Order CHARACIFORMES: Family CHARACIDAE: Subfamily STEVARDIINAE + Incertae sedis

COMMENTS
v. 20.0 – 25 May 2017  view/download PDF

Subfamily STEVARDIINAE
44 genera • 326 species
ia, belonging to: D. Jackson Steward of New York City, through whose “kindness and liberality” Theodore Gill was able to collect “molluscous animals and shells, and incidentally the members of the various other classes known to the zoologist” in the West Indies (name latinized with “v” instead of “w”) [Stevardia Gill 1858 is now a synonym of Corynopoma Gill 1858 by action of first reviser]

Acrobrycon Eigenmann & Pearson 1924    akros, at the end or tip, possibly referring to large caudal pouch in which “scales are continued along the middle of the caudal much farther than above or below”; brycon, closely allied to Hemibrycon

Acrobrycon ipanquianus (Cope 1877)    anus, belonging to: in memory of the Inca Ypanqui, “who in the city of Cuzco of the [Río] Urubamba [type locality in Peru], the first of his line, devoted himself to monotheism”

Acrobrycon ortii Arcila, Vari & Menezes 2014    in honor of Guillermo Ortí, George Washington University, for his “extensive” contributions to our knowledge of the evolution of neotropical freshwater fishes

Acrobrycon starnesi Arcila, Vari & Menezes 2014    in honor of Wayne C. Starnes, North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, who collected type and numerous other fish specimens that have proved very useful in other studies

Argopleura Eigenmann 1913    argos, white or bright; pleura, line, presumably referring to “brilliant” lateral band of A. magdalenensis

Argopleura chocoensis (Eigenmann 1913)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Chocó, Colombia, where type locality (Istmina, a municipality) is situated

Argopleura conventus (Eigenmann 1913)    meeting, allusion not explained, presumably referring to maxillary reaching suture between first and second orbital

Argopleura diquensis (Eigenmann 1913)    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Dique Canal, Cartegena, Colombia, type locality

Argopleura magdalenensis (Eigenmann 1913)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Magdalena River basin, Colombia, where it is endemic

Attonitus Vari & Ortega 2000    Latin for thunderstruck or stunned, referring to gape-mouthed appearance when mouths are fully opened, a position often present in preserved specimens

Attonitus bounites Vari & Ortega 2000    Greek for dweller in the hills, referring to occurrence in the foothills of the Andean Cordillera, southeastern Peru

Attonitus ephimeros Vari & Ortega 2000    Greek for delightful or agreeable, referring to its appearance

Attonitus irisae Vari & Ortega 2000    in honor of researcher Iris Samanez, for her “efforts to increase our knowledge of aquatic habitats in Peru, her many contributions to the sampling of Peruvian freshwater fishes, and her assistance to the authors over the years”

Aulixidens Böhlke 1952    aulix, furrow; dens, teeth, referring to teeth on both jaws furrowed in front between the cusps

Aulixidens eugeniae Böhlke 1952    in honor of Böhlke’s wife Eugenia (1929-2001), an ichthyologist herself

Boehlkea Géry 1966    -[i]a, belonging to: ichthyologist James E. Böhlke (1930-1982), Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, who first recorded the uniqueness of B. fredcochui in his description of B. orcesi in 1958

Boehlkea fredcochui Géry 1966    in honor of tropical fish importer Ferdinand (Fred) Cochu, Paramount Aquarium, who introduced this species to the hobby ca. 1956

Boehlkea orcesi (Böhlke 1958)    in honor of zoologist Gustavo Orcés (1903-1999), Escuela Politecnica Nacional in Quito, “through whose efforts [Böhlke’s] fine collection of Ecuadorean fishes was amassed”

Bryconacidnus Myers 1929    brycon, generalized term used in generic names of many characiform fishes, derived from bryco, to bite, gnash teeth or eat greedily, originally an allusion to fully toothed maxillae but here likely referring to similarity to Bryconamericus; akidnos, weak, perhaps referring to incomplete lateral line and/or dwarf size of type species, B. ellisi

Bryconacidnus ellisae (Pearson 1924)    in honor of Marion Durbin Ellis (1887-ca. 1972), Pearson’s colleague at Indiana University and fellow characin taxonomist

Bryconacidnus hemigrammus (Pearson 1924)    hemi-, half; grammus, line, referring to incomplete lateral line, the final 5-10 scales without pores

Bryconacidnus hypopterus (Fowler 1943)    hypo-, below; pterus, fin, referring to “advanced” (i.e., anteriorly positioned) anal fin

Bryconacidnus paipayensis (Pearson 1929)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Paipay, in the Andes of northern Peru, type locality

Bryconacidnus pectinatus (Vari & Siebert 1990)     raked or combed, referring to stiffened, subdivided, comb-like anterior anal-fin rays of males

Bryconamericus Eigenmann 1907    brycon, generalized term used in generic names of many characiform fishes, derived from bryco, to bite, gnash teeth or eat greedily, originally an allusion to fully toothed maxillae, i.e., a genus of American characins

Bryconamericus agna Azpelicueta & Almirón 2001    latinization of añá, Tupí-Guaraní word for devil, allusion not explained nor evident

Bryconamericus alfredae Eigenmann 1927    in honor of Alfreda Mitchell Bingham (heir to the Tiffany jewelry fortune and wife of explorer-politician Hiram Bingham [see Ceratobranchia binghami]), for her interest in the natural history of Peru and “material assistance in making possible an expedition to the Urubamba”

Bryconamericus andresoi Román-Valencia 2003    in honor of Colombian biologist Andrés Córdoba B., who collected type and provided ecological data and observations

Bryconamericus arilepis Román-Valencia, Vanegas-Ríos & Ruiz-C. 2008    ari-, many; lepis, scale, referring to higher number of lateral-line scales of any congener except B. (now Eretmobrycon) terrabensis

Bryconamericus bolivianus Pearson 1924    Bolivian, referring to country where it is endemic

Bryconamericus bucayensis Román-Valencia, Ruiz-C., Taphorn B. & García-A. 2013    ensis, suffix denoting place: Rio Bucay, Guayas, Ecuador, type locality

Bryconamericus caldasi Román-Valencia, Ruiz-C., Taphorn B. & García-Alzate 2014    in memory of Colombian lawyer, naturalist and geographer Francisco José de Caldas (1768-1816), “who devoted his life to the study of Neotropical nature, and whose intellectual merit lies in having embraced the incipient patriotic fervor in the struggle for Colombian independence in the first half of the nineteenth century” [he was executed for being a precursor of the independence of New Granada (Colombia) from the Spanish]

Bryconamericus carlosi Román-Valencia 2003    in honor of Román-Valencia’s son Carlos, for his patience and early assistance in the field

Bryconamericus charalae Román-Valencia 2005    of El Charal, a stream at Finca El Jaguar, Yaracuy State, Venezuela, type locality

Bryconamericus cinarucoense Román-Valencia, Taphorn & Ruiz-C. 2008    ensis, suffix denoting place: Cinaruco River, Apure State, Venezuela, type locality (also occurs in Colombia and Guyana)

Bryconamericus cismontanus Eigenmann 1914    cis-, on the same side as; montanus, mountain, presumably referring to distribution at base of the Andes, east of Bogota, Colombia

Bryconamericus cristiani Román-Valencia 1999    in honor of one of Román-Valencia’s twin sons, Cristian, for his early knowledge and enthusiasm for ichthyology

Bryconamericus diaphanus (Cope 1878)    transparent or distinct, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to silvery color, with a broad bright silver lateral band and “no bright spots”

Bryconamericus ecai da Silva 2004    eçai, Tupí-Guaraní for small eye, referring to smaller eye diameter compared to congeners

Bryconamericus ecuadorensis Román–Valencia, Ruiz–C., Taphorn B., Jiménez–Prado & García–Alzate 2015    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Ecuador, where it appears to be endemic

Bryconamericus eigenmanni (Evermann & Kendall 1906)    in honor of ichthyologist Carl H. Eigenmann (1863-1927), for his “valuable” work on the characins

Bryconamericus exodon Eigenmann 1907    exos, outside; odon, tooth, referring to how symphysial tooth and lateral teeth “project far out beyond the rest” of the teeth on the premaxillary

Bryconamericus foncensis Román-Valencia, Vanegas-Ríos & Ruiz-C. 2009    ensis, suffix denoting place: río Fonce, Colombia, type locality

Bryconamericus grosvenori Eigenmann 1927    in honor of Gilbert H. Grosvenor (1875-1966), editor, National Geographic Magazine, “whose kindly interest made possible the expedition to Peru”

Bryconamericus guizae Román-Valencia 2003    of the upper Río Guiza, Ricaurte, Department of Nariño, Colombia, type locality

Bryconamericus guyanensis Zarske, Le Bail & Géry 2010    ensis, suffix denoting place: Guyana, specifically French Guyana, where it occurs in all river basins

Bryconamericus huilae Román-Valencia 2003    of Huila, a department of Colombia, where it is endemic

Bryconamericus hyphesson Eigenmann 1909    hyphesson, smaller, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to small size (34-26 mm) compared to most congeners

Bryconamericus icelus Dahl 1964    like, referring to its superficial resemblance to B. scopiferus (=Eretmobrycon emperador)

Bryconamericus ichoensis Román-Valencia 2000    ensis, suffix denoting place: Ichó River system, Atrato River basin, Colombia, type locality

Bryconamericus iheringii (Boulenger 1887)    in honor of German-Brazilian zoologist Hermann von Ihering (1850-1930), who collected type

Bryconamericus ikaa Casciotta, Almirón & Azpelicueta 2004    I-kaá, Guaraní word for river traveler, presumably referring to its occurrence in tributaries of the río Iguazú, Argentina

Bryconamericus indefessus (Mirande, Aguilera & Azpelicueta 2004)    untiring, presumably referring to ceaseless swimming activity in high-velocity current in which it was collected

Bryconamericus lambari Malabarba & Kindel 1995    common name of small characins in southern Brazil

Bryconamericus lassorum Román-Valencia 2002    orum, commemorative suffix, plural: in honor of Carlos Lasso and Oscar Lasso-Acalá (Museo de Historia Natural La Salle, Caracas, Venezuela), for their contributions to the “study and preservation” of neotropical fishes

Bryconamericus leptorhynchus (da Silva & Malabarba 1996)    leptos, narrow or delicate; rhynchos, snout, referring to narrow or elongate snout shape (in dorsal view) compared to conical snout (in dorsal view) of B. maromba

Bryconamericus lethostigmus (Gomes 1947)    lethos, to forget; stigmus, spot, referring to large but faintly colored spot at base of caudal fin, which contrasts sharply with intense black spot of sympatric Distoechus (=Deuterodon) stigmaturus

Bryconamericus macarenae Román-Valencia, García-Alzate, Ruiz-C. & Taphorn 2010    of Macarena Mountain range, Orinoco River system, Colombia, type locality

Bryconamericus macrophthalmus Román-Valencia 2003    macro-, long; ophthalmos, eye, referring to its “relatively big eye”

Bryconamericus maromba (Malabarba & Malabarba 1994)    Portuguese word for flatboats, referring to Rio das Marombas, Santa Catarina, Brazil, type locality

Bryconamericus megalepis Fowler 1941    mega-, large; lepis, scale, referring to larger scales compared to congeners known at the time

Bryconamericus mennii Miquelarena, Protogino, Filiberto & López 2002    in honor of friend and colleague Roberto C. Menni, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, for significant contributions to the advancement of marine and freshwater ichthyology in Argentina

Bryconamericus microcephalus (Miranda Ribeiro 1908)    micro-, small; cephalus, head, referring to size of head, described as measuring 4.5 times within length of body

Bryconamericus motatanensis Schultz 1944    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Río Motatán system, Venezuela, type locality

Bryconamericus multiradiatus Dahl 1960    multi-, many; radiatus, rayed, referring to large number (ii, 33) of anal-fin rays

Bryconamericus novae Eigenmann & Henn 1914    of the Rio Novo, lower Amazon basin, Brazil, type locality

Bryconamericus orinocoensis Román-Valencia 2003    ensis, suffix denoting place: Río Orinoco system of Venezuela, type locality

Bryconamericus ornaticeps Bizerril & Perez-Neto 1995    ornatus, ornate; –ceps, head, referring to heavy pigmentation on anterior part of head

Bryconamericus oroensis Román-Valencia, Ruiz-C., Taphorn B. & García-A. 201    ensis, suffix denoting place: El Oro Province, Ecuador, type locality

Bryconamericus osgoodi Eigenmann & Allen 1942    in honor of zoologist Wilfred Hudson Osgood (1875-1947), who collected type

Bryconamericus pachacuti Eigenmann 1927    named after Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui (1438-1471/72), the eighth ruler of Peru, the “greatest of all Incas”

Bryconamericus patriciae da Silva 2004    in honor of da Silva’s wife, Patrícia L. Gonçalves

Bryconamericus phoenicopterus (Cope 1872)    phoinikos, deep purple or crimson; pterus, fin, referring to vermilion anal and dorsal fins, and triangular vermilion spot on caudal fin

Bryconamericus pinnavittatus Dagosta & Netto-Ferreira 2015    pinna, fin; vittata, banded or adorned with a ribbon, referring to pigmented vertical band at base of caudal-fin rays

Bryconamericus poi (Almirón, Casciotta, Azpelicueta & Cione 2001)    Guaraní word for slender, presumably referring to lower body depth compared to B. leptorhynchus and B. maromba, presumed congeners (then placed in Hypobrycon, now a synonym) at time of description

Bryconamericus pyahu Azpelicueta, Casciotta & Almirón 2003    Guaraní word meaning new, presumably referring to its being a new species

Bryconamericus rubropictus (Berg 1901)    rubro-, red; pictus, painted or colored, presumably referring to red markings on dorsal and caudal fins (almost completely lost in preserved specimens)

Bryconamericus singularis Román-Valencia, Taphorn & Ruiz-C. 2008    singular, referring to its “singular and striking aspect”

Bryconamericus subtilisform Román-Valencia 2003    subtilis, delicate, referring to its “delicate form” or aspect

Bryconamericus sylvicola Braga 1998    sylva, jungle or forest; –cola, inhabitant of, referring to jungle habitat of the Urugua-i River, Argentina, type locality

Bryconamericus tenuis Bizerril & Auraujo 1992    thin, referring to elongate body

Bryconamericus tolimae Eigenmann 1913    of Tolima Department, Colombia, where it is endemic to the Upper Magdalena River basin

Bryconamericus turiuba Langeani, Lucena, Pedrini & Tarelho-Pereira 2005    referring to Turiúba, a municipality in São Paulo, Brazil, type locality

Bryconamericus uporas Casciotta, Azpelicueta & Almirón 2002    Guaraní word for an “animal-shaped ghost of the water who care[s for] streams, ponds, falls, and swamps,” presumably referring to its occurrence in small falls and pools with clear, rapid water

Bryconamericus yokiae Román-Valencia 2003    in honor of Yoki, “my dream witch, for her pains and patience with a husband who loves little fishes)” (translation; “dream witch” is a term of endearment, akin to “bewitching woman”)

Bryconamericus ytu Almirón, Azpelicueta & Casciotta 2004    Guaraní word for a small waterfall, referring to falls presents at type locality

Bryconamericus zamorensis Román-Valencia, Ruiz-C., Taphorn B. & García-A. 2013    ensis, suffix denoting place: Zamora Chinchipe state, Ecuador, type locality

Bryconamericus zeteki Hildebrand 1938    in honor of entomologist James Zetek (1886-1959), the “well-known” naturalist of Panama, where this species is endemic

Caiapobrycon Malabarba & Vari 2000    Caiapos, an Amerindian tribe that inhabits area comprising the rio Tocantins drainage, Brazil, where the only species occurs; brycon, generalized term used in generic names of many characiform fishes, derived from bryco, to bite, gnash teeth or eat greedily, originally an allusion to fully toothed maxillae

Caiapobrycon tucurui Malabarba & Vari 2000    referring to rio Tucuruí, rio Tocantins drainage, Brazil, type locality

Carlastyanax Géry 1972    carl, in honor of Carl H. Eigenmann (1863-1927), who described C. aurocaudatus, “one of the most eminent ichthyologists of the first half of the 20th century” (translation); Astyanax, referring to previous placement in that genus

Carlastyanax aurocaudatus (Eigenmann 1913)    
aureus, golden; caudatus, tailed, referring to golden or orange-red caudal peduncle in life

Ceratobranchia Eigenmann 1914    ceratos, horn; branchia, gill, referring to antler-like gill rakers of C. obtusirostris

Ceratobranchia binghami Eigenmann 1927    in honor of explorer-politician Hiram Bingham III (1875-1956), Director of the Yale Geographical Expedition (and discoverer of the Inca ruins at Machu Picchu)

Ceratobranchia delotaenia Chernoff & Machado-Allison 1990    delos, conspicuous or distinctive; taenia, ribbon or stripe, referring to distinctive lateral stripe

Ceratobranchia elatior Tortonese 1942    taller or higher, referring to deeper body compared to C. obtusirostris and C. binghami

Ceratobranchia joanae Chernoff & Machado-Allison 1990    in memory of environmentalist and philanthropist Joan Milliken Stroud (1922-1985), “whose enthusiasm and support for natural history benefitted many scientific endeavors”; the authors’ research was funded in part by the Stroud Foundation

Ceratobranchia obtusirostris Eigenmann 1914    obtusus, blunt; rostris, snout, referring to blunt, rounded head

Chrysobrycon Weitzman & Menezes 1998    chrysos, gold, referring to brilliant gold-green color of C. hesperus males; brycon, generalized term used in generic names of many characiform fishes, derived from bryco, to bite, gnash teeth or eat greedily, originally an allusion to fully toothed maxillae

Chrysobrycon eliasi Vanegas-Ríos, Azpelicueta & Ortega 2011    in honor of the late Elias Vanegas G., father of the senior author

Chrysobrycon guahibo Vanegas-Ríos, Urbano-Bonilla & Azpelicueta 2015    named in honor of the Guahibo (or Sikuani) tribe, the most populous ethnic group inhabiting the Orinoco floodplains of Colombia, where this species occurs

Chrysobrycon hesperus (Böhlke 1958)    western, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to distribution in Ecuador, far west of the Brazilian Hysteronotus megalostomus, its presumed congener at the time

Chrysobrycon mojicai Vanegas-Ríos & Urbano-Bonilla 2017    in honor of José Iván Mojica, Director, Museo de Ictiología del Instituto de Ciencias Naturales de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Bogotá), for contributions to the knowledge of Amazonian freshwater fishes in Colombia

Chrysobrycon myersi (Weitzman & Thomerson 1970)    in honor of Stanford University ichthyologist George S. Myers (1905-1985), for his “long and continued interest in characid fishes, and his frequent and helpful council to students of this complicated and fascinating group”

Chrysobrycon yoliae Vanegas-Ríos, Azpelicueta & Ortega 2014    in honor and in gratitude of “Yoli” (Yolanda Ríos Nossa), mother of senior author, who “patiently encouraged and supported his academic formation in all senses”

Corynopoma Gill 1858    koryne, club; opoma, operculum, referring to “claviform prolongation of the operculum”

Corynopoma riisei Gill 1858    in honor of A. H. Riise, Dutch zoologist of St. Thomas, West Indies, for his contributions to our knowledge of echinoderms and terrestrial molluscs

Creagrutus Günther 1864    etymology not explained; Eigenmann (1927) said it derives from the Greek kreagreytos, “tearing off the flesh” (a reference to its teeth?)

Creagrutus affinis Steindachner 1880    related, very close if not identical to C. muelleri

Creagrutus amoenus Fowler 1943    attractive, presumably referring to color, with “bright silvery white” axial band in life and six “more or less clearly defined dark blotches”

Creagrutus anary Fowler 1913    native name for this species in Brazil

Creagrutus atratus Vari & Harold 2001    dressed in black, referring to dark coloration of type series and many other available specimens

Creagrutus atrisignum Myers 1927    atri-, black; signum, mark, presumably referring to dark horizontal humeral bar within narrow silvery lateral band

Creagrutus barrigai Vari & Harold 2001    in honor of Ramiro Barriga, Universidad Politecnica (Quito, Ecuador), for his many contributions to the knowledge of the freshwater fishes of Ecuador, and for his assistance to the authors with their monograph and other projects

Creagrutus beni Eigenmann 1911    referring to Río Beni at Villa Bella, Amazon system, Bolivia, type locality

Creagrutus bolivari Schultz 1944    in honor of Simón Bolívar (1783-1830), the “liberator of northern South America”

Creagrutus brevipinnis Eigenmann 1913    brevis, short; pinnis, fin, presumably referring to smaller number of anal-fin rays compared to congeners in Colombia

Creagrutus britskii Vari & Harold 2001    in honor of Heraldo Britski, Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil), for his many contributions to our understanding of South American freshwater fishes, and for his assistance to the senior author over the years

Creagrutus calai Vari & Harold 2001    in honor of Plutarco Cala, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, for his contributions to our understanding of Colombian freshwater fishes, and for his assistance to the authors

Creagrutus caucanus Eigenmann 1913    –anus, belonging to: Cauca River, Colombia, type locality (also endemic to Upper Cauca River system)

Creagrutus changae Vari & Harold 2001    in honor of the late Fonchii Chang (1963-1999), Museo de Historia Natural (Lima, Peru), for her contributions to our understanding of Peruvian fishes and her assistance to the authors prior to her untimely death [she died, along with her motorista, in a boat accident near Lake Rimachi, Peru; she was wearing rubber boots, which filled with water and anchored her to the bottom, where she was shocked by an electric eel, knocked unconscious and drowned]

Creagrutus cochui Géry 1964    in honor of American tropical fish importer Ferdinand (Fred) Cochu, a close friend of pet-book publisher Herbert R. Axelrod, (1927-2017) who suggested that Cochu be honored with the name

Creagrutus cracentis Vari & Harold 2001    Latin for slender or graceful, referring to slender body form

Creagrutus crenatus Vari & Harold 2001    notched or bearing rounded projections, referring to the form of exposed posterior margins of many of its scales

Creagrutus ephippiatus Vari & Harold 2001    saddled, referring to saddle-like humeral marks that meet along dorsal midline

Creagrutus figueiredoi Vari & Harold 2001    in honor of José Lima de Figueiredo, Museu de Zoologia of the Universidade de São Paulo, for his contributions to South American ichthyology and his assistance to the senior author over the years

Creagrutus flavescens Vari & Harold 2001    golden yellow, referring to coloration in life

Creagrutus gephyrus Böhlke & Saul 1975    gephyra, a bridge, for uniting Creagrudite and Creagrutus, combining three-rowed premaxillary dentition with a long, sloping, fully-toothed maxillary, in which case recognition of the former genus is no longer warranted

Creagrutus gracilis Vari & Harold 2001    slender, referring to relatively shallow body compared to many congeners

Creagrutus guanes Torres-Mejia & Vari 2005    referring to the Guanes, an indigenous group that occupied the Río Fonce basin, Colombia (type locality); the Guanes intensely resisted the Spaniard conquistadors, resulting in their near-complete extinction

Creagrutus gyrospilus Vari & Harold 2001    gyro-, circular; spilus, spot, referring to rounded (vs. vertically elongate) humeral spot

Creagrutus hildebrandi Schultz 1944    in honor of Samuel F. Hildebrand (1883-1949), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, for “extensive contributions on the fish fauna of Panama”

Creagrutus holmi Vari & Harold 2001    in honor of Erling Holm, Royal Ontario Museum (Toronto), who collected some of the type series along with other species of Creagrutus, for his assistance to the authors in this and other studies

Creagrutus hysginus Harold, Vari, Machado-Allison & Provenzano 1994    Greek for crimson or scarlet dye, referring to distinctive color of adipose fin

Creagrutus ignotus Vari & Harold 2001    Latin for unknown, referring to previous absence of any records for Creagrutus from the upper Rio Tapajós basin (central Brazil)

Creagrutus kunturus Vari, Harold & Ortega 1995    latinization of kuntur, Quecha word for Condor, referring to the Cordillera del Condor, Peru, type region

Creagrutus lassoi Vari & Harold 2001    in honor of Carlos A. Lasso, Museo de Historia Natural La Salle (Caracas) and the Asociación Amigos de Doñana (Seville), for his contributions to the knowledge of Venezuelan fishes and assistance to the authors

Creagrutus lepidus Vari, Harold, Lasso & Machado-Allison 1993    elegant, referring to distinctive pigmentation (e.g., a well-developed, dark midlateral stripe)

Creagrutus leuciscus Regan 1913    etymology not explained, possibly referring to superficial resemblance to the European cyprinid Leuciscus leuciscus

Creagrutus machadoi Vari & Harold 2001    in honor of Antonio Machado-Allison, Universidad Central de Venezuela, for his laboratory and field assistance to the authors, and his many contributions to the knowledge of neotropical fishes

Creagrutus maculosus Román-Valencia, García-Alzate, Ruiz-C. & Taphorn B. 2010    spotted, referring to eight dark, rounded spots on sides of adults

Creagrutus magdalenae Eigenmann 1913    of the Magdalena River basin, Colombia, where it is endemic

Creagrutus magoi Vari & Harold 2001    in honor of Francisco Mago Leccia (1931-2004), formerly of the Universidad Central de Venezuela, for his “major” contributions to our understanding of South American freshwater fishes, and for his assistance to the senior author through the years

Creagrutus manu Vari & Harold 2001    referring to the Río Manu of southeastern Peru, type region, and to the Parque Nacional de Manu, where all examined specimens were collected

Creagrutus maracaiboensis (Schultz 1944)    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Lake Maracaibo basin, Venezuela, where it is endemic

Creagrutus maxillaris (Myers 1927)    of the jaw, referring to a “lengthened” maxillary that “sweeps backward and downward in a great concave curve, its horizontal extent nearly twice the vertical”

Creagrutus melanzonus Eigenmann 1909    melano-, black; zonus, band, allusion not evident, perhaps referring to “silvery lateral band underlaid with a dotted stripe”

Creagrutus melasma Vari, Harold & Taphorn 1994    black spot, referring to distinctive pigmentation on dorsal fin

Creagrutus menezesi Vari & Harold 2001    in honor of Naércio A. Menezes, Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil), for “myriad” contributions to the knowledge of South American fishes, and for his assistance to the senior author over the years

Creagrutus meridionalis Vari & Harold 2001    southern, referring to distribution in the southern portions of the range of Creagrutus

Creagrutus molinus Vari & Harold 2001    Latin for grinder, referring to large teeth in the upper and lower jaws

Creagrutus mucipu Vari & Harold 2001    acronym of Museu de Ciências e Tecnologia, PUCRS (Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul), whose staff collected type and assisted authors in this and other projects

Creagrutus muelleri (Günther 1859)    patronym not identified but probably in honor of Johannes Müller (1801-1858), whose 1844 work on characiform fishes (authored with Troschel) is cited by Günther

Creagrutus nigrostigmatus Dahl 1960    nigro-, black; stigmatus, marked or spotted, referring to very dark, nearly square humeral mark

Creagrutus nigrotaeniatus Dagosta & Pastana 2014    nigro-, black; taeniatus, banded, referring to black lateral longitudinal stripe on body

Creagrutus occidaneus Vari & Harold 2001    western, referring to distribution along western lowlands of Amazon basin

Creagrutus ortegai Vari & Harold 2001    in honor of Hernán Ortega, Museu de Historia Natural (Lima, Peru), colleague and co-author on other papers, who collected nearly all known specimens of this species, for his many contributions to our knowledge of Peruvian freshwater fishes

Creagrutus ouranonastes Vari & Harold 2001    ouranos, heaven or sky; nastes, inhabitant, referring to elevation (~1900 m) of its habitat, the highest elevation known for any member of the genus

Creagrutus paraguayensis Mahnert & Géry 1988    ensis, suffix denoting place: Paraguay, where it is endemic to the Paraguay River basin

Creagrutus paralacus Harold & Vari 1994     para-, beside or near; lacus, lake, referring to distribution in rivers near Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela

Creagrutus pearsoni Mahnert & Géry 1988    in honor of Nathan Everett Pearson, Indiana University, who described this species in 1924 but used a name (Piabina beni) that is now secondarily preoccupied by C. beni Eigenmann 1911

Creagrutus peruanus (Steindachner 1876)    Peruvian, referring to country where it is endemic

Creagrutus petilus Vari & Harold 2001    Latin for thin or slender, referring to relatively elongate body form

Creagrutus phasma Myers 1927    apparition or specter, a “veritable ghost of” the sympatric Creagrudite (=Creagrutus)

Creagrutus pila Vari & Harold 2001    Latin for javelin, referring to vertically elongate, ventrally tapering humeral spot on side

Creagrutus planquettei Géry & Renno 1989    in honor of friend and colleague Paul Planquette (1940-1996), who initiated the ichthyological survey of Guyana

Creagrutus provenzanoi Vari & Harold 2001    in honor of Francisco Provenzano, Universidad Central de Venezuala, for his contributions to our understanding of Venezuelan fishes, and for his assistance to the authors over many years

Creagrutus runa Vari & Harold 2001    Latin for javelin or spear, referring to elongate body form

Creagrutus saxatilis Vari & Harold 2001    among rocks, referring to rocky substrate of type locality

Creagrutus seductus Vari & Harold 2001    remote or apart, referring to isolated location of type locality relative to other sites where Creagrutus species occur

Creagrutus taphorni Vari & Harold 2001    in honor of Donald C. Taphorn, Museu de Ciencias Naturales (Guanare, Venezuela), who collected much of the type material, for his contributions to the knowledge of fishes of the Llanos of the Orinoco basin, and his assistance to the authors in this and other projects

Creagrutus tuyuka Vari & Lima 2003    referring to the Tuyuka tribe of the Colombia-Brazil border region, “who have long carefully managed the subsistence fishery of that region,” and assisted the second author during expedition that yielded type

Creagrutus ungulus Vari & Harold 2001    Latin for ring, referring to narrow ring of infraorbitals bordering ventral and posterior margins of orbit

Creagrutus varii Ribeiro, Benine & Figueiredo 2004    in honor of Richard P. Vari (1949-2016), Smithsonian Institution, for his contributions to the knowledge of South American fishes, especially the systematics of Creagrutus

Creagrutus veruina Vari & Harold 2001    Latin for small javelin, referring to elongate overall form

Creagrutus vexillapinnus Vari & Harold 2001    vexillum, flag; pinna, fin, referring to prominent black spot on dorsal fin

Creagrutus yanatili Harold & Salcedo 2010    named for the Río Yanatili, Cuzco, Convención, Peru, paratype locality

Creagrutus xiphos Vari & Harold 2001    Greek for sword or saber, referring to elongate head and body

Creagrutus zephyrus Vari & Harold 2001    the west wind, referring to distribution in western portion of range that includes two other very similar species: C. melanzonus and C. xiphos

Cyanogaster Mattox, Britz, Toledo-Piza & Marinho 2013    cyano, blue; gaster, stomach, referring to conspicuous iridescent blue color in abdominal region

Cyanogaster noctivaga Mattox, Britz, Toledo-Piza & Marinho 2013    nox, night; vagare, to walk about, i.e., night wanderer, referring to presumed nocturnal habits (type series collected exclusively at night)

Diapoma Cope 1894    dia, through or between; poma, operculum, referring to upper part of operculum “excavated,” with a “sub-operculum produced below lateral line and above pectoral fin to an obtuse apex”

Diapoma alburnus (Hensel 1870)    Latin for whitefish, from albus, white, referring to similarity in both color and shape to the European cyprinid Alburnus alburnus

Diapoma alegretense (Malabarba & Weitzman 2003)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Alegrete county, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, where type locality is situated

Diapoma dicropotamicus (Malabarba & Weitzman 2003)    icus, belonging to: dikros, forked; potamos, river, referring to Río Forqueta, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, type locality

Diapoma guarani (Mahnert & Géry 1987)    in honor of the Guaranis, the largest ethnic group in Paraguay, type locality (also occurs in Argentina)

Diapoma itaimbe (Malabarba & Weitzman 2003)    itaimbé, Tupí-Guaraní word for precipice, referring to deep-canyon tributary rivers of the Río Mampituba drainage, Santa Catarina, Brazil, type locality

Diapoma lepiclastus (Malabarba, Weitzman & Casciotta 2003)    lepis, scale; klastos, broken into pieces, referring to unusual irregular alternate sets of pored and unpored scales on lateral line

Diapoma obi (Casciotta, Almirón, Piálek & Říĉan 2012)    Guaraní word for blue, referring to ground color of body in life

Diapoma pyrrhopteryx Menezes & Weitzman 2011    pyrrho, red; pteryx, fin, referring to red fins in life

Diapoma speculiferum Cope 1894    specula, mirror; ferum, bearer, referring to reflection of “metallic mercury, especially on the operculum”

Diapoma terofali (Géry 1964)    in honor of Fritz Terofal, director, Ichthyology Section, Bavarian State Collection of Zoology, Munich, Germany

Diapoma thauma Menezes & Weitzman 2011    Greek for wonder or marvel, referring to its beauty in life

Diapoma tipiaia (Malabarba & Weitzman 2003)    referring to Arroio Tipiáia, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, type locality

Diapoma uruguayense (Messner 1962)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Uruguay River basin (Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay), where it is endemic

Eretmobrycon Fink 1976    eretmon, paddle, referring to paddle-like lower caudal-fin lobe of E. bayano; brycon, generalized term used in generic names of many characiform fishes, derived from bryco, to bite, an allusion to their teeth

Eretmobrycon bayano Fink 1976    named after the Río Bayano basin, Panama, where it appears to be endemic

Eretmobrycon brevirostris (Günther 1860)    brevis, short; rostris, snout, referring to “short and obtuse” snout

Eretmobrycon dahli (Román-Valencia 2000)    in honor of Swedish ichthyologist George Dahl (1905-1979), for “important” contributions to the study and conservation of marine and freshwater fishes from Colombia

Eretmobrycon emperador (Eigenmann & Ogle 1907)    Spanish for empire, referring to Empire Station, Panama, type locality

Eretmobrycon gonzalezoi (Román-Valencia 2002)    in honor of Pana Rigoberto Gonzalez, curator of fishes, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (Panama), who helped Román-Valancia during his stay there [addition of “o” before genitive “i” is apparently a Spanish diminutive used to connote endearment]

Eretmobrycon guaytarae (Eigenmann & Henn 1914)    of Río Guáytara (specifically, its mouth), Colombia, type locality

Eretmobrycon miraensis (Fowler 1945)    -ensis, suffix denoting place: Río Mira basin, Colombia, where it is endemic

Eretmobrycon peruanus (Müller & Troschel 1845)    Peruvian, referring to country where it is endemic

Eretmobrycon scleroparius (Regan 1908)    etymology not explained, perhaps sclero-, tough or hard; parius, perhaps from pario-, cheek, i.e., hard-cheeked, but nothing in description and subsequent literature supports this interpretation

Eretmobrycon simus (Boulenger 1898)    flat-nosed, referring to shorter snout compared to Tetragonopterus petenensis (the latter taxon questionably a synonym of Astyanax mexicanus)

Eretmobrycon terrabensis (Meek 1914)    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Río Grande de Térraba, Costa Rica, type locality

Gephyrocharax Eigenmann 1912    gephyra, bridge, i.e., a bridge between Paragoniates and Hysteronotus, “thus allying the Te[t]ragonopterinae with the Agoniatinae [=Aphyocharacinae]”; Charax, typical genus of the Characiformes, from a Greek word meaning “palisade of pointed sticks,” referring to densely packed sharp teeth, now a common root-name formation in the order

Gephyrocharax atracaudatus (Meek & Hildebrand 1912)    atra-, black; caudatus, tailed, referring to dark streaks on margins of tail

Gephyrocharax caucanus Eigenmann 1912      anus, belonging to: Upper Cauca River basin, Colombia, where it is endemic

Gephyrocharax chocoensis Eigenmann 1912    ensis, suffix denoting place: Chocó Department, Colombia, where type locality (Istmina, a municipality) is situated

Gephyrocharax intermedius Meek & Hildebrand 1916    intermediate in color and structure between G. atracaudatus and G. chocoensis

Gephyrocharax major Myers 1929    greater, larger than any congeners (known at the time)

Gephyrocharax martae Dahl 1943    in honor of Dahl’s wife Marta, who collected type “and many other interesting specimens”

Gephyrocharax melanocheir Eigenmann 1912    melanos, black; cheiros, hand, referring to black tips on pectoral fins of males

Gephyrocharax sinuensis Dahl 1964     ensis, suffix denoting place: upper Sinú River basin, Colombia, where it is endemic

Gephyrocharax torresi Vanegas-Ríos, Azpelicueta, Mirande & Gonzales 2013    in honor of Mauricio Torres (Universidad Industrial de Santander, Departmento de Santandar, Colombia), who collected type

Gephyrocharax valencia Eigenmann 1920    referring to the Lake Valencia region, Venezuela, where it occurs

Gephyrocharax venezuelae Schultz 1944    of Venezuela, where it is endemic to the Lake Maracaibo basin

Glandulocauda Eigenmann 1911    glandulo, diminutive for gland, i.e., a small gland; cauda, tail, referring to gland at base of tail in males (later discovered to release pheromones during courtship)

Glandulocauda caerulea Menezes & Weitzman 2009    blue, referring to dark steely blue coloration in life [replacement name for G. melanopleura Eigenmann 1922, secondarily preoccupied in Glandulocauda by Hyphessobrycon melanopleurus Ellis 1911]

Glandulocauda melanopleura (Ellis 1911)    melano-, black; pleura, of the side, referring to a broad blackish stripe from eye to end of middle caudal-fin rays

Hemibrycon Günther 1864    hemi-, half, allusion not evident, perhaps referring to smaller teeth and/or mouth compared to Brycon (although proposed as a subgenus of Tetragonopterus); brycon, generalized term used in generic names of many characiform fishes, derived from bryco, to bite, gnash teeth or eat greedily, originally an allusion to fully toothed maxillae

Hemibrycon antioquiae Román-Valencia, Ruiz-C., Taphorn, Mancera-Rodriguez & García-Alzate 2013    of Antioquia state, Colombia, type locality

Hemibrycon beni Pearson 1924    named for the Río Beni drainage, Bolivia, where it is endemic

Hemibrycon boquiae (Eigenmann 1913)    of Boquia, at western base of Mount Tolima, Colombia, type locality

Hemibrycon brevispini Román-Valencia & Arcila-Mesa 2009    brevis, short; spinus, hook (i.e., spine), referring to tiny hooks on all fins

Hemibrycon cairoensis Román-Valencia & Arcila-Mesa 2009    ensis, suffix denoting place: El Cairo, Risaralda, Colombia, type locality

Hemibrycon cardalensis Román-Valencia, Ruiz-C., Taphorn, Mancera-Rodriguez & García-Alzate 2013    –ensis, suffix denoting place: El Cardal creek, tributary of the Guatapé River, middle Magdalena River Basin, Colombia, type locality

Hemibrycon carrilloi Dahl 1960    in honor of Jorge Carrillo, director, Fisheries Department, Colombia Ministry of Agriculture, for his “enthusiastic work in defence of the Colombian fauna”

Hemibrycon caucanus (Eigenmann 1913)    anus, belonging to: upper Cauca River system, Colombia, where it is (or was) abundant

Hemibrycon colombianus Eigenmann 1914    Colombian, referring to country where it is endemic

Hemibrycon dariensis Meek & Hildebrand 1916    ensis, suffix denoting place: Darién Province, Panama, where type locality (mouth of Río Yape) is situated (also occurs in Colombia)

Hemibrycon decurrens (Eigenmann 1913)    curved downward, referring to “interpolated rows of scales beginning over the middle of the ventrals, the rows of scales distinctly decurvent to the anal”

Hemibrycon dentatus (Eigenmann 1913)    toothed, presumably referring to 3-9 maxillary teeth, “usually extending over less than half the free margin”

Hemibrycon divisorensis Bertaco, Malabarba, Hidalgo & Ortega 2007    ensis, suffix denoting place: Zona Reservada Sierra del Divisor, a conservation area in Loreto, Peru, type locality

Hemibrycon fasciatus Román-Valencia, Ruiz-C., Taphorn, Mancera-Rodriguez & García-Alzate 2013    banded, referring to dark lateral stripe or band

Hemibrycon galvisi (Román-Valencia 2000)    in honor of biologist Germán Galvis (Universidad Nacional, Santafé de Bogotá, Colombia), who provided funding and comparative material for Román-Valencia’s study

Hemibrycon helleri Eigenmann 1927    in honor of zoologist Edmund Heller (1875-1939), who collected type

Hemibrycon huambonicus (Steindachner 1882)     icus, belonging to: Huambo, Peru, type locality

Hemibrycon inambari Bertaco & Malabarba 2010    referring to río Inambari basin, Cusco, Peru, type locality

Hemibrycon jabonero Schultz 1944    common name for this fish is in the upper Río Chama Valley, Venezuela

Hemibrycon jelskii (Steindachner 1876)    in honor of Belarusian-Polish ornithologist Konstanty Jelski (1837-1896), who collected type

Hemibrycon loisae (Géry 1964)    in honor of Loise Socolof, whose husband, Ross Socolof (1925-2009), aquarium-fish exporter, breeder and wholesaler, collected type

Hemibrycon metae Myers 1930    of the upper Rio Meta basin, Colombia, type locality (also occurs in Venezuela)

Hemibrycon microformaa Román-Valencia & Ruiz-C. 2007    micro-, small; forma, shape, referring to small size (<31 mm SL) [meaning of extra terminal a not explained]

Hemibrycon mikrostiktos Bertaco & Malabarba 2010    mickros, small; stiktos, spot, referring to small humeral spot, 2-3 horizontal series of scales vs. 4-9 in congeners

Hemibrycon paez Román-Valencia & Arcila-Mesa 2010    referring to native Latin Americans known as the Paeces or Guambianos, who occupy type locality

Hemibrycon palomae Román-Valencia, García-Alzate, Ruiz-C. & Taphorn 2010    of La Paloma Creek, Alto Cauca, Colombia, type locality

Hemibrycon plutarcoi (Román-Valencia 2001)    in honor of ichthyologist Plutarco Cala, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, who collected type

Hemibrycon polyodon (Günther 1864)    poly, many; odon, tooth, “the entire edge of the maxillary denticulated”

Hemibrycon quindos Román-Valencia & Arcila-Mesa 2010    referring to native Latin American people known as the Quindos, who once occupied type locality

Hemibrycon rafaelensis Román-Valencia & Arcila-Mesa 2008    ensis, suffix denoting place: San Rafael Creek, Apia River system, Risaralda, Colombia, type locality

Hemibrycon raqueliae Román-Valencia & Arcila-Mesa 2010    in honor of biologist Raquel Ivveth Ruiz Calderón, for her “generous contribution of works for the preservation and study of Neotropical fishes”

Hemibrycon sanjuanensis Román-Valencia, Ruiz-C., Taphorn & García-Alzate 2014    ensis, suffix denoting place: San Juan River basin, Colombia, type locality

Hemibrycon santamartae Román-Valencia, Ruiz-C., García-Alzate & Taphorn 2010    of the Santa Marta mountain range, northeastern Colombia, where it is endemic

Hemibrycon sierraensis García-Alzate, Román-Valencia & Taphorn 2015    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta drainage, Caribbean coastal drainages of northern Colombia, type locality

Hemibrycon surinamensis Géry 1962    ensis, suffix denoting place: Suriname, type locality (also occurs in French Guiana and Brazil)

Hemibrycon taeniurus (Gill 1858)    taenio-, band; oura, tail, referring to broad black band, bordered by yellow, on middle rows of caudal fin

Hemibrycon tridens Eigenmann 1922    tri-, three; dens, teeth, referring to tricuspid teeth extending along greater part of maxillary

Hemibrycon velox Dahl 1964    swift, referring to the “quick and colorful movement of the species in the water” (translation)

Hemibrycon virolinica Román-Valencia & Arcila-Mesa 2010    ica, belonging to: Virolín creek, Río Cañaverales basin, Santander, Colombia type locality

Hemibrycon yacopiae Román-Valencia & Arcila-Mesa 2010    of Yacopi, Cundinamarca, Colombia, type locality

Hysteronotus Eigenmann 1911    hystero-, later; notus, of the back, referring to “extreme backward position” of dorsal fin

Hysteronotus megalostomus Eigenmann 1911    mega-, large; stomus, mouth, “the premaxillary-maxillary border forming a continuous curve whose length is about half the length of the head”

Iotabrycon Roberts 1973    iota, anything very small, presumably referring to small size of I. praecox (up to 19.9 mm); brycon, generalized term used in generic names of many characiform fishes, derived from bryco, to bite, gnash teeth or eat greedily, originally an allusion to fully toothed maxillae

Iotabrycon praecox Roberts 1973    premature, presumably referring to small size at maturity

Knodus Eigenmann 1911    knu, “a trifle,” according to Eigenmann; odous, tooth, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to small, dainty teeth

Knodus alpha (Eigenmann 1914)    first letter of Greek alphabet, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to its being the first of two species described in the same paper that Eigenmann suspected were synonymous with Bryconamericus (now Hemibrycon) caucanus (the second species, B. beta, named after the second letter of the Greek alphabet, is now a synonym of K. alpha)

Knodus borki Zarske 2008    in honor of German aquarist Dieter Bork, “who has contributed much to the development of aquariology as a dedicated aquarium friend (breeder, author and photographer)” (translation); he also supplied type

Knodus breviceps (Eigenmann 1908)    brevis, short; ceps, referring to short head, 4.50-4.66 times in body length

Knodus chapadae (Fowler 1906)    of Santa Ana da Chapada, province of Mato Grosso, Brazil, near type locality in the headwaters of the Rio Paraguay

Knodus delta Géry 1972    fourth letter of Greek alphabet, allusion not explained; since Knodus is often synonymized with Bryconamericus, and this species is similar to K. beta motatanensis (now B. motatanensis), Géry may be continuing Eigenmann’s tradition of naming closely related and very similar taxa (B. alpha, B. beta [=alpha]) after Greek letters (see also K. gamma)

Knodus deuterodonoides (Eigenmann 1914)    –oides, having the form of: referring to its “very similar” dentition to that of Deuterodon (Tetragonopterinae)

Knodus dorsomaculatus Ferreira & Netto-Ferreira 2010    dorso-, dorsal; maculatus, spotted, referring to dark blotch on dorsal-fin rays

Knodus figueiredoi Esguícero & Castro 2014    in honor of José Lima de Figueiredo, Museum of Zoology of the University of São Paulo, for his contributions to the taxonomy of neotropical fishes

Knodus gamma Géry 1972    third letter of Greek alphabet, allusion not explained; since Knodus is often synonymized with Bryconamericus, and this species is sympatric with K. beta motatanensis (now B. motatanensis), Géry may be continuing Eigenmann’s tradition of naming closely related and very similar taxa (B. alpha, B. beta [=alpha]) after Greek letters (see also K. delta)

Knodus geryi Lima, Britski & Machado 2004    in honor of Jacques Géry (1917-2007), for his “enormous” contribution to the knowledge of characiform fishes

Knodus heteresthes (Eigenmann 1908)    hetero-, different; esthes, dress or clothing, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to deeply imbricate scales, “without striae” (italics in original)

Knodus jacunda (Fowler 1913)    local name for this species in Brazil

Knodus longus Zarske & Géry 2006    long, referring to its elongate body (body height 4.22-4.42 times in SL)

Knodus megalops Myers 1929    mega-, large; ops, eye, “2.2 in head,” largest eyes in genus (among congeners known at the time)

Knodus meridae Eigenmann 1911    of Merida, Venezuela, type locality

Knodus mizquae (Fowler 1943)     of Río Mizque, Department of Cochabamba, Bolivia, type locality

Knodus moenkhausii (Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903)    patronym not identified but clearly in honor of William J. Moenkhaus, Eigenmann’s colleague at Indiana University, formerly of the Museu Paulista in São Paulo, Brazil

Knodus orteguasae (Fowler 1943)    of the Río Orteguasa, Caquetá, Colombia, type locality

Knodus pasco Zarske 2007    named after Departamento Pasco, Peru, type locality (and where it appears to be endemic)

Knodus savannensis Géry 1961    –ensis, suffix denoting place: presumably the “savannahs of northeastern Brazil” (Tocantins River basin), where it occurs

Knodus septentrionalis Géry 1972    northern, described as a northern (i.e., north of the Andes) subspecies of K. victoriae

Knodus shinahota Ferreira & Carvajal 2007    named for Río Shinahota, Cochabamba, Bolivia, type locality

Knodus smithi (Fowler 1913)    in honor of Edgar A. Smith (no other information available), who collected type

Knodus tanaothoros (Weitzman, Menezes, Evers & Burns 2005)    tanaos, outstretched; thoros, seed of the male (semen), referring to elongate nature of sperm cells compared to analogous cells in Attonitus

Knodus tiquiensis Ferreira & Lima 2006    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Rio Tiquié, Indian village of Caruru, Brazil, type locality

Knodus victoriae (Steindachner 1907)    of Victoria, near mouth of River Parnahuba at Victoria, Brazil, type locality

Knodus weitzmani (Menezes, Netto-Ferreira & Ferreira 2009)    in honor of Smithsonian ichthyologist Stanley H. Weitzman (1927-2017), for his “outstanding” contribution to the knowledge of neotropical freshwater fishes

Landonia Eigenmann & Henn 1914    ia, belonging to: Indianapolis businessman and philanthropist Hugh McKennan Landon (1867-1947), who helped finance expedition that collected type

Landonia latidens Eigenmann & Henn 1914    latus, wide; dens, teeth, presumably referring to two “very broad straight edged” teeth on maxillary

Lepidocharax Ferreira, Menezes & Quagio-Grassiotto 2011    lepido, scales, referring to scales covering ventral caudal-fin lobe; Charax, typical genus of the Characiformes, from a Greek word meaning “palisade of pointed sticks,” referring to densely packed sharp teeth, now a common root-name formation in the order

Lepidocharax burnsi Ferreira, Menezes & Quagio-Grassiotto 2011    in honor of John R. Burns, George Washington University, for his “outstanding” contribution to the knowledge of histology of small inseminating characids

Lepidocharax diamantina Ferreira, Menezes & Quagio-Grassiotto 2011    named after the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia State, northeastern Brazil, region where it is found

Lophiobrycon Castro, Ribeiro, Benine & Melo 2003    lophia, crest, referring to uniquely elongate and crest-shaped adipose fin of mature males; brycon, generalized term used in generic names of many characiform fishes, derived from bryco, to bite, gnash teeth or eat greedily, originally an allusion to fully toothed maxillae

Lophiobrycon weitzmani Castro, Ribeiro, Benine & Melo 2003    in honor of Stanley H. Weitzman (1927-2017), Smithsonian Institution, for his “seminal” work on the systematics of neotropical characiformes, particularly the subfamily Glandulocaudinae (now subsumed into Stevardiinae)

Markiana Eigenmann 1903    –iana, belonging to: Eigenmann’s friend and teacher, Edward Lawrens Mark (1847-1946), head of Harvard University’s zoology department, where Eigenmann studied

Markiana geayi (Pellegrin 1909)    in honor of pharmacist and natural history collector Martin François Geay (1859-1910), who collected type

Markiana nigripinnis (Perugia 1891)    nigra, black; pinnis, fin, referring to blackish fins

Microgenys Eigenmann 1913    micro-, small; genys, cheek, probably referring to small mouth and “very blunt” snout of M. minuta

Microgenys lativirgata Pearson 1927    latus, broad; virgatus, rod-like, referring to broad median lateral band

Microgenys minuta Eigenmann 1913    very small, presumably referring to small cheek and/or small body (45 mm)

Microgenys weyrauchi Fowler 1945    in honor of malacologist Wolfgang Weyrauch (1907-1970), who sent a collection of Peruvian fishes to the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, including type of this one

Mimagoniates Regan 1907    etymology not explained, presumably mimos, imitator or mimic, described as intermediate between Cheirodon (Cheirodontinae) and Leptagoniates (Aphyocharacinae), so perhaps referring to resemblance to latter genus

Mimagoniates barberi Regan 1907    in honor of Paraguayan botanist and philanthropist Andrés Barbero (1877-1951), who collected type

Mimagoniates inequalis (Eigenmann 1911)    uneven, unequal or dissimilar, allusion not explained nor evident, perhaps referring to its being “very similar” to Glandulocauda melanogenys (=caerulea)

Mimagoniates lateralis (Nichols 1913)    of the side, presumably referring to “broad dusky lengthwise band on the lower part of the side”

Mimagoniates microlepis (Steindachner 1877)    micro-, small; lepis, scale, presumably referring to small scales, 44 along lateral line and 13-14 rows along the sides

Mimagoniates pulcher Menezes & Weitzman 2009    beautiful, referring to blue color of living specimens

Mimagoniates rheocharis Menezes & Weitzman 1990    rheos, current or stream; charis, loveliness, grace or charming, referring to stream habitat and the “beauty of the fish itself”

Mimagoniates sylvicola Menezes & Weitzman 1990    silva, forest; cola, to inhabit, referring to forested nature of streams where it occurs

Monotocheirodon Eigenmann & Pearson 1924    etymology not explained, presumably mono-, one and to-, towards or near, perhaps referring to the authors’ belief that it is closely related to Cheirodon

Monotocheirodon drilos Menezes, Weitzman & Quagio-Grassiotto 2013    Greek for penis, referring to “prominent male inseminating organ”

Monotocheirodon kontos Menezes, Weitzman & Quagio-Grassiotto 2013    Greek for long pole, referring to “prominent male inseminating organ”

Monotocheirodon pearsoni Eigenmann 1924    patronym not identified but clearly in honor of Nathan Everett Pearson, Eigenmann’s student, author of paper in which description appeared, and who probably collected type

Othonocheirodus Myers 1927    othono-, napkin or veil; cheiros, hand; odon, tooth, i.e., “the veiled hand-shaped teeth,” referring to upper-jaw lip that covers five-pointed mandibular teeth and part or all of similarly shaped premaxillary teeth

Othonocheirodus eigenmanni Myers 1927    in honor of ichthyologist Carl H. Eigenmann (1863-1927), “who has contributed more than anyone else to our knowledge of the fresh-water fishes of South America”

Phallobrycon Menezes, Ferreira & Netto-Ferreira 2009    phallus, penis, referring to urogenital papilla of male, apparently responsible for introduction of sperm into ovary of female; brycon, generalized term used in generic names of many characiform fishes, derived from bryco, to bite, gnash teeth or eat greedily, originally an allusion to fully toothed maxillae

Phallobrycon adenacanthus Menezes, Ferreira & Netto-Ferreira 2009    adenos, gland; akanthos, spine, referring to restriction of glandular tissue to area where anal-fin spines are located

Phallobrycon synarmacanthus Netto-Ferreira, Bastos, Sousa & Menezes 2016    syn, together; harma, joint; acanthus, spine, referring to 3-5 hypertrophied spines of fifth anal-fin branched ray, which are connected via a bony crest in sexually mature males

Phenacobrycon Eigenmann 1922    phenaco-, false; brycon, generalized term used in generic names of many characiform fishes, derived from bryco, to bite, gnash teeth or eat greedily, originally an allusion to fully toothed maxillae but here presumably referring to similarity to Bryconamericus

Phenacobrycon henni (Eigenmann 1914)    in honor of Eigenmann’s student (and successor) Arthur Wilbur Henn (1890-1959), who collected type

Piabarchus Myers 1928    a Piabina with an archus, anus, referring to long, anteriorly inserted anal fin of P. analis

Piabarchus analis (Eigenmann 1914)    anal, referring to long anal fin

Piabarchus stramineus (Eigenmann 1908)    straw-like, referring to coloration in alcohol

Piabarchus torrenticola Mahnert & Géry 1988    torrentis, swift stream; cola, inhabitant, referring to waterfall habitat at type locality, Salto Pirareta, Cordillera Province, Paraguay (also occurs in Brazil)

Piabina Reinhardt 1867    diminutive of Piaba, local name for species of Tetragonopterus (i.e., small characins) in the vicinity of Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, type locality of P. argentea

Piabina anhembi da Silva & Kaefer 2003    local name for a bird once sought for medicinal and protective purposes, which also served as the name of rio Tietê (São Paulo, Brazil, type locality) until 1748

Piabina argentea Reinhardt 1867    silvery, referring to silvery lateral band

Piabina thomasi (Fowler 1940)    in honor of W. Stephen Thomas, who collected South American fishes for the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia

Planaltina Böhlke 1954    referring to Planaltina, Goiás, Brazil, type locality of P. myersi

Planaltina britskii Menezes, Weitzman & Burns 2003     in honor of Heraldo A. Britski (Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo), for many contributions to the ichthyology of Brazil; also, he collected the first two known specimens of this species and recognized that they were undescribed

Planaltina glandipedis Menezes, Weitzman & Burns 2003    glandula, diminutive for gland, i.e., a small gland; pedis, foot, referring to pelvic-fin gland of males

Planaltina myersi Böhlke 1954    in honor of Stanford University ichthyologist George S. Myers (1905-1985), for the “ichthyological understanding [Böhlke has] gained working under him,” and for his interest in the group to which this species belongs

Pseudocorynopoma Perugia 1891    pseudo-, false, i.e., although similar to Corynopoma searlesi (=riisei), such an appearance is false

Pseudocorynopoma doriae Perugia 1891    in honor of herpetologist Giacomo Doria (1840-1913), director of the Natural History Museum of Genoa, who always offered scholars the “most gracious hospitality” [translation]

Pseudocorynopoma heterandria Eigenmann 1914    heteros, different; andros, male, probably referring to gland at base of tail in males (later discovered to release pheromones during courtship); may also refer to diagnostic difference in male anal-fin structure between the two congeners

Pterobrycon Eigenmann 1913    pteron, wing, referring to prolonged scale on shoulder; brycon, generalized term used in generic names of many characiform fishes, derived from bryco, to bite, gnash teeth or eat greedily, originally an allusion to fully toothed maxillae, i.e., a winged Brycon

Pterobrycon landoni Eigenmann 1913    in honor of Indianapolis businessman and philanthropist Hugh McKennan Landon (1867-1947), who “in large measure” made possible the Chocó, Colombia, expedition that collected type

Pterobrycon myrnae Bussing 1974    in honor of Bussing’s wife Myrna, who made “innumerable sacrifices to facilitate” his studies of Central American fishes

Ptychocharax Weitzman, Fink, Machado-Allison & Royero L. 1994    ptychos, fold, referring to ventral fold of pouch scale that separates anterior and posterior openings of caudal pouch; Charax, typical genus of the Characiformes, from a Greek word meaning “palisade of pointed sticks,” referring to densely packed sharp teeth, now a common root-name formation in the order

Ptychocharax rhyacophila Weitzman, Fink, Machado-Allison & Royero L. 1994    rhyaco, torrent; phila, to love, referring to presence in fast-water portions of type locality

Rhinobrycon Myers 1944    rhinos, nose, referring to projecting snout and inferior mouth; brycon, generalized term used in generic names of many characiform fishes, derived from bryco, to bite, gnash teeth or eat greedily, originally an allusion to fully toothed maxillae

Rhinobrycon negrensis Myers 1944    ensis, suffix denoting place: Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brazil, type locality (and endemic to the Rio Negro basin)

Rhinopetitia Géry 1964    Rhino-, referring to its phylogenetic affinity with Rhinobrycon; –ia, belonging to: zoologist-anatomist Georges Petit (1892-1973), Directeur du Laboratoire Arago

Rhinopetitia myersi Géry 1964    in honor of Stanford University ichthyologist George S. Myers (1905-1985), who described the closely related Rhinobrycon in 1944 and loaned paratypes of R. negrensis to Géry for comparison

Rhinopetitia potamorhachia Netto-Ferreira, Birindelli, Sousa & Menezes 2014    potamo, river; rhachia, beach, referring to  fact that most specimens were collected on sandy beaches along the Rio Teles Pires (Pará, Brazil)

Scopaeocharax Weitzman & Fink 1985    skopaios, dwarf or little (S. H. Weitzman, pers. comm.), referring to small size of both species (up to 32.1 mm SL in S. rhinodus); Charax, typical genus of the Characiformes, from a Greek word meaning “palisade of pointed sticks,” referring to densely packed sharp teeth, now a common root-name formation in the order

Scopaeocharax atopodus (Böhlke 1958)    atopos, odd or strange; podus, foot, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to “greatly enlarged” pelvic fins of males

Scopaeocharax rhinodus (Böhlke 1958)    rhinos, snout, referring to “distinctly overhanging” snout; odus, etymology not explained, perhaps odus, tooth (possibly referring to “strictly conical” teeth with “recurved, sharp tips”) or an abridgement of podus, foot (possibly referring to “greatly enlarged” pelvic fins of males)

Trochilocharax Zarske 2010    trochilus, a small bird (e.g., hummingbird), presumably referring to small size (up to 17.0 mm SL); Charax, typical genus of the Characiformes, from a Greek word meaning “palisade of pointed sticks,” referring to densely packed sharp teeth, now a common root-name formation in the order

Trochilocharax ornatus Zarske 2010    decorated, referring to its attractive coloration in life

Tyttocharax Fowler 1913    tytthos, tiny, referring to small size (18 mm) of T. madeirae; Charax, typical genus of the Characiformes, from a Greek word meaning “palisade of pointed sticks,” referring to densely packed sharp teeth, now a common root-name formation in the order

Tyttocharax cochui (Ladiges 1949)    in honor of American tropical-fish importer Ferdinand (Fred) Cochu, who brought the first specimens (packed as forage for predatory leaffish) to Europe in 1949

Tyttocharax madeirae Fowler 1913    of the Rio Madeira basin, Brazil, type locality

Tyttocharax metae Román-Valencia, García-Alzate, Ruiz-C. & Taphorn B. 2012    of Meta State, La Macarena Mountains, Orinoco basin, eastern Colombia, type locality

Tyttocharax tambopatensis Weitzman & Ortega 1995    ensis, suffix denoting place: Río Tambopata basin, Peru, where it is abundant in black-water tributaries

Xenurobrycon Myers & Miranda Ribeiro 1945    xenos, strange and oura, tail, referring to caudal-fin glands of males that release pheromones during courtship; brycon, generalized term used in generic names of many characiform fishes, derived from bryco, to bite, gnash teeth or eat greedily, originally an allusion to fully toothed maxillae

Xenurobrycon coracoralinae Moreira 2005    in honor of Brazilian poet Cora Coralina, pen name of Ana Lins do Guimarães Peixoto (1889-1985); she was born and lived part of her life by the rio Vermelho, where this species occurs, and often wrote about the river and other nature topics

Xenurobrycon heterodon Weitzman & Fink 1985    heteros, other or different; odon, tooth, referring to mixture of tricuspid, bicuspid and conical teeth

Xenurobrycon macropus Myers & Miranda Ribeiro 1945    macro-, long; pous, foot, referring to elongate pelvic fins of males

Xenurobrycon polyancistrus Weitzman 1987    poly, many; ancistrus, hook, referring to numerous hooks on pelvic fin of males

Xenurobrycon pteropus Weitzman & Fink 1985    pteron, feather or wing; pous, foot, i.e., “wing-foot,” referring to large wing-shaped pelvic fins

Xenurobrycon varii Mendonça, Peixoto, Dutra & Netto-Ferreira 2016    in honor of Richard. P Vari (1949-2016), Smithsonian Institution, “an esteemed person and ichthyologist, for his contributions to the systematics of fishes and his continuous support and aid to the authors”


Subfamily Incertae sedis
13 genera • 14 species

Brittanichthys Géry 1965    in honor of ichthyologist Martin R. Brittan (d. 2008), Sacramento State College, California, who discovered both species; ichthys, fish

Brittanichthys axelrodi Géry 1965    in honor of pet-book publisher Herbert R. Axelrod (1927-2017), whose T.F.H. Fund sponsored expedition that collected type

Brittanichthys myersi Géry 1965    in honor of Stanford University ichthyologist George S. Myers (1905-1985), “a long-time student of South American fishes”

Bryconella Géry 1965    etymology not explained, probably –ella, a diminutive, hence, a small Brycon, and/or a combination name referring to presumed affinities to Bryconamericus and Pristella-like genera

Bryconella pallidifrons (Fowler 1946)    pallidus, pale; frons, front, referring to front half of back and body much paler and well contrasted with rest of fish

Dectobrycon Zarske & Géry 2006    dekitos, biting, referring to its aggressive behavior in captivity; brycon, generalized term used in generic names of many characiform fishes, derived from bryco, to bite, gnash teeth or eat greedily, originally an allusion to fully toothed maxillae

Dectobrycon armeniacus Zarske & Géry 2006    apricot-colored, referring to its yellow-orange color in life

Erythrocharax Netto-Ferreira, Birindelli, de Sousa, Mariguela & Oliveira 2013    erythrus, red, referring to bright-red coloration of adipose and caudal fin of living E. altipinnis; Charax, typical genus of the Characiformes, from a Greek word meaning “palisade of pointed sticks,” referring to densely packed sharp teeth, now a common root-name formation in the order

Erythrocharax altipinnis Netto-Ferreira, Birindelli, de Sousa, Mariguela & Oliveira 2013    altus, high (or in this case, elongate); pinnis, fin, referring to elongate dorsal-fin rays in males

Genycharax Eigenmann 1912    genys, cheek, probably referring to its peculiar tarpon-like mouth; Charax, typical genus of the Characiformes, from a Greek word meaning “palisade of pointed sticks,” referring to densely packed sharp teeth, now a common root-name formation in the order

Genycharax tarpon Eigenmann 1912    referring to its large, oblique mouth, described as tarpon-like

Mixobrycon Eigenmann 1915    mixtus, mixing, referring to its teeth, which resemble those of Hyphessobrycon; brycon, generalized term used in generic names of many characiform fishes, derived from bryco, to bite, gnash teeth or eat greedily, originally an allusion to fully toothed maxillae

Mixobrycon ribeiroi (Eigenmann 1907)    in honor of Brazilian ichthyologist-herpetologist Alípio de Miranda Ribeiro (1874-1939), founder of the Museu Nacional’s fish collection

Oligobrycon Eigenmann 1915    oligos, few, but here according to Eigenmann meaning small, probably referring to small mouth of O. microstomus and/or its size (39 mm); brycon, generalized term used in generic names of many characiform fishes, derived from bryco, to bite, gnash teeth or eat greedily, originally an allusion to fully toothed maxillae

Oligobrycon microstomus Eigenmann 1915    micro-, small; stomus, mouth, referring to its “minute” mouth

Schultzites Géry 1964    ites, adjectival suffix: in honor of Leonard P. Schultz (1901-1986), Curator of Fishes, U. S. National Museum, for his “tremendous ichthyological works”

Schultzites axelrodi Géry 1964    in honor of pet-book publisher Herbert R. Axelrod (1927-2017), whose Tropical Fish Hobbyist magazine published this description and several others by Géry

Scissor Günther 1864    a comparative of scissus, split, referring to its wide cleft mouth

Scissor macrocephalus Günther 1864    macro-, long or large; cephalus, head, “thrice and one third” in the length of the body and “two-thirds as high as long”

Serrabrycon Vari 1986     serra, saw, referring to saw-like appearance of outwardly pointing teeth on upper and lower jaws; brycon, generalized term used in generic names of many characiform fishes, derived from bryco, to bite, gnash teeth or eat greedily, originally an allusion to fully toothed maxillae

Serrabrycon magoi Vari 1986    in honor of Francisco Mago-Leccia (1931-2004), Instituto de Zoología, Universidar Central de Venezuela, for significant contributions to our knowledge of the Venezuelan fish fauna

Stygichthys Brittan & Böhlke 1965    Stygos, the underworld of Greek mythology, referring to its subterranean habitat; ichthys, fish

Stygichthys typhlops Brittan & Böhlke 1965    typhlos, blind; ops, eye, referring to lack of any external evidence either of eyes or of circumorbital bones (save for one short isolated segment)

Thrissobrycon Böhlke 1953    thrissos, herring or anchovy, referring to its clupeoid-like maxillaries; brycon, generalized term used in generic names of many characiform fishes, derived from bryco, to bite, gnash teeth or eat greedily, originally an allusion to fully toothed maxillae

Thrissobrycon pectinifer Böhlke 1953    comb-like, referring to its very long, thin and numerous gill rakers

Tucanoichthys Géry & Römer 1997    Tucano, in honor of the Tucano Indians of the upper Rio Negro and Rio Uaupés area of Amazonas, Brazil (where it occurs), “an interesting people” with less than 5000 members of the tribes surviving and “in great danger, owing to the avidity of so-called ‘civilized’ men”; ichthys, fish

Tucanoichthys tucano Géry & Römer 1997    same as for genus