Order CICHLIFORMES: Family CICHLIDAE: Subfamily CICHLINAE (d-w)

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v. 3.0 – 1 March 2019  view/download PDF

Family CICHLIDAE Cichlids (part 7 of 7)

Subfamily CICHLINAE American Cichlids (Darienheros through Wajpamheros)

Darienheros Říčan & Novák 2016    named for the Darién area between Panamá (where it occurs) and Colombia; Heros, old neotropical cichlid name meaning “hero,” used here to mean “hero of the Darién”

Darienheros calobrensis (Meek & Hildebrand 1913)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Río Calobre, Panama, type locality

Dicrossus Steindachner 1875    di-, two; crossus, fringe or tassel; name coined by Agassiz, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to long, filiform ventral fins of D. maculatus males

Dicrossus filamentosus (Ladiges 1958)    filamentous or thread-like, referring to long, caudal-fin streamers on males

Dicrossus foirni Römer, Hahn & Vergara 2010    in honor of FOIRN, Federação das Organizações Indígenas do Rio Negro, a non-governmental organization that has repeatedly given permission to travel on the tribal land of the village communities of different indigenous groups in the middle and upper Rio Negro and its affluent rivers, permitting the observation and collection of this species and D. warzeli; the name is also intended to highlight the fact that the basic human rights of indigenous peoples, who depend on large functional ecosystems for all necessary resources, are still in question in most parts of Amazonia when business projects (such as logging, mining, or the building of hydroelectric dams) are planned in the wilderness of the neotropical rainforests

Dicrossus gladicauda Schindler & Staeck 2008    gladius, sword; cauda, tail, referring to sword-like streamer of dorsal lobe of caudal fin in adult males

Dicrossus maculatus Steindachner 1875    spotted, referring to checkerboard pattern on sides

Dicrossus warzeli Römer, Hahn & Vergara 2010    in honor of “skilled” German aquarist Frank Martin Warzel (1960-2004), who “dedicated most of his life” to research on neotropical cichlids; he collected type in 1992, was the first to import this species to Germany and observe its reproductive behavior both in the field and in the aquarium

Geophagus Heckel 1840    geo, earth; phagein, eat, i.e., eartheater, latinization of Pappaterra, local name for these cichlids in Mato Grosso, Brazil, “probably derived from the diet of the fish, which seeks out water plants growing in the mud” (translation, italics in original) [actually, “eartheaters” uproot plants while feeding from the substrate]

Geophagus abalios López-Fernández & Taphorn 2004    a-, not or without; balios, spotted, referring to lack of preopercular markings

Geophagus altifrons Heckel 1840    altus, high; frons, forehead, referring to its high, straight forehead

Geophagus argyrostictus Kullander 1991    argyros, silvery; stiktos, spotted, referring to silvery dots on anterior sides

Geophagus brachybranchus Kullander & Nijssen 1989    brachys, short; branchia, gills, referring to gill filaments on first gill arch largely covered by skin, creating the appearance that they (i.e., their exposed portions) are short

Geophagus brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Rio de Janeiro Bay, Brazil, type locality (also occurs in Argentina and Uruguay)

Geophagus brokopondo Kullander & Nijssen 1989    named for Brokopondomeer (an artificial lake or reservoir) in the Suriname River system, and for Brokopondo District, Suriname, type locality (also occurs in Guyana)

Geophagus camopiensis Pellegrin 1903    ensis, suffix denoting place: Camopi River, Oyapock basin, French Guiana, type locality (also occurs in Brazil)

Geophagus crassilabris Steindachner 1876    crassus, wide; labrum, lip, referring to noticeably more swollen lips of adults

Geophagus crocatus Hauser & López-Fernández 2013    saffron yellow, referring to yellow operculum of living specimens

Geophagus diamantinensis Mattos, Costa & Santos 2015    ensis, suffix denoting place: Chapada Diamantina (Bahia, northeastern Brazil), a high plateau with a predominance of Caatinga vegetation, where this cichlid is endemic

Geophagus dicrozoster López-Fernández & Taphorn 2004    dikros, forked; zoster, belt, referring to “Y” formed by lateral bars 4 and 5

Geophagus gottwaldi Schindler & Staeck 2006    in honor of aquarium-fish importer Jens Gottwald (Garbsen, Germany), who collected type and recognized it as a new species, for his “commitment to increase the knowledge about cichlid fishes”

Geophagus grammepareius Kullander & Taphorn 1992    gramme, line; pareia, cheek, referring to dark stripe across cheek

Geophagus harreri Gosse 1976    in honor of Heinrich Harrer (1912-2006), Austrian writer, sportsman, explorer and mountaineer (best known for being on four-man climbing team that made the first ascent of the North Face of the Eiger in Switzerland and author of the 1952 book Seven Years in Tibet), for his help during fish-collecting surveys in Suriname and French Guiana

Geophagus iporangensis Haseman 1911    ensis, suffix denoting place: Iporanga (a village), Brazil, type locality

Geophagus itapicuruensis Haseman 1911    ensis, suffix denoting place: Rio Itapicurú at Queimadas, Bahia, Brazil, type locality

Geophagus megasema Heckel 1840    mega, large; sema, mark, allusion not explained, probably referring to large lateral spot cited as a character of the species

Geophagus mirabilis Deprá, Kullander, Pavanelli & da Graça 2014     extraordinary, marvelous or admirable, referring to unique color pattern that includes row of black spots on flanks and iridescent spots and vermiculations on side of head in living individuals

Geophagus multiocellus Mattos & Costa 2018    multi-, several; ocellatus, having little eyes, referring to small, pale-blue spots with minute bright-blue dots in their centers on caudal fin

Geophagus neambi Lucinda, Lucena & Assis 2010    in honor of Núcleo de Estudos Ambientais (Neamb), Universidade Federal do Tocantins (Brazil), for its effort in studying the rio Tocantins ichthyofauna

Geophagus obscurus (Castelnau 1855)    dark, referring to what Castelnau presumed was its chocolate-brown color in life

Geophagus parnaibae Staeck & Schindler 2006    of the río Parnaíba basin, northeastern Brazil, where it appears to be endemic

Geophagus pellegrini Regan 1912    in honor of French ichthyologist Jacques Pellegrin (1873-1944), who “kindly” sent one of the types of G. camopiensis for comparison

Geophagus proximus (Castelnau 1855)    near, allusion not explained, perhaps reflecting Castelnau’s comment that this species looks very much like (“Ressemble beaucoup”) Chromys unimaculata (=G. brasiliensis)

Geophagus rufomarginatus Mattos & Costa 2018    rufo-, red; marginatus, edged or bordered, referring to red dorsal-fin lappets in living specimens

Geophagus santosi Mattos & Costa 2018    in honor of Alexandre Clistenes Alcântara Santos, ichthyologist and friend, who is dedicated to the study of aquatic ecosystems of northeast Brazil

Geophagus steindachneri Eigenmann & Hildebrand 1922    in honor of Austrian ichthyologist Franz Steindachner (1834-1919), who reported this cichlid as G. brasiliensis in 1880

Geophagus surinamensis (Bloch 1791)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Suriname, type locality (also occurs in French Guiana, Brazil and Colombia, and established in Florida [USA] and Singapore)

Geophagus sveni Lucinda, Lucena & Assis 2010    in honor of ichthyologist Sven O. Kullander (b. 1952), Swedish Museum of Natural History, for many contributions to cichlid systematics

Geophagus taeniopareius Kullander & Royero 1992    taenia, stripe; pareia, cheek, referring to dark stripe across the cheek and its popular name among German aquarists, Wangenstrich-Erdfresser

Geophagus winemilleri López-Fernández & Taphorn 2004    in honor of aquatic ecologist Kirk O. Winemiller, Texas A&M University (College Station, Texas, USA), who led field expedition to Río Casiquiare region of Venezuela (during which most of type series was collected), for nearly two decades of contributions to ecology and tropical fish biology, many of which have been based on Venezuelan fishes

Guianacara Kullander & Nijssen 1989    Guiana, referring to the Guianas, principal area of distribution; acará, Tupí-Guaraní word for cichlids

Subgenus Guianacara

Guianacara cuyunii López-Fernández, Taphorn Baechle & Kullander 2006    of the Cuyuní River, Bolívar, Venezuela, type locality

Guianacara dacrya Arbour & López-Fernández 2011    dakryo, to shed tears or weep, referring to tear-streaked appearance of infraorbital stripe

Guianacara geayi (Pellegrin 1902)    in honor of pharmacist and natural history collector Martin François Geay (1859-1910), who collected type

Guianacara owroewefi Kullander & Nijssen 1989    owroe wefi, meaning “old wife,” one of the local names applied to this species (and other cichlids) in Suriname, allusion not explained nor evident [compare with Vieja, below]

Guianacara sphenozona Kullander & Nijssen 1989    sphen, wedge; zona, band or girdle, referring to wedge-shaped vertical stripe on sides

Guianacara stergiosi López-Fernández, Taphorn Baechle & Kullander 2006    in honor of botanist Basil Stergios, whose numerous expeditions into remote regions of southern Venezuela have encountered a variety of undescribed fishes, including most of the upper Caura drainage specimens of this cichlid

Subgenus Oelemaria Kullander & Nijssen 1989    ia, belonging to: Oelemari River, Marowijne District, Suriname, where the one included species appears to be endemic

Guianacara oelemariensis Kullander & Nijssen 1989    ensis, suffix denoting place: Oelemari River, Marowijne District, Suriname, where it appears to be endemic

Gymnogeophagus Miranda Ribeiro 1918    gymnos, bare or naked, i.e., Geophagus-like cichlids with a scaleless cheek and predorsal midline

Gymnogeophagus australis (Eigenmann 1907)    southern, referring to southern distribution (Argentina, Uruguay) compared to presumed congeners in Geophagus

Gymnogeophagus balzanii (Perugia 1891)    in honor of Italian naturalist Luigi Balzan (1865-1893), who collected type during a grand solo tour of South America in 1890

Gymnogeophagus caaguazuensis Staeck 2006    ensis, suffix denoting place: Caaguazú Province, Paraguay, type locality

Gymnogeophagus che Casciotta, Gómez & Toresanni 2000    Mbya-Guaraní word meaning “mine” or “my,” a colloquial term in Argentina that distinguishes Argentinians from other Spanish-speaking countries, referring to the country where this cichlid is endemic

Gymnogeophagus constellatus Malabarba, Malabarba & Reis 2015    studded with stars, referring to arrangement of white bright spots in dorsolateral region of body

Gymnogeophagus gymnogenys (Hensel 1870)    gymnos, bare or naked; genys, cheek, referring to scaleless cheek and preopercle

Gymnogeophagus jaryi Alonso, Terán, Aguilera, Říčan, Casciotta, Serra, Almirón, Benítez, García & Mirande 2019    jarýi, Guaraní word for grandmother, dedicated to Abuelas [Grandmothers] de Plaza de Mayo, a non-governmental organization created in 1977 “whose objective is to locate and restore to their legitimate families all the children disappeared by the last Argentine dictatorship”

Gymnogeophagus labiatus (Hensel 1870)    lipped, referring to its characteristically large (thickened and swollen) lips

Gymnogeophagus lacustris Reis & Malabarba 1988    lacustrine (belonging to a lake), referring to occurrence in coastal lagoons of southern Brazil

Gymnogeophagus lipokarenos Malabarba, Malabarba & Reis 2015    lipos, fat; kara, head, referring to extremely large adipose hump of adult males

Gymnogeophagus mekinos Malabarba, Malabarba & Reis 2015    Greek for prolonged, referring to its comparatively elongated body

Gymnogeophagus meridionalis Reis & Malabarba 1988    southern, only member of genus found south of Buenos Aires, Argentina

Gymnogeophagus missioneiro Malabarba, Malabarba & Reis 2015    Portuguese noun meaning “from the Missões region,” named for the Jesuit Missions of the 18th century in southern Brazil and Argentina, referring to this cichlid’s distribution in western Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

Gymnogeophagus peliochelynion Turcati & Serra-Alanis 2018    pelios, black and blue; chelyne, lip, referring to color of its hypertrophied lips

Gymnogeophagus pseudolabiatus Malabarba, Malabarba & Reis 2015    pseudo-, false, although this cichlid may resemble G. labiatus (which also has thick, swollen lips), such an appearance is false

Gymnogeophagus rhabdotus (Hensel 1870)    striped, presumably referring to bright silvery longitudinal stripes on body alternating with narrow, darker stripes

Gymnogeophagus setequedas Reis, Malabarba & Pavanelli 1992    named for Sete Quedas, a major waterfall of the rio Paraná (Paraguay, in whose drainage this cichlid occurs), which disappeared with the construction of the Itaipu hydroelectric dam in 1983 (also occurs in Argentina and Brazil)

Gymnogeophagus taroba Casciotta, Almirón, Piálek & Říčan 2017    named for Tarobá, a warrior, referring to a legend of the Kaingang people, who were the first inhabitants of the present-day province of Misiones in Argentina, particularly the río Iguazú basin, above the falls, where this cichlid is endemic; according to the legend, Tarobá and Naipí, a beautiful young maiden, angered Mboi, the guardian god of the río Iguazú, who created the falls to capture the lovers, transforming Naipí into one of the rocks of the falls, perpetually punished by its turbulent waters, and Tarobá into a palm tree on the bank, where, on sunny days, a rainbow overcomes the power of Mboi and serves as a bridge of love connecting Naipí and Tarobá

Gymnogeophagus terrapurpura Loureiro, Zarucki, Malabarba & González-Bergonzoni 2016    named for the 1885 novel The Purple Land (La Tierra Purpúrea in Spanish) by William Henry Hudson (1841-1922), in which the main character travels through the same region of Uruguay where this cichlid occurs

Gymnogeophagus tiraparae González-Bergonzoni, Loureiro & Oviedo 2009    in honor of María Luisa Tirapare, an 18th-century Guaraní woman who founded the former town of San Borja del Yí, the last native town in Uruguayan land, where natives, fugitive African slaves, gaúchos (cowboys), and other outsiders lived together

Herichthys Baird & Girard 1854    Heros, referring to its “strong affinities” with that genus; ichthys, fish

Herichthys bartoni (Bean 1892)    patronym not identified; according to Jordan & Evermann (1898), in honor of Barton A. Bean (1860-1947), assistant curator of ichthyology at the U.S. National Museum and the author’s brother

Herichthys carpintis (Jordan & Snyder 1899)    is, genitive singular of: Laguna del Carpinte, near Tampico, Tamaulipas, México, type locality

Herichthys cyanoguttatus Baird & Girard 1854    cyano-, blue; guttatus, spotted, referring to small bluish spots scattered all over body and fins

Herichthys deppii (Heckel 1840)    in honor Ferdinand Deppe (1794-1861), German naturalist, explorer and painter, who collected type

Herichthys labridens (Pellegrin 1903)    labrum, lip; dens, teeth, probably referring to two enlarged teeth in external row on upper lip, particularly noticeable in adults

Herichthys minckleyi (Kornfield & Taylor 1983)    in honor of ichthyologist Wendell L. Minckley (1935-2001), Arizona State University, who studied the biota of Cuatro Ciénegas (Coahuila, México, where this cichlid is endemic) for many years

Herichthys molango De la Maza-Benignos & Lozano-Vilano 2013    Nahuatl name for Hidalgo, México, where type locality (Laguna Azteca) is situated [status uncertain; may represent a H. carpintis x H. pantostictus hybrid]

Herichthys pame De la Maza-Benignos & Lozano-Vilano 2013    named for the Pame people of México, whose territory includes five municipalities in the state of San Luis Potosí, including Tamasopo, where this cichlid is endemic

Herichthys pantostictus (Taylor & Miller 1983)    pantos, all; stiktos, spotted, referring to small, dark brown spots over most of its body

Herichthys steindachneri (Jordan & Snyder 1899)    patronym not identified but clearly in honor of Austrian ichthyologist Franz Steindachner (1834-1919)

Herichthys tamasopoensis Artigas Azas 1993    ensis, suffix denoting place: Tamasopo, municipality in San Luis Potosí, México, type locality, derived from the Huasteca word Tam-Azote, meaning “place of waterfalls”

Herichthys tepehua De la Maza-Benignos, Ornelas-García, Lozano-Vilano, García-Ramírez & Doadrio 2015    Nahuatl word meaning “the ones who possess the mountains,” referring to the remaining (as of 1990 México census) 10,573 members of the indigenous Tepehua ethnic group and their language, spoken in eastern México, including states of Veracruz and Puebla, where this cichlid occurs

Heroina Kullander 1996    ina, having the nature of: referring to a “certain outward likeness” to the genus Heros

Heroina isonycterina Kullander 1996    ina, having the nature of: isos, equal; nycterus, nightly, i.e., of equal nights, referring to its equatorial distribution

Heros Heckel 1840    allusion not explained, possibly meaning “hero,” which, in the classical use of the term, means “protector,” “defender” or “guardian,” perhaps referring to parental care of young (which Heckel probably did not know about); another possible explanation comes from the works of Homer, in which “hero” is reserved for the chief warriors and captains, perhaps referring to their large number of spiny anal-fin rays, a feature Heckel used to distinguish Heros from its closest relatives, thereby making Heros more “warrior-like”

Heros efasciatus Heckel 1840    e-, without; fasciatus, banded, referring to absence of vertical bands, compared to the similar H. spurius, described in the same paper

Heros liberifer Staeck & Schindler 2015    liberi, children; fero, to carry, referring to biparental oral incubation of fry (mouthbrooding), a reproductive behavior apparently unique in the genus

Heros notatus (Jardine 1843)    marked, presumably referring to a “dark rich umber-brown spot” at the base of each scale, and lower part of the head and opercula “marked with rather large irregularly rounded spots of the same colour”

Heros severus Heckel 1840    harsh, stern, sharp, rough or rigorous, allusion not explained, possibly referring to its more prominently curved head compared to congeners (Sven O. Kullander, pers. comm.)

Heros spurius Heckel 1840     false, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to similarity to H. severus, H. coryphaeus and H. modestus (latter two taxa now regarded as junior synonyms of H. spurius)

Herotilapia Pellegrin 1904    combination of Heros and Tilapia (then a catch-all African genus), referring to “curious” (translation) dentition reminiscent of the latter while all other characters align with the former

Herotilapia multispinosa (Günther 1867)    multi-, many; spinosus, spiny, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to more anal-fin spines (11) compared to Amatitlania nigrofasciata (10), its presumed congener at the time (proposed in the same paper)

Hoplarchus Kaup 1860    hoplo-, armed; archus, anus, presumably referring to “unusually strong” (translation) anal-fin spines

Hoplarchus psittacus (Heckel 1840)    parrot, named for its “beautiful bright colors” (translation, italics in original)

Hypselecara Kullander 1986    hypselos, high, referring to prominent rising forehead in adults; acará, Tupí-Guaraní name for cichlids; “last part of the name might also be taken to derive from the Greek cara, head”

Hypselecara coryphaenoides (Heckel 1840)    oides, having the form of: dolphinfishes (Coryphaena), referring to its “tall, blunt, Coryphaena-like head” (translation)

Hypselecara temporalis (Günther 1862)    temporal, presumably referring to large brownish-black blotch between eye and upper part of gill opening, with a crescent-shaped yellowish spot above it

Hypsophrys Agassiz 1859    etymology not explained, perhaps hypso-, high, allusion not evident; ophrys, eyebrow, but in this case possibly referring to how Agassiz said it resembled Chrysophrys (Sparidae)

Hypsophrys nicaraguensis (Günther 1864)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Lake Nicaragua and/or Nicaragua, type locality (also occurs in Costa Rica and established in Hawai‘i)

Isthmoheros Říčan & Novák 2016    isthmos, narrow passage or neck of land (i.e., Isthmus of Panama); Heros, old neotropical cichlid name meaning “hero,” used here to mean “isthmian hero,” as it is the only eastern Isthmian genus that has its sister-genus on the opposite side of the Isthmus in western Panama and Costa Rica

Isthmoheros tuyrensis (Meek & Hildebrand 1913)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Río Tuyra, Boca de Cupe, Panama, type locality

Ivanacara Römer & Hahn 2006    Ivan, referring to Ivan the Terrible (1530-1584), first crown Russian tsar, known for being “exceptionally ill-tempered and irascible,” alluding to the “aggressive and unpredictable” behavior of members of this genus as observed in the aquarium and in the field; acará, Tupí-Guaraní word for cichlids

Ivanacara adoketa (Kullander & Prada-Pedreros 1993)    Greek for unexpected, referring to unexpected discovery of a Nannacara (original genus) species in the Rio Negro drainage

Ivanacara bimaculata (Eigenmann 1912)    bi-, two; maculata, spotted, referring to lateral and caudal spots

Kihnichthys McMahan & Matamoros 2015    in honor of Herman A. Kihn (also known as P. Herman Kihn-Pineda, Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala), “who has spent a lifetime” studying the fishes of Guatemala (where this genus is endemic), making “invaluable” contributions to our understanding of their diversity and distribution; ichthys, fish

Kihnichthys ufermanni (Allgayer 2002)    in honor of Allgayer’s friend, German aquarist Alfred Ufermann (d. 2002), who studied the nomenclature and systematics of cichlids

Krobia Kullander & Nijssen 1989    Surinamese vernacular name applied to several cichlid species, including K. guianensis

Krobia guianensis (Regan 1905)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Guyana, type locality (also occurs in Suriname and possibly Brazil)

Krobia itanyi (Puyo 1943)    of Itany, French name of Litani River, Marowijne (or Maroni) River drainage, part of boundary between Suriname and French Guiana, type locality

Krobia petitella Steele, Liverpool & López-Fernández 2013    diminutive of petitus, reaching out for or inclining towards, referring to lateral band spots lying adjacent to upper lateral line anteriorly and intercepting posteriorly

Krobia xinguensis Kullander 2012    ensis, suffix denoting place: Xingú River drainage, Brazil, where it is endemic

Kronoheros Říčan & Piálek 2016    Kronos, leader of the first generation of Titans of Greek mythology, referring to K. umbrifer, the largest neotropical cichlid (47.5 cm SL); Heros, an old name for neotropical cichlids, meaning “hero” (see Heros, above)

Kronoheros umbrifer (Meek & Hildebrand 1913)    shady, presumably referring to “dark olivaceous” coloration

Laetacara Kullander 1986    laetus, happy; acará, Tupí-Guaraní word for cichlids, inspired by the name “smiling acara” suggested by aquarist James K. Langhammer (1971) for L. flavilabris (then identified as Aequidens thayeri), referring to facial expression produced by its snout markings, shared by other members of the genus

Laetacara araguaiae Ottoni & Costa 2009    ensis, suffix denoting place: rio Araguaia basin, Goiás, Brazil, type locality

Laetacara curviceps (Ahl 1923)    curvus, curve; ceps, head, referring to convex profile of upper head, “strongly bent over the forehead” (translation) of mature males

Laetacara dorsigera (Heckel 1840)    dorsi-, back; –iger, to bear, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to dark spot on dorsal fin

Laetacara flamannellus Ottoni, Bragança, Amorim & Gama 2012    flammeus, flame-colored; annellus, ring, referring to “orange flame” ring around spot on dorsal fin

Laetacara flavilabris (Cope 1870)    flavus, yellow; labrum, lip, referring to yellow lower lip

Laetacara fulvipinnis Staeck & Schindler 2007    fulvus, dark yellow; pinna, fin, referring to coloration of caudal and anal fins, a distinguishing feature of the species

Laetacara thayeri (Steindachner 1875)    in honor of financier and philanthropist Nathaniel Thayer, Jr. (1808-1883), who sponsored a 15-month expedition to Brazil (1865-1866) that secured a rich collection of new species (studied, in large part, by Steindachner and Eigenmann), including type of this one

Maskaheros McMahan & Piller 2015    máska, shortened form of mascara, Spanish for mask, referring to mask-like appearance of broad, dark interorbital bars that diagnose the genus; Heros, generic name formerly used for many neotropical cichlids

Maskaheros argenteus (Allgayer 1991)    silvery, referring to its silvery white body color in life

Maskaheros regani (Miller 1974)    in honor of ichthyologist Charles Tate Regan (1878-1943), Natural History Museum (London), for his “classic studies on American cichlids”

Mayaheros Říčan & Piálek 2016    named after the native Mesoamerican Maya people whose ancestral distribution includes most of the native area of the M. urophthalmus species group and which was very likely the ancestral area of the whole genus; Heros, old neotropical cichlid name meaning “hero,” used here to mean “hero of the Maya people”

Mayaheros aguadae (Hubbs 1936)    of an aguada (shallow well or watering hole) at Tuxpeña, interior Campeche, Yucatán, Mexico, only known area of occurrence (known only from holotype)

Mayaheros amarus (Hubbs 1936)    bitter, referring to its salt- or brackish-water habitat

Mayaheros beani (Jordan 1889)    in honor of in honor of Tarleton H. Bean (1846-1916), U.S. National Museum, for his “researches in American ichthyology”

Mayaheros ericymba (Hubbs 1938)    eri-, very; cymba, cavity, referring to deep and well-developed sensory cavities of lateral-line system on head, presumably an adaptation to life in San Bulha Cenote (also known as Sambulá cave) in Yucatán, México

Mayaheros trispilus (Hubbs 1935)    tri-, three; spilus, spot, referring to two round black spots (or blotches) about as large as eye on caudal peduncle, slightly separated or barely connected with one another, and to a jet-black spot (“not conspicuously ocellated”) on caudal fin

Mayaheros troschelii (Steindachner 1867)    patronym not identified but almost certainly in honor of German zoologist Franz Hermann Troschel (1810-1882), author of Horae ichthyologicae (three volumes, 1845-49) with Johannes Peter Müller

Mayaheros urophthalmus (Günther 1862)    oura, tail; ophthalmos, eye, referring to large black ocellus at base of caudal fin

Mazarunia Kullander 1990    ia, beloning to: Mazaruni River, Guyana, type locality of M. mazarunii

Mazarunia charadrica López-Fernández, Taphorn & Liverpool 2012    Greek for a mountain stream or a torrent, referring to its apparent preference for reophilous habitats (often found in the steep tributaries of the Mazaruni River of Guyana that flow from the slopes of the Roraima massif and other mountainous sources in the area)

Mazarunia mazarunii Kullander 1990    of the Mazaruni River, Guyana, type locality

Mazarunia pala López-Fernández, Taphorn & Liverpool 2012    Greek for gold nugget, referring to golden spots behind and under orbit, and to the fact that it has only been collected in the main channel of the upper Mazaruni River (Guyana), where a growing gold-mining industry may be contributing to degradation of its habitat

Mesoheros McMahan & Chakrabarty 2015    mesos, middle (i.e., Middle America), referring to how this South American genus is phylogenetically nested in a derived Middle American cichlid clade; Heros, a generic name formerly used for many neotropical cichlids

Mesoheros atromaculatus (Regan 1912)    atro-, black; maculatus, spotted, referring to one series of blackish spots above lateral line and two below it

Mesoheros festae (Boulenger 1899)    in honor of Italian naturalist Enrico Festa (1868-1939), who collected type

Mesoheros gephyrus (Eigenmann 1922)    gephyra, a bridge, intermediate between M. atromaculatus and M. ornatus (in fact, Eigenmann wondered if it might be a hybrid between the two)

Mesoheros ornatus (Regan 1905)    ornate or decorated, referring to blackish cross-bars on sides of body, light blue spots on sides of head, and each scale with a light blue spot, the spots of the lower part of the body larger and almost white

Mesonauta Günther 1862    mesos, middle; nautes, sailor, allusion not explained, possibly referring to origin of dorsal fin (the “sail” in “sailor”) posterior to origin of pelvic fin (i.e., closer to middle of body), which was Günther’s principal diagnostic character for the genus

Mesonauta acora (Castelnau 1855)    Acora, local name for this cichlid along the rio Araguaia, Brazil (possibly an orthographic variant of acará, Tupí-Guaraní word for cichlids)

Mesonauta egregius Kullander & Silfvergrip 1991    eminent or distinguished, named “in line” with M. festivus and M. insignis

Mesonauta festivus (Heckel 1840)    handsome, described as a “beautifully colored very excellent species” (translation, italics in original)

Mesonauta guyanae Schindler 1998    of Guyana, where type locality (Essequibo River) is situated (also occurs in Brazil)

Mesonauta insignis (Heckel 1840)    distinguished, described as “excellent as it is rare” (translation, italics in original)

Mesonauta mirificus Kullander & Silfvergrip 1991    wonderful, named “in line” with M. festivus and M. insignis

Mikrogeophagus Meulengracht-Madsen 1968    micro-, small, i.e., referring to M. ramirezi as a dwarf species of Geophagus or at least closely related to that genus (a name coined by aquarists and informally used since at least 1957, unintentionally made available in a Danish aquarium book)

Mikrogeophagus altispinosus (Haseman 1911)     altus, high; spinosus, thorny, referring to long fourth spine of dorsal fin

Mikrogeophagus ramirezi (Myers & Harry 1948)    in honor of Manuel Vicente Ramirez, who collected type with Herman Blass (Franjo Fisheries, Miami, Florida, USA) in Venezuela; since Blass bred and popularized the fish in the aquarium trade using the names “Ramirezi” and “Ramirezi Cichlid” (since shortened to “Ram Cichlid”), the authors maintained the name “merely in order to avoid confusion”

Nandopsis Gill 1862    opsis, appearance, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to superficial resemblance of N. tetracanthus with the Asian Leaffish family Nandoidae (mentioned by Gill in his paper; now known as Nandidae, Anabantiformes), presumed to be related to cichlids at the time (a resemblance we fail to see)

Nandopsis haitiensis (Tee-Van 1935)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Haiti, type locality (also occurs in Dominican Republic)

Nandopsis ramsdeni (Fowler 1938)    in honor of Cuban zoologist Charles T. Ramsden (1876-1951), who collected type

Nandopsis tetracanthus (Valenciennes 1831)    tetra-, four; acanthus, spine, proposed in the North American sunfish genus Centrarchus, which has 7-8 anal-fin spines, whereas this species has but four

Nannacara Regan 1905    nanus, dwarf; Acara, a “Closely allied” genus, referring to small size of N. anomala, described at 55 and 57 mm, i.e., a dwarf Acara

Nannacara anomala Regan 1905    anomalous, described as a “curious species,” presumably referring to upper lateral line, which runs obliquely upwards to spinous portion of dorsal fin, and from which it is separated by only a half-series of scales for most of its length

Nannacara aureocephalus Allgayer 1983    aureus, golden; cephalus, head, referring to bright-yellow color on cheek, postocular area, preoperculum and operculum of living specimens

Nannacara quadrispinae Staeck & Schindler 2004    quadri-, four; spina, spine, referring to four (sometimes five) anal-fin spines compared to three in congeners

Nannacara taenia Regan 1912    band, referring to any or all of the following: dark oblique stripe from eye to interoperculum; broad dark longitudinal stripe from eye to base of caudal fin; narrower stripes at edges of series of scales on body; an oblique stripe from eye to interoperculum

Neetroplus Günther 1867    ne-, not, presumed to be closely allied to the Indian and Sri Lankan genus cichlid Etroplus, but with a developed (instead of rudimentary) lateral line

Neetroplus nematopus (Günther 1867)    nematos, thread; pous, foot, referring to filamentous outer ray of ventral fin, as long as the fin itself

Oscura McMahan & Chakrabarty 2015    Spanish word for dark, referring to its overall dark coloration

Oscura heterospila (Hubbs 1936)    hetero-, different; spilos, mark or spot, referring to “very irregular blackish purple markings” on body

Panamius Schmitter-Soto 2007    Panamanian, referring to country where it is endemic

Panamius panamensis (Meek & Hildebrand 1913)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Atlantic slope of Panama, where it appears to be endemic

Parachromis Agassiz 1859    etymology not explained, probably para-, near, referring to how this genus resembles and/or is related to Chromis, which Agassiz apparently believed constituted a genus of South and Central American cichlids

Parachromis dovii (Günther 1864)    in honor of John Melmoth Dow (1827-1892), Panama Railroad Company, ship captain and amateur naturalist, who collected type [“w” latinized as a “v”]

Parachromis friedrichsthalii (Heckel 1840)    in honor of Emanuel von Friedrichsthal (1809-1842), Austrian explorer, botanist and amateur archaeologist, who sent many natural history specimens from Central America to the Vienna Museum, including type of this cichlid

Parachromis managuensis (Günther 1867)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Lake Managua, Nicaragua, type locality (also occurs in Costa Rica and Honduras, widely introduced elsewhere)

Parachromis motaguensis (Günther 1867)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Río Motagua, Guatemala, type locality (also occurs in El Salvador and Honduras)

Parachromis multifasciatus (Regan 1905)    multi-, many; fasciatus, banded, referring to ~10 blackish crossbars on olivaceous body

Paraneetroplus Regan 1905    para-, near, referring to P. bulleri, described as intermediate between Neetroplus nematopus and P. nebulifer

Paraneetroplus bulleri Regan 1905    in honor of Audley Cecil Buller (1853-1894), who collected many specimens of Mexican vertebrates, including type of this one

Paraneetroplus gibbiceps (Steindachner 1864)    gibbus, hump; ceps, head, referring to hunchbacked appearance (small hump on head) of some adult specimens

Paraneetroplus nebulifer (Günther 1860)    nebula, cloud; fero, to bear, referring to middle of body “clouded with blackish, in the form of indistinct vertical bands”

Paraneetroplus omonti Allgayer 1988    in honor of French aquarist Jean-Marie Omont, a “traveler devoted to the cause of the cichlid family” (translation)

Petenia Günther 1862    ia, belonging to: Lake Petén, Guatemala, type locality of P. splendida (also occurs in México and Belize)

Petenia splendida Günther 1862    bright or shining, presumably referring to “Greenish, shining, golden” coloration

Pterophyllum Heckel 1840    ptero-, winged, phyllon, leaf, presumably referring to tall, wide, triangular dorsal fin, i.e., a winged leaf

Pterophyllum altum Pellegrin 1903    high, referring to higher body compared to P. scalare

Pterophyllum leopoldi (Gosse 1963)    in honor of King Leopold III (1901-1983) of Belgium, who sponsored 1962 Amazon expedition and helped collect type

Pterophyllum scalare (Schultze 1823)    ladder, i.e., like a flight of stairs, referring to how dorsal-fin spines gradually climb higher (step by step) along the fin

Retroculus Eigenmann & Bray 1894    retro-, back or backwards; oculus, eye, referring to relatively posterior position of eye in head of R. boulengeri (=lapidifer) compared to other cichlids

Retroculus acherontos Landim, Moreira & Figueiredo 2015    of Acheron, river in Greek mythology that flows to Hades, land of the souls, referring to type locality, Rio das Almas (Goiás, Brazil), which means “river of the souls” in Portuguese

Retroculus lapidifer (Castelnau 1855)    lapidis, stone; fero, to bear, referring to how this cichlid covers its eggs with small pebbles, which it carries in its mouth one at a time

Retroculus septentrionalis Gosse 1971    northern, the northernmost member of the genus

Retroculus xinguensis Gosse 1971    ensis, suffix denoting place: Rio Xingú, Mato Grosso, Brazil, type locality

Rheoheros McMahan & Matamoros 2015    rheos, stream or current, referring to preferred habitat; Heros, generic name formerly used for many neotropical cichlids

Rheoheros coeruleus (Stawikowski & Werner 1987)    blue, referring to sky-blue color on body and fins of breeding males and females

Rheoheros lentiginosus (Steindachner 1864)    freckled, referring to dense brown speckles all over body

Rocio Schmitter-Soto 2007    rocío, Spanish word for morning dew, an “image evoked by the resplendent spots on cheek and sides of some species”; Rocío is also the forename of Schmitter-Soto’s wife

Rocio gemmata Contreras-Balderas & Schmitter-Soto 2007    bejeweled, referring to large, bright green and blue cheek and opercle spots in life

Rocio ocotal Schmitter-Soto 2007    from the Spanish ocotal, meaning an ocote (species of pine) forest, referring to Laguna Ocotal, Chiapas, México, where it appears to be endemic

Rocio octofasciata (Regan 1903)    octo, eight; fasciata, banded, referring to seven dark bands on side and one at base of caudal fin

Rocio spinosissima (Vaillant & Pellegrin 1902)    very thorny, presumably referring to short dorsal- and anal-fin spines (i.e., more like thorns than spines) and/or to “sometimes more numerous” (translation) dorsal-fin spines than Herotilapia multispinosa, its presumed congener at the time

Rondonacara Ottoni & Mattos 2015    Rondon, in honor of Cândido Rondon (1865-1958), Brazilian army engineer and explorer, leader of the Rondon-Roosevelt Scientific Expedition (1913-1914), during which R. hoehnei was collected; acará, Tupí-Guaraní word for cichlids

Rondonacara hoehnei (Miranda Ribeiro 1918)    in honor of Brazilian botanist Frederico Carlos Hoehne (1882-1959), who collected type

Satanoperca Günther 1862    satan, devil or demon, referring to S. daemon (see below); perca, perch, i.e., a perch-like fish

Satanoperca acuticeps (Heckel 1840)    acutus, sharp or pointed; ceps, head, referring to more pointed head compared to S. daemon and S. jurupari

Satanoperca curupira Ota, Kullander, Depra, da Graça & Pavanelli 2018    Curupira, a mythological creature of Brazilian folklore that protects the forest and its inhabitants, punishing those who hunt for pleasure or who kill breeding females or defenseless juveniles; the legend reveals the relationship between indigenous people and the forest: it is not about exploration and indiscriminate use, but respect for life

Satanoperca daemon (Heckel 1840)    demon, translation of jurupari, local Tupí name in Brazil for this and related cichlids, derived from a local legend in which a spirit named Jurupari swallowed three little boys who, seeking shelter from thunder in the forest, fled into its mouth thinking it was a cave, and were then vomited into four baskets upon Jurupari’s return to the village, probably alluding to the mouthbrooding care of female Satanoperca (wherein fry retreat to their mother’s mouth for protection and are expelled when the danger is past); apparently, the natives were frightened by the fact that the young of these fishes were born from their mouths and thus regarded it as the work of the devil

Satanoperca jurupari (Heckel 1840)    local Tupí name in Brazil for this and related cichlids, meaning demon (see S. daemon for explanation)

Satanoperca leucosticta (Müller & Troschel 1849)    leukos, white; stiktos, spotted or blotched, referring to numerous small whitish or iridescent bluish spots on head and dorsal and caudal fins

Satanoperca lilith Kullander & Ferreira 1988    Lilith, a nocturnal female demon in Babylonian and Jewish folklore, continuing the Tupí tradition of naming these cichlids after demons (see S. daemon) [a noun in apposition, without the matronymic “ae”]

Satanoperca mapiritensis (Fernández-Yépez 1950)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Río Mapirito al Sur de Maturín, Monagas, Venezuela, type locality (also occurs in Colombia)

Satanoperca pappaterra (Heckel 1840)    local name for this and related cichlids (Geophagus) in Mato Grosso, Brazil, “probably derived from the diet of the fish, which seeks out water plants growing in the mud” (translation, italics in original) [actually, “eartheaters” uproot plants while feeding from the substrate]

Satanoperca rhynchitis Kullander 2012    rhynchos, snout; –itus, adjectival suffix expressing possession, referring to long, pointed snout

Symphysodon Heckel 1840    symphysis, grown together (sym, together; physis, growth, body form or appearance); odous, tooth, referring to presence of teeth located over area where the two jaw halves meet (the symphysis)

Symphysodon aequifasciatus Pellegrin 1904    aequus, same or equal; fasciatus, banded, referring to equally wide dark stripes across sides, different from the pattern with a dominant middle bar in S. discus

Symphysodon discus Heckel 1840    flat or circular plate, referring to its body shape

Symphysodon haraldi Schultz 1960    in honor of ethnographer and fish collector Harald Schultz (1909-1966, no relation to author), “who has collected numerous new and rare South American fishes,” including discus specimens used in Schultz’ review of the genus

Symphysodon tarzoo Lyons 1959    contraction of “Tarpon Zoo,” an ornamental fish export firm in Tarpon Springs, Florida, USA, with a fish collecting station in Leticia, Colombia, from which Lyons’ specimens originated

Taeniacara Myers 1935    taenia, band or stripe, referring to broad black lateral band down middle of sides; acará, Tupí-Guaraní word for cichlids but in this case possibly referring to Nannacara, from which it differs in its elongate form and absence of a lateral line

Taeniacara candidi Myers 1935    in honor of Ed. A. Candidus (Morsemere, New Jersey, USA), whose “aquarium collection is famed for the ichthyological rarities it contains,” including type of this cichlid

Tahuantinsuyoa Kullander 1986    Quechua name (pronounced tah-wanteen-soo-you-ah) for the Inca Empire

Tahuantinsuyoa chipi Kullander 1991    Shipibo word for sister, referring to “close, next-river, geographic relationship” with T. macantzatza, its only known congener

Tahuantinsuyoa macantzatza Kullander 1986    Shipibo words for stone (macan) and fish (tzatza), referring to predominantly stony bed of the Río Huacamayo, Peru, type locality [combined with the generic name, our choice for the most unpronounceable binomen in fishes]

Talamancaheros Říčan & Novák 2016    named for the Talamanca mountains of lower Central America (Costa Rica and western Panama), where it occurs; Heros, old neotropical cichlid name meaning “hero,” used here to mean “hero of the Talamanca mountains”

Talamancaheros sieboldii (Kner 1863)    in honor of friend and colleague Karl (or Carl) Theodor Ernst von Siebold (1804-1885), physiologist and zoologist, Bavarian State Collection of Zoology (München, Germany), who invited Kner to study a collection of Central American fishes made by German explorer and geographer Moritz Wagner (1813-1887), including type of this one

Talamancaheros underwoodi (Regan 1906)    in honor of British naturalist-taxidermist Cecil F. Underwood (1867-1943), who collected natural history specimens in Costa Rica, including type of this cichlid

Teleocichla Kullander 1988    Teleo-, referring to the African cichlid genus Teleogramma, reflecting parallel morphology (elongate shape and continuous lateral line); cichla, referring to the closely related South American cichlid genus Crenicichla

Teleocichla centisquama Zuanon & Sazima 2002    centum, a hundred; squama, scale, referring to 113-129 scales along continuous (unbroken) lateral line, the most in the genus

Teleocichla centrarchus Kullander 1988    kentron, spine; archus, anus, only species in genus (except for T. wajapi) with four anal-fin spines

Teleocichla cinderella Kullander 1988    diminutive of cinis, ashes, referring to gray and black coloration, producing an ashy appearance

Teleocichla gephyrogramma Kullander 1988    gephyra, bridge; gramme, line, referring to its “nearly united, or bridged” lateral lines

Teleocichla monogramma Kullander 1988    monos, only; gramme, line, referring to its single lateral line

Teleocichla preta Varella, Zuanon, Kullander & López-Fernández 2016    Portuguese word for black, referring to diagnostic dark overall coloration of body (and its common name among aquarists and Rio Xingu fishermen)

Teleocichla prionogenys Kullander 1988    prion, saw; genys, cheek, referring to serrated preoperculum

Teleocichla proselytus Kullander 1988    Greek for stranger or newcomer, referring to lack of distinctive diagnostic characters compared to congeners

Teleocichla wajapi Varella & Moreira 2013    named for the Wajãpi (also known as Waiapi or Oyampi) people, numbering less than 2000 people distributed in several tribes in Amapá, Brazil (where this cichlid occurs), and in French Guiana

Theraps Günther 1862    slave or attendant, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to fry-guarding behavior (although Günther did not mention this); a more likely explanation is a superficial resemblance to Terapon theraps (Perciformes: Terapontidae)

Theraps irregularis Günther 1862    irregular, referring to seven “rather irregular” transverse blackish bands on sides, some of which extend to dorsal fin

Thorichthys Meek 1904    throsko, to leap and ichthys, fish; according to Meek, T. helleri are “attracted by anything which enters the water and will jump out of it in an apparently playful mood. When abundant they are easily caught in the hand, for as soon as your finger touches the water, they will come leaping towards you.”

Thorichthys affinis (Günther 1862)    related, described as “very closely allied” to T. aureus

Thorichthys aureus (Günther 1862)    gold, presumably referring to its “Yellowish-olive” coloration

Thorichthys callolepis (Regan 1904)    callo-, beautiful; lepis, scale, presumably referring to small, light-blue spot at base of each scale on body

Thorichthys helleri (Steindachner 1864)    in honor of Austrian botanist Karl Bartholomaeus Heller (1824-1880), who collected type while exploring México (1845-1848)

Thorichthys maculipinnis (Steindachner 1864)    maculi-, spotted; pinnis, fin, referring to yellow-blue spots on anal, dorsal and caudal fins

Thorichthys meeki Brind 1918    in honor of ichthyologist Seth Eugene Meek (1859-1914), who proposed the genus Thorichthys in 1904

Thorichthys panchovillai Del Moral-Flores, López-Segovia & Hernández-Arellano 2017    in honor of José Doroteo Arango Arámbula (1878-1923), better known as Francisco Villa and “Pancho Villa,” the “historical, chief and fundamental pillar of the Mexican Revolution” (translation)

Thorichthys pasionis (Rivas 1962)    is, genitive singular of: Río de la Pasión at Sayaxche, El Petén, Guatemala, type locality (also occurs in México)

Thorichthys socolofi (Miller & Taylor 1984)    in honor of Ross Socolof (1925-2009), aquarium fish exporter, breeder and wholesaler, “who was instrumental in making the first collections of the new species and who, over the years, has enthusiastically collected cichlids and other fishes from Middle America and generously made them available for study”

Tomocichla Regan 1908    tomo, etymology not explained nor evident, perhaps from tomos, Greek for part, book or volume, allusion not evident; cichla, from the Greek kichle, historically applied to both thrushes (Aves) and wrasses (Labridae, once thought to be related to cichlids), now applied only to cichlids, perhaps referring here to Cichla, type genus of family

Tomocichla asfraci Allgayer 2002    coined from the initial letters of l’Association France Cichlid, for its promotion of the family Cichlidae

Tomocichla tuba (Meek 1912)    local name for this cichlid in Victoria, Costa Rica, type locality (per Meek 1914; also occurs in Nicaragua and Panama); according to Caldwell et al. (1959), tuba is a Mosquito indian name word meaning “friend,” referring to the “almost universal availability of the fish in the area, and the indian along the river feels that as long as he has his ever-carried handline and some sort of bait (usually some of the shrimps which abound in the roots of the water hyacinths) he will not starve.”

Trichromis McMahan & Chakrabarty 2015    tri-, three, referring to the three vibrant colors defining this genus (red, yellow, blue); chromis, a name dating to Aristotle, possibly derived from chroemo (to neigh), referring to a drum (Sciaenidae) and its ability to make noise, later expanded to embrace cichlids, damselfishes, dottybacks and wrasses (all perch-like fishes once thought to be related), often used in the names of African cichlid genera following Chromis (now Oreochromis) mossambicus Peters 1852, but used here, per the authors, as a Greek word for “fish”

Trichromis salvini (Günther 1862)    in honor of English herpetologist-ornithologist Osbert Salvin (1835-1898), who collected type with Frederick DuCane Godman (see Chuco godmanni, Cichliformes part 6)

Uaru Heckel 1840    from Uarù urà (Uarù=toad), local name of A. amphiacanthoides along the río Negro of Brazil

Uaru amphiacanthoides Heckel 1840    oides, having the form of: Amphiacanthus, allusion not explained, perhaps a misspelling of Amphacanthus (=Siganus), referring to their similarity to rabbitfishes

Uaru fernandezyepezi Stawikowski 1989    in honor of the late Venezuelan ichthyologist Agustín Fernández-Yépez (1916-1977), named at the request of Hans J. Köpke, a fish exporter and tour organizer in Venezuela, who collected type and considered Fernández-Yépez a helpful and “fatherly” friend and an “excellent connoisseur” of Venezuelan fishes (translations)

Vieja Fernández-Yépez 1969    Spanish for “old woman,” vernacular for cichlids and other fishes in various parts of South America, allusion not explained nor evident (compare with Loricariichthys anus, Siluriformes part 3, and Guianacara owroewefi, above)

Vieja bifasciata (Steindachner 1864)    bi-, two; fasciatus, banded, referring to two longitudinal bands on sides of adults

Vieja breidohri (Werner & Stawikowski 1987)    in honor of the authors’ collecting partner Hans-Günther Breidohr (1938-2015), German cichlid aquarist responsible for the discovery and first import of many New World cichlids

Vieja coatlicue Del Moral-Flores, López-Segovia & Hernández-Arellano 2018    named for the Aztec goddess Coatlicue (from a Nahuatl word meaning “the one with the skirt of snakes”); Coatlicue is described as the “goddess of life and death, sovereign of the land and fertility” (translation)

Vieja fenestrata (Günther 1860)    windowed, referring to “six black vertical bands, crossing a deep black longitudinal band,” i.e., creating a window- or lattice-like pattern

Vieja guttulata (Günther 1864)    diminutive of guttata, dotted, presumably referring to fine dappling of dark spots on body and fins

Vieja hartwegi (Taylor & Miller 1980)    in honor of the late Norman E. Hartweg (1904-1964), former Curator of Reptiles at the University of Michigan’s Museum of Zoology, who had a broad interest in Mexican biology and made valuable fish collections during his field studies in México (where this cichlid is endemic)

Vieja maculicauda (Regan 1905)    maculi-, spot; cauda, tail, referring to large dark blotch on caudal peduncle

Vieja melanura (Günther 1862)    melano-, black; oura, tail, referring to “deep-black” band along middle of caudal fin

Vieja zonata (Meek 1905)    banded, presumably referring to a broad black band from opercle to caudal fin

Wajpamheros Říčan & Piálek 2016    derived from Maya Chol dialect word wajpam meaning “to have mud on one’s face,” referring to how it feeds by inserting mouth and lips into soft substrates (hence mud on the face); Heros, an old name for neotropical cichlids, meaning “hero” (see Heros, above)

Wajpamheros nourissati (Allgayer 1989)    in honor of Jean Claude Nourissat (1942-2003), founder and long-time president of l’Association France Cichlid, who collected type (note: Nourissat died from malaria three days after returning from a collecting trip to Madagascar)