Trevelyan (d. 1912), who sent type to the British Museum (Natural History)

Pseudobarbus verloreni Chakona, Swartz & Skelton 2014    named after the Verlorenvlei River system, Western Cape Province, South Africa, to which it is now confined

Pseudocrossocheilus Zhang & Chen 1997   pseudo-, false, i.e., although this genus may resemble Crossocheilus, such an appearance is false

Pseudocrossocheilus longibullus (Su, Yang & Cui 2003)    longus, long; bullus, air bladder, referring to elongate air bladder

Pseudocrossocheilus nigrovittatus (Su, Yang & Cui 2003)    nigro-, black; vittatus, banded, referring to black longitudinal stripe on side

Pseudocrossocheilus papillolabrus (Su, Yang & Cui 2003)    papillo, papilla or nipple; labra, lip, referring to lower lip densely covered with papillae, the width of papillate area larger than other species of Sinocrossocheilus (genus in which it was described)

Pseudocrossocheilus tridentis (Cui & Chu 1986)    tri-, three; dentatus, toothed, referring to three rows of lower pharyngeal teeth instead of two

Pseudogyrinocheilus Fang 1933    pseudo-, false, i.e., although this genus may resemble Gyrinocheilus (Gyrinocheilidae, but then placed in Cyprinidae), such an appearance is false

Pseudogyrinocheilus prochilus (Sauvage & Dabry de Thiersant 1874)    pro-, forward; cheilus, lip, referring to thick lips, which, when mouth is fully opened, form a seemingly protactile sucking disc

Pseudosinocyclocheilus Zhang & Zhao 2016    pseudo-, false, i.e., although this genus may resemble Sinocyclocheilus (and its one species previously placed in it), such an appearance is false

Pseudosinocyclocheilus jinxiensis (Zheng, Xiu & Yang 2013)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Jinxi County, Guangxi Province, China, only known area of occurrence

Pterocapoeta Günther 1902    pteron, fin, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to a Capoeta-like cyprinid without an ossified dorsal-fin ray but with more than nine branched rays

Pterocapoeta maroccana Günther 1902    anus, belonging to: Morocco (also spelled Marocca), where it is endemic

Ptychidio Myers 1930    ptycho-, folded, presumably referring to extrusible, fimbriated upper lip that folds over lower lip when mouth is closed; idios, distinct or peculiar, referring to mouth structure, which is “closely approached by no known Cyprinid”

Ptychidio jordani Myers 1930    in honor of ichthyologist David Starr Jordan (1851-1931), Chancellor Emeritus of Stanford University, “in slight appreciation of his friendship and many kindnesses to the writer”

Ptychidio longibarbus Chen & Chen 1989    longus, long; barbus, barbel, having the longest barbels among its congeners

Ptychidio macrops Fang 1981    macro-, large; ops, eye, referring to larger eye (and greater interorbital distance) compared to P. jordani

Ptychobarbus Steindachner 1866    ptycho-, folded, presumably referring to broad, uninterrupted labial fold on P. conirostris; barbus, barb, possibly referring to pair of maxillary barbels that extend to hind end of preopercle in adult and/or used as a general suffix for a barbeled cyprinid

Ptychobarbus chungtienensis chungtienensis (Tsao 1964)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Zhongdian (phonetically spelled Chungtien) County, Yunnan Province, type locality

Ptychobarbus chungtienensis gezaensis (Huang & Chen 1986)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Geza, Zhongdian County, Yunnan Province, China, type locality

Ptychobarbus conirostris Steindachner 1866    conus, cone; rostris, snout, referring to conical snout

Ptychobarbus dipogon (Regan 1905)    di-, two; pogon, beard, referring to one pair of barbels, compared to two pair in Schizothorax, in which it was initially placed

Ptychobarbus kaznakovi Nikolskii 1903    in honor of zoologist Alexander N. Kaznakov (1872-1933), an associate of Pyotr K. Kozlov’s Imperial Russian Geographical Society expedition to Mongolia and Tibet (1899-1901), which yielded a rich natural history collection, including type of this species

Puntigrus Kottelat 2013    a combination of Puntius (former genus in which all species had been assigned) and tigrus, tiger, referring to blackish bands that encircle body and evoking the vernacular “Tiger Barb” used for some species in the aquarium hobby

Puntigrus anchisporus (Vaillant 1902)    anchi-, near, or anchistos, nearest, referring, as Vaillant explained, to close similarity between this species and three others presumed to be closely related at the time: Barbodes lateristriga, Desmopuntius pentazona and Puntigrus tetrazona); the meaning of porus (pore or hole?) or sporus (seed or sowing?) is not evident

Puntigrus navjotsodhii (Tan 2012)    in honor of Navjot S. Sodhi (1962-2011), for his “inputs” to conservation and ecological research in Southeast Asia, and for his “considerable contributions and services” to the editorship of the Raffles Bulletin of Zoology

Puntigrus partipentazona (Fowler 1934)    parti-, part; penta-, five; zonus, zone, referring to five blackish bands, which do not encircle body as in Desmopuntius pentazona, its presumed congener at the time

Puntigrus pulcher (Rendahl 1922)    beautiful, allusion not explained, probably referring to attractive coloration: four narrow black bars on sides and all-black dorsal and pelvic fins

Puntigrus tetrazona (Bleeker 1855)    tetra-, four; zonus, belt or girdle, referring to four vertical bars, including one through eye and one at caudal fin base

Puntioplites Smith 1929    Puntius, referring to previous generic placement of P. proctozystron; hoplites, armed, referring to ossified and denticulated third anal spine

Puntioplites bulu (Bleeker 1851)    from Ikan Bulu-bulu (Ikan = fish), Malay vernacular for this species

Puntioplites falcifer Smith 1929    falcis, sickle; fero, to bear, referring to falciform anterior dorsal rays

Puntioplites proctozystron (Bleeker 1864)    procto-, anus; xystron, rasp or file, referring to serrated anal fin spine

Puntioplites waandersi (Bleeker 1859)    in honor of Jean Theodore van Bloemen Waanders (1820-1889), Captain of the Artillery, East Sumatra, who collected type

Puntius Hamilton 1822    latinization of Pungti, Bengali vernacular for cyprinids “of a small size, and marked by a few large deep coloured spots”

Puntius ambassis (Day 1869)    referring to similar coloration to Ambassis (Perciformes: Ambassidae)

Puntius amphibius (Valenciennes 1842)    amphi-, double; bios, life, i.e., living a double life, referring to an early report that this species is marine but moves into freshwater rice fields during floods (note: species occurs in brackish coastal waters)

Puntius aphya (Günther 1868)    Greek for a small fish or herring, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to small size (63.5 mm)

Puntius arenatus (Day 1878)    sanded, presumably referring to silvery coloration, “without any markings”

Puntius bimaculatus (Bleeker 1863)    bi-, two; maculatus, spotted, referring to black spots at dorsal fin base and end of lateral line

Puntius bramoides (Valenciennes 1842)    oides, having the form of: brama, derived from abramis, Greek for bream, having the appearance of a bream (“l’aspect d’une brème”)

Puntius brevis (Bleeker 1849)    short, allusion not explained, possibly referring to shorter snout compared to Capoeta (=Hampala) macrolepidota

Puntius burmanicus (Day 1878)    Burmese, referring to type locality at Mergui, Burma (now Myanmar)

Puntius cauveriensis (Hora 1937)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Cauvery River, Coorg State, southern India, type locality

Puntius chola (Hamilton 1822)    Bengali vernacular for this species

Puntius crescentus Yazdani & Singh 1994    referring to crescentic dark band on dorsal fin

Puntius deccanensis Yazdani & Babu Rao 1976    ensis, suffix denoting place: Deccan plateau, referring to type locality in Poona district, India

Puntius dolichopterus Plamoottil 2015    dolichos, elongated; pterus, fin, referring to elongated pectoral fin, reaching pelvic-fin origin

Puntius dorsalis (Jerdon 1849)    dorsal, referring to gently rising dorsal profile

Puntius euspilurus Plamoottil 2016    eu-, well; spilos, blotch; urus, tail, referring to distinct black basal spot on caudal fin

Puntius fraseri (Hora & Misra 1938)    in honor of biologist A.G.L. Fraser, who collected type and supplied Bhil names of Deolali (India) fishes

Puntius kamalika Silva, Maduwage & Pethiyagoda 2008    in honor of Kamalika “Kami” Abeyaratne (1934-2004), Sri Lankan pediatrician who became an AIDS activist after she contracted HIV through a contaminated blood transfusion administered following a near-fatal traffic accident

Puntius kelumi Pethiyagoda, Silva & Maduwage 2008    in honor or Sri Lankan naturalist Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi

Puntius khohi Dabriyal, Singh, Suniyal, Joshi, Phuraulatpam & Bish 2004    of a Khoh River tributary, Garwal Himalaya, Uttaranchal, India, type locality

Puntius layardi (Günther 1868)    in honor of F. Layard, Esq., Ceylon Civil Service, who presented type to the British Museum (Natural History)

Puntius madhusoodani Krishna Kumar, Benno Pereira & Radhakrishnan 2012    in honor of B. Madhusoodana Kurup, for his contribution to the taxonomy and conservation of the freshwater fishes of Kerala

Puntius mahecola (Valenciennes 1844)    cola, inhabitant of: Mahé, a French settlement (1721-1956) near Kerala, India, and tidal river of same name (name may indicate it was part of a shipment received from Mahé rather than having been collected in Mahé)

Puntius masyai Smith 1945    in honor of ichthyologist and illustrator Luang Masya Chitrakarn (1896-1965), Siamese Bureau of Fisheries, “whose activities have added much to the knowledge of the fresh-water fishes of Thailand”

Puntius morehensis Arunkumar & Tombi Singh 1998    ensis, suffix denoting place: Moreh, small town in Manipur, India, at the Indo-Myanmar border, only known area of occurrence

Puntius mudumalaiensis Menon & Rema Devi 1992    ensis, suffix denoting place: Mudumalai, Tamil Nadu, India, type locality

Puntius nangalensis Jayaram 1990    ensis, suffix denoting place: Nangal Lake, eastern Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, India, only known area of occurrence

Puntius narayani (Hora 1937)    in honor of herpetologist C. R. Narayan Rao (1882-1960), who provided a “valuable” collection of fishes from Cauvery (=Kaveri) River, India  

Puntius nelsoni Plamoottil 2015    in honor of Nelson P. Abraham, Associate Professor, St. Thomas College (Kozhencherry, Kerala, India), a “constant source of encouragement throughout the [author’s] study”

Puntius nigronotus Plamoottil 2015    nigro-, black; notus, back, referring to blackish dorsal surface

Puntius parrah Day 1865    derived from parrah perlee, Malayalam vernacular for this species

Puntius paucimaculatus Wang & Ni 1982    pauci-, few; maculatus, spotted, referring to four rounded blotches on side compared to 4-7 on P. semifasciolatus

Puntius pugio Kullander 2008    Latin for dagger, referring to long, sharp, spine-like last unbranched dorsal fin ray

Puntius punjabensis (Day 1871)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Punjab, Pakistan, type locality

Puntius puntio (Hamilton 1822)    latinization of pungthi, from Phutuni pungthi, Bengali vernacular for this species

Puntius rubrotinctus (Jerdon 1849)    rubro-, red; tinctus, colored, referring to series of bright red spots on sides

Puntius sahyadriensis Silas 1953    ensis, suffix denoting place: Sahayadri, local name for Western Ghats, mountain range along western side of India, where it is endemic

Puntius schanicus (Boulenger 1893)    icus, belonging to: Southern Shan States, Indochina (in what is now Myanmar), type locality

Puntius sirang (Herre 1932)    Marinão name for this species in the Philippines

Puntius snyderi Oshima 1919    in honor of ichthyologist John Otterbein Snyder (1867-1943), whose “kind and valuable assistance” aided Oshima in the preparation of his paper

Puntius sophore (Hamilton 1822)    derived from Sanskrit word meaning “a beautiful little fish”

Puntius sophoroides (Günther 1868)    oides, having the form of: being “very closely allied” to P. sophore

Puntius takhoaensis Nguyen & Doan 1969    ensis, suffix denoting place: Nan Ta Khoa stream, Son La Province, Viêt Nam, type locality

Puntius terio (Hamilton 1822)    latinization of Teri, from Teri pungti, Bengali vernacular for this species

Puntius thomassi (Day 1877)    in honor of angler Henry Sullivan Thomas, Madras Civil Service, who provided two specimens to Day [note misspelling of name, with an extra s]

Puntius titteya Deraniyagala 1929    Sinhalese vernacular for this barb

Puntius viridis Plamootil & Abraham 2014    green, referring to greenish body and fins

Puntius vittatus Day 1865    banded, referring to vertical black stripe on posterior third of dorsal fin when specimens reach 4/5 of an inch long

Puntius waageni (Day 1872)    in honor of geologist and paleontologist Wilhelm Heinrich Waagen (1841-1900), who collected type