Order CLUPEIFORMES: Families DENTICIPITIDAE, PRISTIGASTERIDAE, ENGRAULIDAE and CHIROCENTRIDAE

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Family DENTICIPITIDAE Denticle Herring

Denticeps Clausen 1959    denti-, denticle; ceps, head, referring to denticle-like scales (odontodes) on exposed surfaces of skull roofing bones, which give the bone a somewhat furry appearance

Denticeps clupeoides Clausen 1959    -oides, having the form of: Clupea, referring to herring-like appearance


Family PRISTIGASTERIDAE Longfin Herrings
9 genera • 39 species

Subfamily PELLONINAE

Chirocentrodon Günther 1868    cheiros, hand, possibly referring to long pectoral fins (as long as head) on C. taeniatus (=bleekerianus); centrum, spine or point and odon, tooth, probably referring to “strong” canine teeth on lower jaw and “very distinct” maxillary teeth

Chirocentrodon bleekerianus (Poey 1867)    iana, belonging to: patronym not identified but clearly in honor of Dutch medical doctor and ichthyologist Pieter Bleeker (1819-1878), author of many papers on East Indian fishes

Ilisha Richardson 1846    latinization of ilish, Bengali vernacular usually applied to another clupeiform, Tenualosa ilisha (Clupeidae)

Ilisha africana (Bloch 1795)    ica, belonging to: Africa, referring to distribution along west coast of Africa (Senegal to Angola)

Ilisha amazonica (Miranda Ribeiro 1920)    ica, belonging to: referring to distribution in Amazon River basin

Ilisha compressa Randall 1994    compressed, referring to thin body

Ilisha elongata (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830)    elongate, referring to slender body

Ilisha filigera (Valenciennes 1847)    filum, thread; –gera, to carry, presumably referring to extended caudal filament (at least on small specimen examined by Valenciennes)

Ilisha fuerthii (Steindachner 1875)    in honor of Ignatius Fürth, Austrian Consul at Panama, who donated many specimens to the Vienna Museum

Ilisha kampeni (Weber & de Beaufort 1913)    in honor of herpetologist Pieter Nicolaas van Kampen (1878-1937), who collected many specimens (and presumably this one) for Weber and de Beaufort from the research steamer Gier

Ilisha lunula Kailola 1986    referring to strongly lunate, extended caudal fin

Ilisha macrogaster Bleeker 1866    macro-, large; gaster, belly, probably referring to larger number of ventral scutes (36-37) compared to 27 on I. micropus (=melastoma)

Ilisha megaloptera (Swainson 1839)    megalo-, long; pterus, fin, referring to long anal fin (a characteristic of genus)

Ilisha melastoma (Bloch & Schneider 1801)    melas, black; stomus, mouth, described as having a black mouth (“rictu nigro”)

Ilisha novacula (Valenciennes 1847)    razor, similar in shape to the Razorfish, Cyprinus (=Pelecus) cultratus, a Eurasian cyprinid

Ilisha obfuscata Wongratana 1983    obscured, probably referring to its being discovered among type series of I. filigera and Pellona micropus (=I. melastoma)

Ilisha pristigastroides (Bleeker 1852)    oides, having the form of: referring to strong resemblance to Pristigaster tartoor (=Opisthopterus tardoore)

Ilisha sirishae Seshagiri Rao 1975    in honor of A. V. S. Sirisha, daughter of Seshagiri Rao’s cousin, “who is keen in learning about fishes”

Ilisha striatula Wongratana 1983    diminutive of stria, furrow, referring to discontinuous vertical striae on scales, with a distinct gap across center of scale

Neoopisthopterus Hildebrand 1948    neo-, new, i.e., a new Opisthopterus, referring to close relationship between the two genera

Neoopisthopterus cubanus Hildebrand 1948    Cuban, referring to type locality near Havana, Cuba

Neoopisthopterus tropicus (Hildebrand 1946)    presumably referring to its tropical distribution, from southern Baja California and western México to northern Peru

Pellona Valenciennes 1847    Spanish name of Pellona flavipinnis in Buenos Aires, apparently from pelon, bald, referring to caducous (easily shed) scales

Pellona altamazonica Cope 1872    altus, high; –ica, belonging to: referring to occurrence high up the Amazon basin, “at a great distance from salt water”

Pellona castelnaeana Valenciennes 1847    ana, belonging to: French naturalist Francisco de Castelnau (1810-1880), who collected in Brazil and “reported” (translation) this species to Valenciennes

Pellona dayi Wongratana 1983    in honor of Francis Day (1829-1889), Inspector-General of Fisheries in India, who collected some of the paratypes and whose “Fishes of India” (1889) inspired Wongratana and many others

Pellona ditchela Valenciennes 1847    latinization of Ditchelée, a name this species was reportedly called at Visakhapatnam on the coast of Coromandel, India

Pellona flavipinnis (Valenciennes 1837)    flavus, yellow; pinna, fin, presumably referring to yellowish-to-greenish tail

Pellona harroweri (Fowler 1917)    in honor of David E. Harrower, a member of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, who collected type

Pellona mayrinki (Pinto 1972)    in honor of parasitologist Wilson Mayrink (b. 1925), biology department chair at Federal University of Minas Gerais (Brazil)

Pliosteostoma Norman 1923    pli-, plus or many; osteo, bony; stoma, mouth, probably referring to distinct toothed hypomaxillary bone between hind tip of premaxilla and lower bulge of maxilla blade

Pliosteostoma lutipinnis (Jordan & Gilbert 1882)    luteus, yellow; pinnis, fin, referring to golden yellow on basal portions of caudal and anal fins, and yellow blotch on middle of first rays of pectoral and dorsal fins

Subfamily PRISTIGASTERINAE

Odontognathus Lacepède 1800    odontos, tooth; gnathos, jaw, probably referring to long, serrated maxillary, extending beyond eye in adults

Odontognathus compressus Meek & Hildebrand 1923    referring to “very strongly compressed” body

Odontognathus mucronatus Lacepède 1800    with sharp points, probably referring to sharp scutes on chest and belly

Odontognathus panamensis (Steindachner 1876)   ensis, suffix denoting place: Panama, type locality

Opisthopterus Gill 1861    opistho-, behind; pterus, fin, referring to posterior placement of dorsal fin compared to Pristigaster

Opisthopterus dovii (Günther 1868)    in honor of Capt. John M. Dow, former resident of Panama (type locality), who presented type to British Museum (Natural History)

Opisthopterus effulgens (Regan 1903)    shining forth, probably referring to “silvery” color on sides and belly

Opisthopterus equatorialis Hildebrand 1946    equatorial, referring to type locality in the Gulf of Guayaquil, off Puerto Pizarro, Peru

Opisthopterus macrops (Günther 1867)    macro-, large; ops, eye, 1/3 length of head

Opisthopterus tardoore (Cuvier 1829)    derived from tardoor or tartoor, vernacular for this species in Pondicherry, India

Opisthopterus valenciennesi Bleeker 1872    in honor of Achille Valenciennes (1794-1865), who described the species in 1847 but used a preoccupied name, Pristigaster tartoor (=O. tardoore)

Pristigaster Cuvier 1816    pristo-, sawed; gaster, belly, referring to saw-like scutes on ventral surface

Pristigaster cayana Cuvier 1829    ana, belonging to: Cayenne (French Guiana), type locality (but occurs throughout Amazon basin)

Pristigaster whiteheadi Menezes & de Pinna 2000    in honor of the late Peter J. P. Whitehead (1930-1993), British Museum (Natural History), “who contributed more than any other individual to the knowledge of clupeomorph fishes, [and] also for suggesting that there might be two different species of Pristigaster

Raconda Gray 1831    presumably a local name for R. russeliana in India

Raconda russeliana Gray 1831    iana, belonging to: patronym not identified but likely in honor of surgeon-herpetologist Patrick Russell (1726-1805), who provided many specimens from India to the British Museum (Natural History), or his half-brother Alexander Russell (1715-1768), who also collected in India


Family ENGRAULIDAE Anchovies
17 genera/subgenera • 156 species/subspecies

Subfamily COILIINAE                           

Coilia Gray 1830    etymology not explained, perhaps from koilia, belly, referring to serrated abdomen

Coilia borneensis Bleeker 1852    ensis, suffix denoting place: Bandjarmasin (also spelled Bandjermasin and Banjarmasin), Borneo, Indonesia, type locality

Coilia coomansi Hardenberg 1934    in honor of ornithologist L. Coomans de Ruiter, who collected type

Coilia dussumieri Valenciennes 1848    in honor of Jean-Jacques Dussumier (1792-1883), French voyager and merchant, who observed and presumably collected this fish in Bombay

Coilia grayii Richardson 1845    in honor of British zoologist John Edward Gray (1800-1875), an “ardent and successful cultivator of every branch of zoology, whose friendly offices [Richardson] often had occasion to acknowledge,” and who described characters of genus in 1830

Coilia lindmani Bleeker 1857    in honor of L. Lindman, Dutch military health officer who collected type

Coilia macrognathos Bleeker 1852     macro-, long; gnathos, jaw, referring to long, sword-shaped maxillary, extending beyond root of pectorals

Coilia mystus mystus (Linnaeus 1758)    whiskered, probably referring to prolonged maxilla (reaching to or near base of first pectoral-fin ray), which can be said to resemble the whiskers of a cat

Coilia mystus jiulongjiangensis Liu 1995    ensis, suffix denoting place: Jiulongjiang River, Fujian Province, China, where it is endemic

Coilia nasus Temminck & Schlegel 1846    long-nosed, probably referring to projecting snout

Coilia neglecta Whitehead 1968    overlooked, referring to previous misidentification as C. dussumieri due to light organs hidden during formalin fixation and preservation

Coilia ramcarati (Hamilton 1822)    apparent latinization of ramcarata, presumably a local name for this fish along the Ganges River

Coilia rebentischii Bleeker 1858    in honor of J. H. A. B. Sonnemann Rebentisch, Dutch military health officer who collected type

Coilia reynaldi Valenciennes 1848    patronym not identified but probably in honor of A. A. Reynaud (1804-?), surgeon-naturalist aboard the H.M.C.M. Corvette La Chevrette, who presumably collected type (note variant spelling)

Lycothrissa Günther 1868    lycan, wolf, referring to “very conspicuous” (and presumably canine-like) teeth of L. crocodilus; thrissa, Greek word for a kind of anchovy

Lycothrissa crocodilus (Bleeker 1850)    crocodilian, referring to enlarged, canine-like teeth

Papuengraulis Munro 1964    Papua, referring to restriction of genus to Papua New Guinea; engraulis, ancient name for common anchovy of Europe and standard suffix for family

Papuengraulis micropinna Munro 1964    micro-, small; pinna, fin, referring to minute dorsal fin (2 spines, 3-4 soft rays)

Setipinna Swainson 1839    seta, bristle; pinna, fin, referring to first ray of pectoral fins, which extend into a long (on most species) filament

Setipinna breviceps (Cantor 1849)    brevis, short; ceps, head, referring to “strikingly short” head

Setipinna brevifilis (Valenciennes 1848)    brevis, short; filum, thread, referring to short pectoral-fin filament

Setipinna gilberti Jordan & Starks 1905    in honor of ichthyologist, fisheries biologist and Jordan’s Stanford University colleague Charles H. Gilbert (1859-1928)

Setipinna melanochir (Bleeker 1849)    melanos, black; cheiros, hand, referring to often dusky or jet-black pectoral fin

Setipinna paxtoni Wongratana 1987    in honor of ichthyologist John R. Paxton, Australian Museum (Sydney), who encouraged Wongratana to broaden his knowledge of Australian clupeoid fishes

Setipinna phasa (Hamilton 1822)    Bengali vernacular for anchovy or other herring-like fish; Hamilton “appropriated” it to this species, “having no other to which it could be more conveniently applied”

Setipinna taty (Valenciennes 1848)    referring to its local market name, Taty pooroowa

Setipinna tenuifilis (Valenciennes 1848)    tenuis, thin; filum, thread, referring to first ray of pectoral fins, which extend into a long filament

Setipinna wheeleri Wongratana 1983    in honor of Alwyne C. Wheeler (1929-2005), Curator of Fishes, British Museum (Natural History), “whose kind help during my time there was much appreciated”

Thrissina Jordan & Seale 1925    diminutive of Thryssa Cuvier 1829 (now considered to be an incorrect spelling of Thrissa Cuvier 1816, which itself is preoccupied by Thrissa Rafinesque 1815)

Thrissina adelae (Rutter 1897)    in honor of Baptist missionary Adele M. Field (1839-1916), who sent a “considerable collection” of fishes from the port of Swatow, China, including the type of this one, to the University of Indiana in 1885

Thrissina aestuaria (Ogilby 1910)    presumably referring to occurrence in estuarine (brackish) habitat

Thrissina baelama (Forsskål 1775)    from its Arabian vernacular, Láaf vel Baelama

Thrissina brevicauda (Roberts 1978)    brevis, short; cauda, tail, referring to shorter, deeper caudal peduncle compared to T. rastrosa and T. scratchleyi

Thrissina chefuensis (Günther 1874)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Chefoo, Shantung Province, China, type locality

Thrissina dayi (Wongratana 1983)    in honor of Francis Day (1829-1889), Inspector-General of Fisheries in India, “the greatest of all ichthyologists to study Indian fishes, among whose collection were two of the types … as well as a young specimen”

Thrissina dussumieri (Valenciennes 1848)    in honor of Jean-Jacques Dussumier (1792-1883), French voyager and merchant, who “reported” (translation) on this fish and presumably collected type

Thrissina encrasicholoides (Bleeker 1852)    oides, having the form of: meaning not specified, presumably referring to affinity with or resemblance to Engraulis encrasicolus (although the two anchovies possess distinctly different shapes)

Thrissina gautamiensis (Babu Rao 1971)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Gautami branch of Godavari Estuary (Andhra Pradesh, India), type locality

Thrissina hamiltonii (Gray 1835)    patronym not identified but clearly in honor of Francis Hamilton-Buchanan (1762-1829), Scottish physician and naturalist, who published influential account of Indo-Gangetic fishes in 1822

Thrissina kammalensis (Bleeker 1849)    ensis, suffix denoting place: near Kammal (Java, Indonesia), type locality

Thrissina kammalensoides (Wongratana 1983)    oides, having the form of: referring to resemblance to S. kammalensis

Thrissina malabarica (Bloch 1795)    icus, belonging to: Malabar (i.e., southern India), referring to type locality in Tranquebar (now Tharangambadi), Tamil Nadu State

Thrissina marasriae (Wongratana 1987)    in honor of Wongratana’s wife, Marasri Ladpli, for her “patient sharing of my study of fishes, her encouragement, and her tolerance of my trips away from home”

Thrissina mystax (Bloch & Schneider 1801)    moustache, referring to long maxilla, reaching to or almost to base of first pectoral fin ray

Thrissina polybranchialis (Wongratana 1983)    poly, many; branchialis, referring to high gill raker count, which separates it from superficially similar T. malabarica and T. hamiltoni

Thrissina purava (Hamilton 1822)    Bengali vernacular for anchovy or other herring-like fish, possibly derived from pooroowa

Thrissina rastrosa (Roberts 1978)    raker, referring to “exceptionally numerous gill rakers, which apparently increase in number as long as growth continues”

Thrissina scratchleyi (Ramsay & Ogilby 1886)    “in memory of the late Sir Peter Scratchley [1835-1885], first High Commissioner of New Guinea, whose death [from malaria] at this critical period in the affairs of the young colony is greatly to be deplored”

Thrissina setirostris (Broussonet 1782)    seta, bristle or hair; rostris, snout, probably referring to excessively long maxillary that extends beyond base of pectoral fins, sometimes to base of anal fin

Thrissina spinidens (Jordan & Seale 1925)    spina, thorn; dens, teeth, referring to sharp canine teeth

Thrissina stenosoma (Wongratana 1983)    stenos, narrow; soma, body, referring to its more slender body compared to S. purava

Thrissina vitrirostris (Gilchrist & Thompson 1908)    vitrum, glass; rostrum, snout; authors propose “Glass-nose” as vernacular but allusion is not evident from their description nor from other accounts

Thrissina whiteheadi (Wongratana 1983)    in honor of Peter J. P. Whitehead (1930-1993), British Museum (Natural History), whose 1965 review of Red Sea clupeoids “was a major step in understanding the species of this region”

Subfamily ENGRAULINAE

Amazonsprattus Roberts 1984    Amazon, referring to distribution in Amazon basin of Brazil; sprattus, a herring or herring-like fish

Amazonsprattus scintilla Roberts 1984    spark, “hence the smallest trace or particle,” referring to its being the smallest known clupeomorph fish (up to 19.5 mm SL)

Anchoa Jordan & Evermann 1927    anchovy-like, indicating a “transition to Anchovia

Subgenus Anchoa

Anchoa analis (Miller 1945)    referring to anal fin with very long base (28-34 rays)

Anchoa argentivittata (Regan 1904)    argentum, silver; vittatus, banded, referring to ”well-defined silvery band as broad as the eye”

Anchoa belizensis (Thomerson & Greenfield 1975)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Belize, type locality

Anchoa cayorum (Fowler 1906)    orum, belonging to: cay, Spanish for a ridge of small rocks or islands in the sea, like those of Hailer’s Rock, Florida Keys, USA, type locality

Anchoa chamensis Hildebrand 1943    ensis, suffix denoting place: Chame Point, Panama, type locality

Anchoa choerostoma (Goode 1874)     choero-, hog; stomus, mouth, referring to “enormous” mouth and local Bermudan name, “hog-mouth fry”

Anchoa colonensis Hildebrand 1943    ensis, suffix denoting place: Colón, Panama, type locality

Anchoa compressa (Girard 1858)    referring to strongly compressed body

Anchoa cubana (Poey 1868)    Cuban, referring to type locality off Cuba (but occurs in western central Atlantic from North Carolina, USA, to entire coast of Brazil)

Anchoa curta (Jordan & Gilbert 1882)    curtus, short, probably referring to short and high head

Anchoa delicatissima (Girard 1854)    most delicate; allusion not evident, possibly referring to easily shed (deciduous) scales

Anchoa eigenmannia (Meek & Hildebrand 1923)    ia, belonging to: in honor of Carl H. Eigenmann (1863-1927) and/or his wife Rosa Smith Eigenmann (1858-1947), both prominent ichthyologists who described many New World fishes

Anchoa exigua (Jordan & Gilbert 1882)    thin, referring to “much slenderer body” compared to A. curtus

Anchoa helleri (Hubbs 1921)    in honor of zoologist Edmund Heller (1875-1939), who collected type

Anchoa hepsetus (Linnaeus 1758)    ancient Greek for any small fish that is boiled for human consumption (compared to other elongate fishes Linnaeus placed in the catch-all genus Esox, it is indeed small)

Anchoa ischana (Jordan & Gilbert 1882)    ana, pertaining to: ischnos, slender, probably referring to long and slender head

Anchoa januaria (Steindachner 1879)    of January, referring to type locality in harbor of Rio de Janeiro (“River of January”)

Anchoa lamprotaenia Hildebrand 1943    lampros, bright; taenia, ribbon, referring to bright silvery band on middle of side

Anchoa lucida (Jordan & Gilbert 1882)    bright, probably referring to translucent body and/or scales with a silvery luster

Anchoa marinii Hildebrand 1943    in honor of Argentine ichthyologist Tomas L. Marini, who named but did not properly describe this species in 1935

Anchoa mitchilli mitchilli (Valenciennes 1848)    in honor of Samuel Latham Mitchill (1764-1831), naturalist, physician and U.S. Senator, who studied the fishes of New York Harbor

Anchoa mitchilli diaphana Hildebrand 1943    transparent, allusion not explained but probably referring to its nearly see-through coloration

Anchoa mundeoloides (Breder 1928)    oides, having the form of: referring to resemblance to A. mundeola

Anchoa mundeola (Gilbert & Pierson 1898)    somewhat shining, from mundus, neat or clean, referring to silvery reflections on body

Anchoa panamensis (Steindachner 1876)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Panama, type locality (but occurs throughout eastern Pacific from El Salvador to Peru)

Anchoa parva (Meek & Hildebrand 1923)    little, possibly referring to small size (35-55 mm)

Anchoa pectoralis Hildebrand 1943    referring to its many-rayed pectoral fin

Anchoa scofieldi (Jordan & Culver 1895)    in honor of Jordan’s student (and later fisheries biologist) Norman Bishop Scofield (1869-1958), member of the Hopkins Expedition that collected type in Sinaloa

Anchoa spinifer (Valenciennes 1848)     spina, spine; fero, to bear, referring to subopercle projecting beyond opercle, forming a small triangular prominence

Anchoa starksi (Gilbert & Pierson 1898)    in honor of Gilbert’s student (and later authority in fish osteology) Edwin Chapin Starks (1867-1932), a member of the Hopkins Expedition that collected type in Panama

Anchoa tricolor (Spix & Agassiz 1829)    described has having three (tri-) colors: blue back, golden sides and abdomen, and reddish-yellow fins

Anchoa trinitatis (Fowler 1915)    Trinidadian, referring to Port of Spain, Trinidad Island, West Indies, type locality

Anchoa walkeri Baldwin & Chang 1970    in honor of fisheries biologist Boyd W. Walker (1917-2001), University of California, Los Angeles, who collected type and encouraged the writing of this species’ description

Subgenus Anchovietta Nelson 1986    diminutive of Anchovia, or anchovy, presumably connoting its subgeneric status

Anchoa filifera filifera (Fowler 1915)    filum, thread; fero, to bear, referring to pectoral fin with greatly elongated uppermost ray

Anchoa filifera longipinnis (Beebe & Tee Van 1928)    longus, long; pinnis, fin, referring to long pectoral fins, with filamentous tips, reaching half-way between base of ventral fins and origin of anal fin

Anchoa lyolepis lyolepis (Evermann & Marsh 1900)    lyo, loose; lepis, scale, probably referring to deciduous scales

Anchoa lyolepis continentalis Cervigón 1969    referring to distribution among continental-shelf islands of the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico

Anchoa nasus nasus (Kner & Steindachner 1867)    long-nosed, referring to long snout overhanging lower jaw

Anchoa nasus naso (Gilbert & Pierson 1898)    long-nosed, referring to long, compressed, bluntly rounded snout, its length exceeding size of eye

Anchovia Jordan & Evermann 1895    a name long applied to European anchovies

Anchovia clupeoides (Swainson 1839)    oides, having the form of: referring to resemblance to Clupea sprattus (=Sprattus sprattus)

Anchovia macrolepidota (Kner 1863)    macro-, large; lepidos, scaled, referring to its large scales (“squamae magnae”)

Anchovia surinamensis (Bleeker 1865)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Suriname, type locality (but occurs in Atlantic drainages from Trinidad to Paras, Brazil)

Anchoviella Fowler 1911    diminutive of Anchovia, referring to small size of most species

Anchoviella alleni (Myers 1940)    in honor of zoologist William Ray Allen, Indiana University, who collected type

Anchoviella balboae (Jordan & Seale 1926)    of Balboa, Canal Zone (Pacific entrance), Panama (type locality)

Anchoviella blackburni Hildebrand 1943    in honor of Paul P. Blackburn (1883-1970), commanding officer of the U.S.S. Niagara, who made an extensive collection of fishes in the Gulf of Venezuela, including type of this one

Anchoviella brevirostris (Günther 1868)    brevis, short; rostris, snout, referring to snout, which “projects but slightly beyond the lower jaw” in contrast to other anchovies whose snouts project much farther

Anchoviella carrikeri Fowler 1940    in honor of Melbourne Armstrong Carriker, Jr. (1879-1965), ornithological collector and explorer in the Neotropics, who helped collect type

Anchoviella cayennensis (Puyo 1946)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Cayenne River at Macouria (French Guiana), type locality (but occurs in Atlantic drainages south to at least Victoria, Brazil)

Anchoviella elongata (Meek & Hildebrand 1923)    referring to its “very elongate” body

Anchoviella guianensis (Eigenmann 1912)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Bartica rocks, Guyana, type locality

Anchoviella jamesi (Jordan & Seale 1926)    in honor of psychologist and philosopher William James (1842-1910); in1865, James took a break from his medical training and joined Louis Agassiz on a scientific expedition up the Amazon River in Brazil, where he collected type

Anchoviella juruasanga Loeb 2012    from the Tupí (Brazil) juru, mouth, and asanga, short, referring to short maxilla, a diagnostic character of the genus

Anchoviella lepidentostole (Fowler 1911)    lepid, scale; entos, within; stole, stole or band, referring to median lateral row of scales within silvery lateral band

Anchoviella manamensis Cervigón 1982    ensis, suffix denoting place: Caño Mánamo, near Tucupita, Orinoco Delta (Venezuela), type locality

Anchoviella miarcha (Jordan & Gilbert 1892)    meiosis, to reduce; archos, anus, referring to very small anal fin

Anchoviella perezi Cervigón 1987    in honor of Luis Pérez, licentiate (in Venezuela, one who has completed five years of academic study), who provided the type material

Anchoviella perfasciata (Poey 1860)    per-, very; fasciatus, banded, referring to broad band of “unpolished silver” (translation) along sides

Anchoviella vaillanti (Steindachner 1908)    patronym not identified but probably in honor of Léon Vaillant (1834-1914), zoologist, Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (Paris)

Cetengraulis Günther 1868    cetus, whale, referring to resemblance of long gill rakers to whalebone; engraulis, ancient name for common anchovy of Europe and standard suffix for family

Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier 1829)    toothless (not true of young specimens)

Cetengraulis mysticetus (Günther 1867)    named after the Bowhead Whale, Balaena mysticetus, referring to resemblance of long gill rakers to whalebone

Encrasicholina Fowler 1938    diminutive of encrasicolus, Greek for a small fish (dating to Aristotle), historically applied to anchovies

Encrasicholina auster Hata & Motomura 2017    south wind, presumably referring to its southern distribution, known only from Fiji in the southwestern Pacific

Encrasicholina gloria Hata & Motomura 2016    Latin for glory, referring to brilliant silver stripe along body

Encrasicholina heteroloba (Rüppell 1837)    etymology not explained and allusion not evident, possibly hetero-, different, lobus, lobe, referring to distinctiveness of large, erect scales on each side of caudal fin

Encrasicholina intermedia Hata & Motomura 2016    referring to the intermediate number of gill rakers between those of E. punctifer and E. gloria

Encrasicholina macrocephala Hata & Motomura 2015    macro-, large; cephala, referring to its “relatively” large head

Encrasicholina oligobranchus (Wongratana 1983)    oligo-, few; branchus, gill, referring to low gill-raker count compared to other members of Stolephorus (genus in which it was originally described)

Encrasicholina pseudoheteroloba (Hardenberg 1933)    pseudo-, false, i.e., although this species very much resembles E. heteroloba, such an appearance is false

Encrasicholina punctifer Fowler 1938    punctum, spot; fero, to bear, referring to blackish dots on opercle and/or basal blackish dots on tail

Encrasicholina purpurea (Fowler 1900)    purple, referring to scales “shot with delicate purple”

Engraulis Cuvier 1816    ancient name for E. encrasicolus, common anchovy of Europe

Engraulis albidus Borsa, Collet & Durand 2004    whitish, referring to “white anchovy” vernacular used by Golfe-du-Lion fishermen in the northwest Mediterranean

Engraulis anchoita Hubbs & Marini 1935    vernacular for this anchovy in Argentina (type locality)

Engraulis australis (White 1790)    southern or Australian, referring to type locality between Broken Bay and Botany Bay, New South Wales, Australia

Engraulis capensis Gilchrist 1913    ensis, suffix denoting place: Cape of Good Hope, referring to distribution off coast of South Africa (also occurs off coast of Namibia)

Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus 1758)    Greek for a small fish and a name historically applied to anchovies

Engraulis eurystole (Swain & Meek 1884)    eurys, broad; stole, stole or band, referring to silvery lateral band

Engraulis japonicus Temminck & Schlegel 1846    Japanese, referring to presumed type locality (but occurs throughout western North and Central Pacific)

Engraulis mordax mordax Girard 1854    biting, possibly referring to large mouth, characteristic of genus

Engraulis mordax nanus Girard 1858    a dwarf, possibly referring to “short and slender” body and “less elongated” form compared to E. m. mordax

Engraulis ringens Jenyns 1842    gaping, presumably referring to large mouth, characteristic of genus

Jurengraulis Whitehead 1988    Jur-, referring to only species in genus, J. juruensis; engraulis, ancient name for common anchovy of Europe and standard suffix for family

Jurengraulis juruensis (Boulenger 1898)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Rio Juruá, Brazil, type locality

Lycengraulis Günther 1868    lycan, wolf, referring to large canine-like teeth of L. grossidens; engraulis, ancient name for common anchovy of Europe and standard suffix for family

Lycengraulis batesii (Günther 1868)    patronym not identified but likely in honor of naturalist Henry Walter Bates (1829-1892), who explored the Amazon with Alfred Russel Wallace in 1848 and collected many specimens (mostly insects)

Lycengraulis figueiredoi Loeb & Alcântara 2013    in honor of José Lima de Figueiredo, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, who has “contributed significantly” to the study of fish systematics in Brazil

Lycengraulis grossidens (Agassiz 1829)    grossus, large; dens, teeth, referring to canine-like teeth on lower jaw

Lycengraulis limnichthys Schultz 1949    limno-, lake, referring to occurrence in Lago de Maracaibo, Venezuela; ichthys, fish

Lycengraulis poeyi (Kner 1863)    patronym not identified but probably in honor of Cuban ichthyologist Felipe Poey (1799-1891)

Pterengraulis Günther 1868    pteron, fin, referring to insertion of dorsal a little behind the front of very long anal fin, which distinguishes genus from Stolephorus; engraulis, ancient name for common anchovy of Europe and standard suffix for family

Pterengraulis atherinoides (Linnaeus 1766)    oides, having the form of: silversides (Atherinidae: Atherina), referring to broad silvery stripe

Stolephorus Lacepède 1803    stole, a white band worn by priests; phoreus, bearer or carrier, referring to silvery lateral band of S. commersonnii (and most other congeners)

Stolephorus advenus Wongratana 1987    a stranger, referring to a number of “peculiar taxonomic feature[s] that make it uniquely different from other congeneric species”

Stolephorus andhraensis Babu Rao 1966    ensis, suffix denoting place: Andhra Pradesh, India, type locality (but occurs in eastern Indian Ocean from India to Singapore, and western Pacific from Papua New Guinea to Queensland, Australia)

Stolephorus apiensis (Jordan & Seale 1906)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Apia, Upolu Island, Western Samoa, type locality

Stolephorus baganensis Delsman 1931    ensis, suffix denoting place: Bagansiapiapi, Indonesia, type locality

Stolephorus brachycephalus Wongratana 1983    brachys, short; cephalus, head, presumably referring to shorter maxilla compared to S. commersonnii

Stolephorus carpentariae (De Vis 1882)    of the Gulf of Carpentaria drainage (Queensland, Australian), referring to type locality in Norman River

Stolephorus chinensis (Günther 1880)    ensis, suffix denoting place: China, based on Chinese specimens of Engraulis japonicus

Stolephorus commersonnii Lacepède 1803    in honor of French naturalist Philibert Commerçon (also spelled Commerson, 1727-1773) whose notes and illustration provided the descriptive material for Lacepède

Stolephorus dubiosus Wongratana 1983    doubtful or uncertain, allusion not evident, perhaps referring to previous identification as S. baganensis

Stolephorus holodon (Boulenger 1900)    holo-, whole or entire; odon, tooth, referring to minute teeth present on both jaws

Stolephorus indicus (van Hasselt 1823)    Indian, referring to Vishakhapatnam, India, Eastern Indian Ocean, type locality (but widespread in Indian Ocean and western Pacific)

Stolephorus insularis Hardenberg 1933    of islands, referring to how it “seems to occur especially near islands [of Lingga, Bawean and Kangean archipelagos] at some distance from the coast” of Java

Stolephorus multibranchus Wongratana 1987    multi-, many; branchus, gill, referring to high gill-raker count (29-27 + 32-35)

Stolephorus nelsoni Wongratana 1987    in honor of Gareth Nelson, American Museum of Natural History, for his “knowledge and classic works on the comparative anatomy and cladistic relationships among clupeoid fishes,” and for providing specimens of this species and suggesting that it might be undescribed

Stolephorus pacificus Baldwin 1984    Pacific, referring to distribution in Western Central Pacific (Guam and Kosrae)

Stolephorus ronquilloi Wongratana 1983    in honor of Filipino marine biologist I. A. Ronquillo, who collected type and whose studies of Stolephorus “broke the ground” for Wongratana

Stolephorus shantungensis (Li 1978)     ensis, suffix denoting place: Shandong Province, China, type locality

Stolephorus teguhi Kimura, Hori & Shibukawa 2009    in honor of Teguh Peristiwady, Senior Scientist of Technical Implementation Unit for Natural Biota Conservation, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, for giving the authors the opportunity to collect specimens

Stolephorus tri (Bleeker 1852)    from Indonesian vernacular for anchovies, ikan tri (ikan=fish)

Stolephorus waitei Jordan & Seale 1926    in honor of Australian zoologist and museum director Edgar R. Waite (1866-1928)

Stolephorus zollingeri (Bleeker 1849)    in honor of Swiss “naturalist explorer” (and botanist) Heinrich Zollinger (1818-1859), who gave his collection of Macassar (Indonesia) fishes, including the type of this one, to Bleeker


Family CHIROCENTRIDAE Wolf Herrings       

Chirocentrus Cuvier 1816    cheiros, hand; centrum, point, referring to long, pointed osseous appendage at base of pectoral fins

Chirocentrus dorab (Forsskål 1775)    Arabian vernacular for this fish

Chirocentrus nudus Swainson 1839    bare or naked, referring to what Swainson erroneously believed was a lack of scales (scales are small but easily lost)