Order CHARACIFORMES: Family CHARACIDAE: Subfamilies CHEIRODONTINAE, GYMNOCHARACINAE and PRISTELLINAE

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v. 25.0 – 25 Dec. 2016  view/download PDF

Subfamily CHEIRODONTINAE
18 genera · 69 species   

Acinocheirodon Malabarba & Weitzman 1999    akaina, thorn or spike, referring to spines on caudal-fin rays; cheirodon, referring to its placement in Cheirodontinae

Acinocheirodon melanogramma Malabarba & Weitzman 1999    melas, black; gramme, line, referring to distinctive black bar on large anterior unbranched dorsal-fin ray

Amazonspinther Bührnheim, Carvalho, Malabarba & Weitzman 2008    Amazon, referring to Amazon basin, where it occurs; spinther, sparks or fire, referring to closely related Spintherobolus and appearance of yellow neuromasts on head, also observed on Spintherobolus

Amazonspinther dalmata Bührnheim, Carvalho, Malabarba & Weitzman 2008    Portuguese word referring to spotted color pattern of the Dalmatian dog breed, which this fish resembles; origin of word is linked to the Dalmatia region of Croatia, where the breed is said to have been developed

Aphyocheirodon Eigenmann 1915     aphya, a small fish, i.e., a small Cheirodon, probably referring to small size of A. hemigrammus (39-48 mm in type series)

Aphyocheirodon hemigrammus Eigenmann 1915    hemi-, partial; grammus, line, referring to “median dusky line associated with a narrow silvery line on posterior half of body”

Cheirodon Girard 1855    cheiros, hand; odon, tooth, referring to teeth of C. pisciculus, dilated at apex with at least five subconical points, the middle one being the longest, resembling five fingers on a hand

Cheirodon australe Eigenmann 1928    southern, “the most southern of the Characidae” (a distinction that actually belongs to Gymnocharacinus bergi, Gymnocharacinae)

Cheirodon galusdae Eigenmann 1928    in honor of Piedro Galusda, “who has successfully introduced several species of trout into the rivers of Chile”

Cheirodon ibicuhiensis Eigenmann 1915    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Rio Ibicuí, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, type locality (also occurs in Argentina and Uruguay)

Cheirodon interruptus (Jenyns 1842)    referring to “interrupted” lateral line, “coming to an end before it has reached the length of the pectoral, and not carried over more than eight or nine scales in the length”

Cheirodon jaguaribensis Fowler 1941    ensis, suffix denoting place: Rio Jaguaribe, Russas, Ceará State, Brazil, type locality [Incertae sedis in Characidae; likely belongs in a different genus]

Cheirodon kiliani Campos 1982    in honor of Campos’ teacher Ernst Kilian, founding director of Instituto de Zoología, Universidad Austral, Chile

Cheirodon luelingi Géry 1964    in honor of ichthyologist Karl Heinz Lüling (1913-1984), Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig (Bonn), who collected type

Cheirodon macropterus Fowler 1941    macro-, long; pterus, fin, referring to very long dorsal fin, which, when depressed, reaches well into adipose fin [Incertae sedis in Characidae; likely belongs in a different genus]

Cheirodon ortegai Vari & Géry 1980    in honor of Peruvian ichthyologist Hernán Ortega, for collecting many “valuable” specimens for the senior author

Cheirodon parahybae Eigenmann 1915    of Rio Parahyba, Campos, Brazil, type locality

Cheirodon pisciculus Girard 1855    diminutive of piscis, fish, i.e., a little fish, allusion not explained, presumably referring to its size (size not mentioned by Girard and no types known; recorded elsewhere as up to 5.4 cm SL)

Cheirodon stenodon Eigenmann 1915    stenos, narrow; odon, tooth, referring to narrow premaxillary teeth

Cheirodontops Schultz 1944    ops, appearance, presumably referring to similarity to other cheirodontine fishes, from which it differs in having a complete lateral line

Cheirodontops geayi Schultz 1944    in honor of pharmacist and natural history collector Martin François Geay (1859-1910), who reported on the fishes of the Orinoco Basin in his work “Pêches dans les Affluentes de l’Orinoque” (1896-97)

Compsura Eigenmann 1915    compso-, well-dressed (i.e., pretty); oura, tail, referring to conspicuous triangular spot on caudal fin

Compsura gorgonae (Evermann & Goldsborough 1909)    of Gorgona, Panama Canal Zone, type locality

Compsura heterura Eigenmann 1915    heteros, different; oura, tail, presumably referring to scaled caudal-fin base on males, unscaled on females

Ctenocheirodon Malabarba & Jerep 2012    cteno, comb, referring to “ventral procurrent caudal-fin arrangement of males,” i.e., a ctenoid Cheirodon

Ctenocheirodon pristis Malabarba & Jerep 2012    saw, referring to “projected ventral procurrent caudal-fin rays along the ventral margin of the caudal peduncle”

Heterocheirodon Malabarba 1998    heteros, different, referring to absence of sexual dimorphism on ventral procurrent caudal-fin rays as found in other cheirodontine genera, i.e., a different Cheirodon

Heterocheirodon jacuiensis Malabarba & Bertaco 1999    ensis, suffix denoting place: Rio Jacui, Cachoeira do Sul, Brazil, type locality (also occurs in Uruguay)

Heterocheirodon yatai (Casciotta, Miquelarena & Protogino 1992)    derived from Guaraní word for palm tree, referring to Butia yatay, a palm tree dominant at type locality (Entre Ríos, Argentina)

Kolpotocheirodon Malabarba & Weitzman 2000    kolpotos, folded, referring to caudal organ formed by hypertrophied dermal folds along caudal-fin rays; cheirodon, referring to placement in subfamily Cheirodontinae

Kolpotocheirodon figueiredoi Malabarba, Lima & Weitzman 2004    in honor of ichthyologist José Lima de Figueiredo, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo

Kolpotocheirodon theloura Malabarba & Weitzman 2000    thele, nipple; oura, tail, referring to papillae on ventral lobe of caudal fin

Macropsobrycon Eigenmann 1915    macro-, long and ops, face, i.e., with a long face, referring to large maxillary, nearly as long as eye; brycon, generalized term used in generic names of many characiform fishes, derived from bryco, to bite, gnash teeth or eat greedily, originally an allusion to fully toothed maxillae

Macropsobrycon uruguayanae Eigenmann 1915    of Uruguayana, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, type locality (also occurs in Argentina and Uruguay)

Macropsobrycon xinguensis Géry 1973    ensis, suffix denoting place: Xingú River basin, Brazil, where it is endemic [Incertae sedis in Characidae, likely belongs in a different genus]

Nanocheirodon Malabarba 1998    nanos, dwarf, referring to small size (mature at 15 mm SL) of adult N. insignis, i.e., a dwarf Cheirodon

Nanocheirodon insignis (Steindachner 1880)    conspicuous, allusion not explained, probably referring to conspicuous caudal spot

Odontostilbe Cope 1870    odontos, tooth; stilbe, lamp or mirror (i.e., shining), allusion not explained, but since Cope in the same paper used the name stilbe for Tetragonopterus (now Astyanax) stilbe, which has a “very distinct” silver lateral band, it is reasonable to assume that the second part of this name also applies to coloration (“Olive silvery, with a silver band … Cheeks silvery”); Eigenmann (1915) suggests the name refers to the “brilliant” teeth of O. fugitiva, but we fail to see how that adjective applies to teeth described as “broadly spatulate and crenate”

Odontostilbe dialeptura (Fink & Weitzman 1974)    dialeptos, distinguishable; oura, tail, referring to recurved bony hooks on lower caudal-fin lobe and peduncle scalation of males

Odontostilbe dierythrura Fowler 1940    di-, two; erythros, red; oura, tail, referring to “brilliant vermilion” color at base of each caudal lobe

Odontostilbe ecuadorensis Bührnheim & Malabarba 2006    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Ecuador, type locality (occurs along Ecuador-Peru border)

Odontostilbe euspilurus (Fowler 1945)    eu-, well; spilos, blot (i.e., ink blot); urus, tail, referring to large black basal spot on caudal fin

Odontostilbe fugitiva Cope 1870     fleeing or flying, allusion not explained nor evident

Odontostilbe littoris (Géry 1960)     littoral (i.e., close to shore), presumably referring to distribution in coastal French Guiana

Odontostilbe microcephala Eigenmann 1907    micro-, small; cephalus, head, referring to “very small, slightly convex” head

Odontostilbe mitoptera (Fink & Weitzman 1974)    mitos, thread; ptera, fin, referring to threadlike extensions on dorsal and pelvic fins

Odontostilbe nareuda Bührnheim & Malabarba 2006    referring to río Nareuda, Pando, Bolivia, type locality (also occurs in Brazil)

Odontostilbe pao Bührnheim & Malabarba 2007    named for the Pao River, Apure-Orinoco River basin, Venezuela, type locality

Odontostilbe paraguayensis Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903    ensis, suffix denoting place: Paraguay, referring to type locality in Asunción (also occurs in Argentina and Brazil)

Odontostilbe parecis Bührnheim & Malabarba 2006    referring to the Chapada dos Parecis, a plateau situated east of the Guaporé tributaries, Brazil, type locality

Odontostilbe pequira (Steindachner 1882)    etymology not explained, possibly a local Brazilian name, apparently based on Salmo pequira, a museum or manuscript name coined by Johann Natterer (1787-1843), who collected type in 1824

Odontostilbe pulchra (Gill 1858)    beautiful, presumably referring to coloration: greenish yellow body with a silvery lateral band, white dorsal and anal fins tinted with red, bright golden patches on operculum, and red or yellow blotches above and beneath black caudal spot

Odontostilbe roloffi Géry 1972    in honor of German aquarist Erhard Roloff (1903-1980), who collected type and others described in Géry’s monograph

Odontostilbe splendida Bührnheim & Malabarba 2007    splendid, grand or admirable, allusion not explained, perhaps attractively colored like its sympatric congener, O. pulchra

Prodontocharax Eigenmann & Pearson 1924    pro-, in front of, odontos, tooth, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to teeth on maxillary, by which it differs from the “closely related” Parecbasis (Aphyoditeinae); Charax, typical genus of the Characiformes, from Greek word meaning “palisade of pointed sticks,” referring to densely packed sharp teeth, now a common root-name formation in the order

Prodontocharax alleni Böhlke 1953    in honor of zoologist William Ray Allen, University of Kentucky, for his contributions to the knowledge of South American fishes (he also collected type)

Prodontocharax howesi (Fowler 1940)    in honor of “Mr. Arthur Howes” (although “Gordon Howes” is credited with collecting type and other fishes during a 1937 expedition to Bolivia)

Prodontocharax melanotus Pearson 1924    melanos, black; notos, back, probably referring to large black irregular spot on first five rays of dorsal fin

Protocheirodon Vari, Melo & Oliveira 2016    proto, first or earliest form of, referring to phylogenetic position of P. pi as sister to all other members of the Cheirodontinae

Protocheirodon pi (Vari 1978)    referring to shape of swimbladder, which is formed like the Greek letter π

Pseudocheirodon Meek & Hildebrand 1916    pseudo-, false, referring to its close relationship with Cheirodon

Pseudocheirodon arnoldi (Boulenger 1909)    in honor of German aquarist Johann Paul Arnold (1869-1952), who sent type to Boulenger from specimens “which have been or are still living in Mr. Arnold’s aquarium at Hamburg”

Pseudocheirodon terrabae Bussing 1967    of the Rio Grande de Térraba basin, Costa Rica, where it is endemic

Saccoderma Schultz 1944    sakkos, bag; derma, skin or hide, referring to dermal sac on caudal fin

Saccoderma hastata (Eigenmann 1913)    armed with a spear, presumably referring to retrorse hooks on caudal- and anal-fin rays

Saccoderma melanostigma Schultz 1944    melanos, black; stigma, spot or mark, referring to black caudal spot

Saccoderma robusta Dahl 1955    robust or full-bodied, allusion not explained nor evident, perhaps referring to deeper body compared to S. falcata (a species inquirenda) described in same paper

Serrapinnus Malabarba 1998    serra, saw; pinnus, fin, referring to peculiar shape of anal-fin rays of adult males

Serrapinnus aster Malabarba & Jerep 2014    star, referring to star-shaped ventral profile of the set of hypertrophied procurrent caudal-fin rays present in mature males

Serrapinnus calliurus (Boulenger 1900)    calli-, beautiful; urus, tail, presumably referring to large black spot at base of tail and/or white patches on caudal-fin lobes

Serrapinnus gracilis (Géry 1960)    slender, more elongated and compressed that other Cheirodon (original genus) species

Serrapinnus heterodon (Eigenmann 1915)    heteros, different; odon, tooth, allusion not explained, possibly referring to variable number of maxillary teeth (1-4) based on geographic location

Serrapinnus kriegi (Schindler 1937)    in honor of German zoologist Hans Krieg (1888-1970), who helped collect type

Serrapinnus lucindai Malabarba & Jerep 2014    in honor of Brazilian ichthyologist Paulo Henrique Franco Lucinda, Universidade Federal do Tocantins (Porto Nacional, Brazil), for his contribution to the taxonomy of neotropical freshwater fishes, mainly those of the rio Tocantins basin

Serrapinnus microdon (Eigenmann 1915)    micro-, small; odon, tooth, presumably referring to narrow premaxillary teeth

Serrapinnus micropterus (Eigenmann 1907)    micro-, small; pterus, fin, presumably referring to short pectoral fin, just reaching ventral fin

Serrapinnus notomelas (Eigenmann 1915)    notos, back; melas, black, presumably referring to black base of dorsal fin and/or its black anterior rays

Serrapinnus piaba (Lütken 1875)    a local Brazilian name applied to various characiform fishes, presumably including this one as well; today piaba is often applied to small ornamental characins popular in the aquarium trade

Serrapinnus potiguar Jerep & Malabarba 2014    a term traditionally used in Brazil to refer to someone born in the Rio Grande do Norte State, where it is endemic

Serrapinnus sterbai Zarske 2012    in honor of Zarske’s teacher, Günther Sterba (b. 1922), zoologist and aquarist, University of Leipzig, on the occasion of his 90th birthday

Serrapinnus tocantinensis Malabarba & Jerep 2014    –ensis, suffix denoting place: rio Tocantins-Araguaia basin, Brazil, where it is endemic

Serrapinnus zanatae Jerep, Camelier & Malabarba 2016    in honor of Brazilian ichthyologist Angela Maria Zanata (Federal University of Bahia), for her great contribution to our knowledge of neotropical freshwater fishes, and for collecting this new species

Spintherobolus Eigenmann 1911    spinther, fire or sparks (“emitting sparks,” according to Eigenmann); obolus, a small coin, referring to “yellow tactile organs” (Eigenmann wrote in 1915), or neuromasts, on head

Spintherobolus ankoseion Weitzman & Malabarba 1999    ankos, a mountain valley or glen; eïon, a beach, referring to its occurrence between coastal mountains and the sea

Spintherobolus broccae Myers 1925    in honor of aquarium-fish collector Rolf Brocca, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, who collected type

Spintherobolus leptoura Weitzman & Malabarba 1999    leptos, small, thin or delicate; oura, tail, referring to relatively slender caudal peduncle

Spintherobolus papilliferus Eigenmann 1911    papillo, papilla; fero, to bear, referring to “excessively developed” tactile papillae


Subfamily GYMNOCHARACINAE
6 genera • 13 species

Coptobrycon Géry 1966    copto-, chopped, referring to loss of adipose fin and posterior mandibular teeth; brycon, common suffix for many characid fishes, i.e., a “mutilated Brycon” to quote Géry

Coptobrycon bilineatus (Ellis 1911)    bi-, two; lineatus, lined, referring to heavy black lateral stripe from caudal peduncle to head, and an almost straight black line from caudal fin along underside of caudal peduncle to a point just above origin of anal fin [note: same author as Durbin, who described many small tetras; Ellis is her married name]

Grundulus Valenciennes 1846    derived from a pre-Linnaean name dating to 1558 used for benthic gudgeons and loaches (gründel, German for bottom); Valenciennes believed this characin was a killifish (Cyprinodontiformes) and “borrowed” (translation) the name, which he stated was synonymous with Fundulus (fundus, Latin for bottom), a 15th-century name originally applied to gudgeons and later assigned to killifishes by Lacépède in 1803

Grundulus bogotensis (Humboldt 1821)     ensis, suffix denoting place: plains of Bogota, Colombia, type locality

Grundulus cochae Román-Valencia, Paepke & Pantoja 2003    of La Cocha Lake, southern Colombia, where it is endemic

Grundulus quitoensis Román-Valencia, Ruiz C. & Barriga 2005    ensis, suffix denoting place: Quito, Ecuador, which is near type locality and only known area of occurrence (El Voladero Lake, Carichi Province)

Gymnocharacinus Steindachner 1903    gymnos, bare or naked, referring to scaleless body; characinus, characin, i.e., a naked characin

Gymnocharacinus bergii Steindachner 1903     in memory of zoologist and longtime friend Carlos Berg (1843-1902), who provided type

Hollandichthys Eigenmann 1910    named for zoologist-paleontologist William J. Holland (1848-1932), Director of the Carnegie Museum (which published many of Eigenmann’s papers on characids); ichthys, fish

Hollandichthys multifasciatus (Eigenmann & Norris 1900)    multi-, many; fasciatus, banded, referring to 8-9 dark brown longitudinal bands between rows of scales

Hollandichthys taramandahy Bertaca & Malabarba 2013    referring to the rio Tramandaí (also spelled Taramandahy) system, Santa Catarina, Brazil, type locality (tramandaí is a Tupí Guaraní word that means winding river)

Nematobrycon Eigenmann 1911    nemato-, thread, referring to three prolonged, filiform lobes of caudal fin; brycon, generalized term used in generic names of many characiform fishes, derived from bryco, to bite, gnash teeth or eat greedily, originally an allusion to fully toothed maxillae

Nematobrycon lacortei Weitzman & Fink 1971    in honor of American aquarist Rosario La Corte, for his “long interest in characoids” (he also donated specimens to the author from his fish-breeding operation)

Nematobrycon palmeri Eigenmann 1911    in honor of M. G. Palmer, British Museum (Natural History), who collected type

Pseudochalceus Kner 1863    pseudo-, false, referring (according to a subsequent 1864 publication with Steindachner) to its similar dentition with Chalceus

Pseudochalceus bohlkei Orcés V. 1967    in honor of James E. Böhlke (1930-1982), Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, for distinguished contributions to the advancement of ichthyology

Pseudochalceus kyburzi Schultz 1966    in honor of the late William A. Kyburz (d. 1965), who helped collect type and supplied habitat information

Pseudochalceus lineatus Kner 1863    lined, referring to series of dark longitudinal stripes running along length of body

Pseudochalceus longianalis Géry 1972    longus, long; analis, pertaining to anal fin, referring to longer anal fin compared to P. lineatus and P. kyburzi


Subfamily PRISTELLINAE
14 genera · 328 species/subspecies   

Bario Myers 1940    replacement name for Entomolepis Eigenmann 1918, preoccupied by Entomolepis Bradley 1899 in Crustacea; “a coined name without significance”

Bario steindachneri (Eigenmann 1893)    in honor of Austrian ichthyologist Franz Steindachner (1834-1919), who described this species in 1891 but used a preoccupied name

Deuterodon Eigenmann 1907    deuteros, to repeat; odon, tooth, referring to similarity of teeth on lower jaw

Deuterodon iguape Eigenmann 1907    named for Iguapé, a municipality in São Paulo, Brazil, and/or Ribeira de Iguapé River basin, both of which refer to type locality

Deuterodon langei Travassos 1957    in honor of Rudolf Bruno Lange, curator of the zoological collection at Museu de História Capão da Imbuia (Paraná, Brazil), who collected type

Deuterodon longirostris (Steindachner 1907)    longus, long; rostris, snout, referring to blunt, conical snout, which overlaps front end of jaw, giving the appearance of having a slightly longer snout than Astyanax fasciatus, to which it was thought to be related

Deuterodon parahybae Eigenmann 1908    epithet not explained, possibly of Paraíba do Sul, a river in southeast Brazil, just south of Itapemirim River, Espírito Santo, type locality [Incertae sedis in Characidae; likely belongs in a different genus]

Deuterodon pedri Eigenmann 1908    in honor of Dom Pedro II (1825-1891), last ruler of the Empire of Brazil (and learned amateur scientist), who collected several specimens of this fish which were not included in type series because of their poor condition [Incertae sedis in Characidae; likely belongs in a different genus]

Deuterodon potaroensis Eigenmann 1909    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Potaro River basin, Guyana, where it appears to be endemic [Incertae sedis in Characidae; likely belongs in a different genus]

Deuterodon rosae (Steindachner 1908)    matronym not identified, possibly in honor of ichthyologist Rosa Smith Eigenmann (1858-1947), wife of ichthyologist Carl H. Eigenmann

Deuterodon singularis Lucena & Lucena 1992    unique or remarkable, being only member of genus with first dorsal-fin pterygiophore supporting four rays

Deuterodon stigmaturus (Gomes 1947)    stigma, spot; urus, tail, referring large and intense black spot at base of caudal fin

Deuterodon supparis Lucena & Lucena 1992    almost equal, referring to similarity with D. rosae

Ectrepopterus Fowler 1943    ectrepos, reversed; pterus, fin, referring to upper caudal lobe shorter than lower

Ectrepopterus uruguayensis (Fowler 1943)    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Uruguay, where it is endemic

Hasemania Ellis 1911    ia, belonging to: John D. Haseman (d. 1969), field collector in the Carnegie Museum of Natural History’s Department of Ichthyology from 1908-1911, “who collected all of the specimens of this genus thus far known” [note: same author as Durbin, who described many small tetras; Ellis is her married name]

Hasemania crenuchoides Zarske & Géry 1999    -oides, having the appearance of: referring to “thick, beefy” body shape (translation), similar to that of Crenuchus spilurus (Crenuchidae)

Hasemania hanseni (Fowler 1949)    in honor of aquarium-fish exporter and breeder Henrik Hansen, Gulf Fish Hatchery (Florida, USA), who “obtained” living specimens from Brazil and send them to Fowler for study

Hasemania kalunga Bertaco & Carvalho 2010    referring to Comunidade Quilombo Kalunga, descendents of African slaves that live in the upper rio Tocantins basin (Cavalcante, Teresina de Goiás, and Monte Alegre de Goiás municipalities), Goiás, Brazil, near type locality; Kalunga, in Bantu language, mean protected sacred place

Hasemania maxillaris Ellis 1911    of the jaw, presumably referring to maxillary with two small tricuspid teeth, compared to toothless maxillary of H. melanura and H. bilineata (=Coptobrycon bilineatus, Gymnocharacinae) [note: same author as Durbin, who described many small tetras; Ellis is her married name]

Hasemania melanura Ellis 1911    melano-, black; oura, tail, referring to distinct blackish caudal spot extending to the tips of middle caudal-fin rays [note: same author as Durbin, who described many small tetras; Ellis is her married name]

Hasemania nambiquara Bertaco & Malabarba 2007    named for the Nambiquara, indigenous people of the upper Rio Tapajós drainage, Mato Grosso, Brazil, near type locality

Hasemania nana (Lütken 1875)    dwarf, referring to its size (“Statura minutissima”)

Hasemania piatan Zanata & Serra 2010    named after Piatã, county in Bahia State, northeastern Brazil, where it occurs

Hasemania uberaba Serra & Langeani 2015    named for the rio Uberaba (Minas Gerais, Brazil), whose headwaters is the only known area of occurrence

Hemigrammus Gill 1858    hemi-, half; grammus, line, referring to “abruptly discontinued” lateral line, i.e., ending at middle of body

Hemigrammus aereus Géry 1959    bronze, referring to color of entire body

Hemigrammus aguaruna Lima, Correa & Ota 2016    named for the Awajun people, better known by the name Aguaruna, the second-largest native population in the Peruvian Amazon, who occupy a portion of the Río Morona basin (Departamento Loreto, Peru), where most of the known localities  occur

Hemigrammus analis Durbin 1909    allusion not explained, probably referring to “short” anal fin

Hemigrammus arua Lima, Wosiacki & Ramos 2009    named for lago São Francisco do Alto Aruã, Pará, Brazil, type locality

Hemigrammus ataktos Marinho, Dagosta & Birindelli 2014    disordered or irregular, referring to variable perforation of lateral-line scales (completely pored on some specimens, irregularly pored on others)

Hemigrammus barrigonae Eigenmann & Henn 1914    of Barrigona, Colombia, type locality (also occurs in Venezuela)

Hemigrammus bellottii (Steindachner 1882)    in honor of biologist-paleontologist Cristoforo Bellotti (1823-1919), who collected type and/or supplied specimens from his collection at Museo Civico di Storia Naturale (Milan, Italy)

Hemigrammus bleheri Géry & Mahnert 1986    in honor of explorer and ornamental fish wholesaler and supplier Heiko Bleher, who collected topotype specimens

Hemigrammus boesemani Géry 1959    in honor of ichthyologist Marinus Boeseman (1916-2006), who noted the uniqueness of this taxon in 1948 but identified it as H. micropterus

Hemigrammus brevis Ellis 1911    short, allusion not explained, possibly referring to short snout, little more than half length of eye, and/or short anal sheath, composed of five scales covering bases of first nine anal-fin rays [note: same author as Durbin, who described many small tetras; Ellis is her married name]

Hemigrammus coeruleus Durbin 1908    blue, referring to “highly iridescent-blue stripe along one row of scales between base of pectoral and middle of anal fin”

Hemigrammus cupreus Durbin 1918    copper, referring to “rich copper” iridescence on caudal-peduncle scales

Hemigrammus cylindricus Durbin 1909    cylindrical, allusion not explained; in 1918 Durbin described body shape as “Subcylindrical, or only slightly compressed”

Hemigrammus diagonicus Mendonça & Wosiacki 2011    diagonal, referring to dark blotch on dorsal lobe of caudal fin, unique among congeners

Hemigrammus durbinae Ota, Lima & Pavanelli 2015    in honor of Marion Durbin Ellis (née Durbin, 1887-1972), Carl Eigenmann’s student and later a limnologist and environmental toxicologist, University of Missouri in Columbia, “who devoted herself diligently into the most comprehensive study on Hemigrammus so far”   

Hemigrammus elegans (Steindachner 1882)    elegant, fine or select, presumably referring to its coloration, including “milk-white” and “intensely violet” stripes along anal-fin edge, a “silver white metallic and shiny” (iridescent) longitudinal stripe along body, and “purple-fringed front edge” of dorsal fin (translations)

Hemigrammus erythrozonus Durbin 1909    erythros, red; zonus, band, referring to “cherry-colored streak” along sides

Hemigrammus filamentosus Zarske 2011    with filaments, referring to thread-like extensions of dorsal, anal and pelvic fins of males

Hemigrammus geisleri Zarske & Géry 2007    in honor of German biologist and aquarist Rolf Geisler (1925-2012), who collected type

Hemigrammus gracilis (Lütken 1875)    slender, referring to its slender shape

Hemigrammus guyanensis Géry 1959    ensis, suffix denoting place: French Guiana, where it is endemic

Hemigrammus haraldi Géry 1961    in honor of ethnographer and fish collector Harald Schultz (1909-1966), who collected type

Hemigrammus hyanuary Durbin 1918    referring to Lake Hyanuary, Brazil, type locality (also occurs in Peru)

Hemigrammus iota Durbin 1909    ninth letter of Greek alphabet, referring to black I-shaped bar on caudal peduncle

Hemigrammus levis Durbin 1908    smooth or bald, probably referring to toothless maxillary

Hemigrammus luelingi Géry 1964    in honor of ecologist and ichthyologist Karl Heinz Lüling (1913-1984), Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig (Bonn), who collected type

Hemigrammus lunatus Durbin 1918    lunate, presumably referring to semicircular humeral spot

Hemigrammus machadoi Ota, Lima & Pavanelli 2014    in honor of ichthyologist Francisco de Arruda Machado, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (Brazil), for his “tireless dedication” in surveying the fishes of Mato Grosso, and his “struggle” for their conservation

Hemigrammus mahnerti Uj & Géry 1989    in honor of Volker Mahnert, Museum d’Histoire Naturelle, Département d’Herpétologie et Ichthyologie (Geneva), who helped collect type

Hemigrammus marginatus Ellis 1911    bordered, referring to black margin on caudal fin [note: same author as Durbin, who described many small tetras; Ellis is her married name]

Hemigrammus matei Eigenmann 1918    patronym not identified but probably in honor of fish culturist Paul Matte (1854-1922, note spelling), who operated a commercial import and breeding operation for aquarium fishes in Germany; the label on the type specimens identify him as the source of the material

Hemigrammus megaceps Fowler 1945    mega-, large; ceps, head, 2¾ to 3 times within body length, larger than heads of Peruvian congeners H. schmardae and H. (=Bryconacidnus) paipayensis

Hemigrammus melanochrous Fowler 1913    swarthy, referring to its “general color,” a “dull brownish” in alcohol

Hemigrammus micropterus Meek 1907    micro-, small; pterus, fin, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to shorter pectoral fins compared to H. tridens described on same page

Hemigrammus microstomus Durbin 1918    micro-, small; stomus, mouth, referring to “very small” mouth

Hemigrammus mimus Böhlke 1955    imitator or mimic, referring to strong resemblance to Microschemobrycon callops and M. casiquiare (Aphyoditeinae), with which this species had been confused

Hemigrammus neptunus Zarske & Géry 2002    named for Neptune, Roman god of the sea, who is usually depicted with a trident, referring to trident-like spot on caudal fin

Hemigrammus newboldi (Fernández-Yépez 1949)    in memory of Philip Newbold, a friend who died while working on experiments on Lake Maracaibo in 1948

Hemigrammus ocellifer (Steindachner 1882)    ocellus, eye-spot; fero, to bear, presumably referring to eye-like spot at base of caudal fin

Hemigrammus ora Zarske, Le Bail & Géry 2006    Latin for coast, referring to distribution along coastal region of French Guiana

Hemigrammus orthus Durbin 1909    etymology not explained, presumably orthos, Greek for straight, perhaps referring to dark lateral stripe

Hemigrammus parana Marinho, Carvalho, Langeani & Tatsumi 2008    referring to rio Paraná, São Paulo State, Brazil, type locality

Hemigrammus pretoensis Géry 1965    ensis, suffix denoting place: Igarapé Préto (Black Creek), along Upper Amazon, near Belem, about 60 kilometers below Leticia, Brazil, type locality

Hemigrammus pulcher Ladiges 1938    beautiful, i.e., “magnificently colored” (translation) in life

Hemigrammus rhodostomus Ahl 1924    rhodo-, red; stomus, mouth, referring to red nose and mouth area

Hemigrammus rodwayi Durbin 1909    patronym not identified but probably in honor of James Rodway (1848-1926), naturalist and travel writer, who was part of Eigenmann’s collecting trips in South America

Hemigrammus rubrostriatus Zarske 2015    rubrus, red; striatum, striped, referring to vermilion longitudinal band, which runs from operculum along body up to dorsal part of caudal peduncle and to rays of caudal fin

Hemigrammus schmardae (Steindachner 1882)    patronym not identified but probably in honor of Austrian naturalist and traveler Ludwig K. Schmarda (1819-1908)

Hemigrammus silimoni Britski & Lima 2008    in honor of Keve Z. de S. de Silimon, who collected the type series, for his “long and continuous” efforts in documenting fishes from Mato Grosso, Brazil

Hemigrammus skolioplatus Bertaco & Carvalho 2005    skolios, curved; platus, broad stripe or border, referring to curved lateral stripe along body

Hemigrammus stictus (Durbin 1909)    marked or spotted, probably referring to “distinct” humeral spot

Hemigrammus taphorni Benine & Lopes 2007    in honor of Donald C. Taphorn, Museu de Ciencias Naturales (Guanare, Venezuela), who collected type, and for his contributions to our knowledge of neotropical ichthyology

Hemigrammus tocantinsi Carvalho, Bertaco & Jerep 2010    of the rio Tocantins basin, Goiás, Brazil, where it is endemic

Hemigrammus tridens Eigenmann 1907    tri-, three; dens, teeth, probably referring to two narrow tricuspid teeth on outer row of premaxillary

Hemigrammus ulreyi (Boulenger 1895)    in honor of Albert B. Ulrey (1860-1932), a student of Carl H. Eigenmann, “the author of a very useful key [1895] to the determination of the species” of Tetragonopterus

Hemigrammus unilineatus unilineatus (Gill 1858)    uni-, one; lineatus, lined, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to straight black-and-white line down front edge of anal fins

Hemigrammus unilineatus cayennensis Géry 1959    ensis, suffix denoting place: Cayenne Island, French Guiana, type locality

Hemigrammus vorderwinkleri Géry 1963    in honor of William Vorderwinkler, publisher (actually, editor) of Tropical Fish Hobbyist magazine, in which description (and several others by Géry) appeared

Hemigrammus yinyang Lima & Sousa 2009    named for yin and yang, from the ancient Taoistic Chinese philosophical and religious concept describing the two primal opposing but complementary forces found in all non-static objects and processes, referring to its “complementary orange and black humeral blotches, which are reminiscent of the Taiji diagram, the pictorial representation of the state of the undifferentiated absolute”

Hyphessobrycon Durbin 1908    hyphesson, smaller, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to their size (type specimen 40 mm); brycon, generalized term used in generic names of many characiform fishes, derived from bryco, to bite, gnash teeth or eat greedily, originally an allusion to fully toothed maxillae

Hyphessobrycon acaciae García-Alzate, Román-Valencia & Prada-Pedreros 2010    of Acacías, a town or municipality in Meta Department, Colombia, type locality

Hyphessobrycon agulha Fowler 1913    native name for this species along the Madeira River in Brazil (also occurs in Colombia and Peru)

Hyphessobrycon albolineatus Fernández-Yépez 1950    albus, white; lineatus, lined, referring to white band around body on specimens preserved in formalin

Hyphessobrycon amandae Géry & Uj 1987    in honor of Amanda Bleher, mother of explorer and ornamental fish wholesaler-supplier Heiko Bleher, who collected type, for her interest in and knowledge of the freshwater fauna and flora of Brazil

Hyphessobrycon amapaensis Zarske & Géry 1998    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Amapa State, Brazil, where it is endemic

Hyphessobrycon amaronensis García-Alzate, Román-Valencia & Taphorn 2010    ensis, suffix denoting place: Caño Amaron, tributary of Río Putumayo, Puerto Leguizama municipio, Departmento Amazonia, Colombia, type locality

Hyphessobrycon anisitsi (Eigenmann 1907)    in honor of J. Daniel Anisits, National University of Paraguay, who collected type

Hyphessobrycon arianae Uj & Géry 1989    in honor of colleague Ariane Devore, for her encouragement during the course of the senior author’s research

Hyphessobrycon auca Almirón, Casciotta, Bechara & Ruíz Díaz 2004    Mapuche word meaning rebel, possibly alluding to its being only species in genus with some males bearing hooks on all fins (Mapuche are a group of indigenous people in Argentina, where this species occurs)

Hyphessobrycon axelrodi (Travassos 1959)    in honor of pet-book publisher Herbert R. Axelrod (b. 1929), who collected type

Hyphessobrycon balbus Myers 1927    stuttering, referring to usually incomplete lateral line

Hyphessobrycon bentosi Durbin 1908    in memory of Colonel Bentos (no other information available), a volunteer on the Thayer Expedition during which type was collected

Hyphessobrycon bifasciatus Ellis 1911    bi-, two; fasciatus, banded, referring to two vertical black bars just behind head [note: same author as Durbin, who described many small tetras; Ellis is her married name]

Hyphessobrycon borealis Zarske, Le Bail & Géry 2006    northern, referring to distribution in northern South America (specifically, in French Guiana)

Hyphessobrycon boulengeri (Eigenmann 1907)    in honor of ichthyologist-herpetologist George A. Boulenger (1858-1937), British Museum (Natural History)

Hyphessobrycon brumado Zanata & Camelier 2010    named after Rio Brumado, coastal drainage of eastern Brazil, type locality

Hyphessobrycon cachimbensis Travassos 1964    ensis, suffix denoting place: Rio Cachimbo, Rio Tapajós basin, Cachimbo, Brazil, where it is endemic

Hyphessobrycon catableptus (Durbin 1909)    cata-, very; bleptos, worth seeing, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to the “peculiarity” of its fleshy pectoral fin, surrounded by a fringe of filaments

Hyphessobrycon chocoensis García-Alzate, Román-Valencia & Taphorn 2013    ensis, suffix denoting place: Chocó, a department in Colombia, where this species and others in the H. flammeus species group are distributed

Hyphessobrycon clavatus Zarske 2015    club-shaped, referring to its body shape

Hyphessobrycon coelestinus Myers 1929    celestial or heavenly (i.e., sky-blue), presumably referring to bluish silvery coloration and/or dark-blue lateral streak

Hyphessobrycon columbianus Zarske & Géry 2002    anus, belonging to: Colombia, where it is endemic

Hyphessobrycon compressus (Meek 1904)    referring to its deep, much compressed body

Hyphessobrycon condotensis Regan 1913    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Río Condoto, Colombia, one of two locations for the type series

Hyphessobrycon copelandi Durbin 1908    in memory of Herbert Copeland, a volunteer on the Thayer Expedition during which type was collected (other accounts of the Thayer Expedition cite the name as Edward Copeland, presumably the same person)

Hyphessobrycon cyanotaenia Zarske & Géry 2006    cyano-, blue; taenia, band, referring to broad blue longitudinal band from tip of snout to end of middle caudal-fin rays

Hyphessobrycon delimai Teixeira, Netto-Ferreira, Birindelli & Sousa 2016    in honor of Flávio Cesar Thadeo de Lima (Universidade Estadual de Campinas), for numerous contributions to the knowledge of neotropical freshwater fishes, especially the Characidae, and also for many years of friendship and encouragement to the authors

Hyphessobrycon diancistrus Weitzman 1977    di-, two; ankistron, fish hook, referring to two very large bony hooks on anal fin of males

Hyphessobrycon diastatos Dagosta, Marinho & Camelier 2014    divided, referring to distribution in both the rio São Francisco and rio Tocantins basins of Brazil

Hyphessobrycon dorsalis Zarske 2014    dorsal, referring to black spot on dorsal fin

Hyphessobrycon duragenys Ellis 1911    durus, hard or tough; genys, lower cheek or jaw, allusion not explained nor evident [note: same author as Durbin, who described many small tetras; Ellis is her married name]

Hyphessobrycon ecuadorensis (Eigenmann 1915)    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Ecudaor, where it is endemic [described in Megalamphodus, narrowly misses being a junior homonym of H. ecuadoriensis by the absence of the letter “i”]

Hyphessobrycon ecuadoriensis Eigenmann & Henn 1914    ensis, suffix denoting place: Ecudaor, where it is endemic

Hyphessobrycon eilyos Lima & Moreira 2003    den or lurking place, referring to plant-choked backwater habitat (and where, according to locals, anacondas lurk)

Hyphessobrycon elachys Weitzman 1984    Greek for little or small, referring to small adult size (12.9-16.6 mm SL)

Hyphessobrycon eos Durbin 1909    Eos, Greek goddess of dawn, referring to rosy color

Hyphessobrycon epicharis Weitzman & Palmer 1997    Greek for pleasing, agreeable or charming, referring to its beautiful color and form

Hyphessobrycon eques (Steindachner 1882)    horseman or rider, allusion not explained, probably referring to oblique saddle-like marking on sides (Steindachner used this name for other fishes with saddle-like markings, including the characiforms Nannostomus eques and Abramites eques)

Hyphessobrycon erythrostigma (Fowler 1943)    erythro-, red; stigma, mark or spot, referring to “brilliant round vermilion” spot on side

Hyphessobrycon eschwartzae García-Alzate, Román-Valencia & Ortega 2013    in honor of artist Eugenia Schwartz, who financially supported the expedition that collected type

Hyphessobrycon fernandezi Fernández-Yépez 1972    in memory of the author’s brother, ornithologist Alberto Fernández-Yepez, who dedicated his life to natural science and “departed too soon” (translation)

Hyphessobrycon flammeus Myers 1924    flame-colored, referring to “flaming red” coloration in living specimens

Hyphessobrycon frankei Zarske & Géry 1997    in honor of aquarist H.-J. Franke (1925-1995), who, along with ichthyologist-aquarist Patrick de Rham, first collected this species in 1979

Hyphessobrycon georgettae Géry 1961    matronym not identified; Géry later corrected gender from georgetti to georgettae and revealed he named it in honor of his wife Georgette

Hyphessobrycon gracilior Géry 1964    comparative of gracilis, slender, allusion not evident, perhaps referring to shorter body depth compared to sympatric H. tenuis

Hyphessobrycon griemi Hoedeman 1957    in honor of ornamental fish dealer and collector Karl (sometimes spelled Carl) Griem, who died in 1954

Hyphessobrycon hamatus Bertaco & Malabarba 2005    hooked, referring to hooks on all fins (except for caudal) of males

Hyphessobrycon haraldschultzi Travassos 1960    in honor of ethnographer and fish collector Harald Schultz (1909-1966), who collected type

Hyphessobrycon hasemani Fowler 1913    in honor of John D. Haseman (d. 1969), field collector for the Carnegie Museum of Natural History, “who has explored much of South America and contributed a number of papers to Brazilian ichthyology”

Hyphessobrycon heliacus Moreira, Landim & Costa 2002    Greek for solar, referring to bright golden color in life

Hyphessobrycon herbertaxelrodi Géry 1961    in honor of pet-book publisher Herbert R. Axelrod (b. 1929), whose Tropical Fish Hobbyist magazine published this description and several others by Géry

Hyphessobrycon heteresthes (Ulrey 1894)    heteros, different; esthes, dress or clothing, allusion not explained, possibly referring to lack of humeral spot, which distinguishes it from the related H. eques

Hyphessobrycon heterorhabdus (Ulrey 1894)    heteros, different; rhabdos, rod, stick or staff (i.e., stripe), allusion not explained, possibly referring to conspicuous dark lateral band, which readily distinguishes it from Hemigrammus schmardae, thought to be its closest relative at the time

Hyphessobrycon hexastichos Bertaco & Carvalho 2005    hexas, six; stichos, line or row, referring to six conspicuous zigzag longitudinal stripes between longitudinal body rows of scales on large specimens

Hyphessobrycon hildae Fernández-Yépez 1950    in honor of Fernández-Yépez’ wife Hilda, for her constant help with his ichthyological research

Hyphessobrycon igneus Miquelarena, Menni, López & Casciotta 1980    fiery, presumably referring to red coloration on dorsal, anal and caudal fins

Hyphessobrycon iheringi Fowler 1941    in honor of the late Rodolpho von Ihering (1883-1939), zoologist and fish culturist, who sent a collection of east Brazilian fishes to the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, including type of this one

Hyphessobrycon inconstans (Eigenmann & Ogle 1907)    variable, referring to the five known specimens at the time, which “do not have the same generic characters”

Hyphessobrycon isiri Almirón, Casciotta & Koerber 2006    latinization of Guaraní word ysyri, stream, presumably referring to occurrence in shallow streams or brooks

Hyphessobrycon itaparicensis Lima & Costa 2001    –ensis, suffix denoting place: ilha de Itaparica (an island), Bahia, Brazil, type locality

Hyphessobrycon jackrobertsi Zarske 2014    in honor of tropical-fish farmer and dealer Jack Roberts, who was probably the first to import this fish into the aquarium hobby (where it has been known as H. “robertsi,” a name anonymously proposed in 1958 but never validly described)

Hyphessobrycon kayabi Teixeira, Lima & Zuanon 2014    in honor of the Kayabi, a Tupí-speaking Indian nation, who, “after suffering severe onslaughts from the western/ Brazilian society during the first half of the 20th Century, still survive as a small group in a recently established area at the lower Rio Teles Pires [where this species occurs], but mostly as a transplanted population at the Xingu Indigenous Park”         

Hyphessobrycon khardinae Zarske 2008    in honor of photographer Natasha Khardina who, along with explorer and ornamental fish wholesaler and supplier Heiko Bleher, collected type

Hyphessobrycon krenakore Teixeira, Netto-Ferreira, Birindelli & Sousa 2016    in honor of the Krenakore Indians, which suffered severe onslaughts by Brazilian society and was reduced to ⅓ of its original population after contact in 1973 when the Cuiabá-Santarém road began to be built across their territory; recently, after much struggle, the Krenakore was the first native nation in Brazil to be given indemnity by the government and regain the right to live in part of their original territory

Hyphessobrycon langeanii Lima & Moreira 2003    in honor of the authors’ colleague Francisco Langeani, who first collected this species

Hyphessobrycon latus Fowler 1941    broad, perhaps referring to “very short, broad” cleft of mouth

Hyphessobrycon loretoensis Ladiges 1938    ensis, suffix denoting place: Loreto, Peru, Upper Amazon River, type locality

Hyphessobrycon loweae Costa & Géry 1994    in honor of tropical-fish ecologist Rosemary Lowe-McConnell (1921-2014), who collected the first specimens in 1968

Hyphessobrycon lucenorum Ohara & Lima 2015    –orum, commemorative suffix, plural: in honor of Carlos A. S. de Lucena and Zilda M. S. de Lucena, curators and researchers at the Museu de Ciência e Tecnologia – Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (Porto Alegre, Brazil), for their contributions to the knowledge of the neotropical fishes, especially characins

Hyphessobrycon luetkenii (Boulenger 1887)    patronym not identified, probably in honor of Danish zoologist Christian Frederik Lütken (1827-1901)

Hyphessobrycon maculicauda Ahl 1936    macula, spot; cauda, tail, referring to large, vertically elliptical spot on caudal peduncle

Hyphessobrycon margitae Zarske 2016    in honor of Zarske’s wife, graduate teacher Margit Zarske, “who for many years has endured and supported my passion for ichthyology” (translation)

Hyphessobrycon mavro García-Alzate, Román-Valencia & Prada-Pedreros 2010    Greek for black, referring to Caño Negro (“Black Pipe”) drainage, Puerto Carreño, Colombia, type locality

Hyphessobrycon megalopterus (Eigenmann 1915)    megalo-, large or spacious; pterus, fin, probably referring to high dorsal fin

Hyphessobrycon melanostichos Carvalho & Bertaco 2006    melanos, black; stichos, row or line, referring to black longitudinal stripe on body

Hyphessobrycon melasemeion Fowler 1945    mela-, black; semeion, banner, presumably referring to gray-to-black “terminally greater area” of dorsal fin

Hyphessobrycon melazonatus Durbin 1908    mela-, black; zonatus, banded, allusion unclear (black band not mentioned in brief description); perhaps referring to dusky marking on dorsal and sometimes anal fins

Hyphessobrycon meridionalis Ringuelet, Miquelarena & Menni 1978    southern, probably referring to its being the most southern species in the genus

Hyphessobrycon metae Eigenmann & Henn 1914    of the Río Meta, Orinoco system, Colombia, type locality (also occurs in Venezuela)

Hyphessobrycon micropterus (Eigenmann 1915)    micro-, small; pterus, fin, probably referring to smaller dorsal fin compared to H. megalopterus (then both placed in Megalamphodus, now a synonym)

Hyphessobrycon milleri Durbin 1908    patronym not identified but clearly in honor of Newton Miller, Durbin’s colleague at Indiana University, who collected type

Hyphessobrycon minimus Durbin 1909    least, presumably referring to small size (described at 16-21 mm), smaller than H. minor described in same paper

Hyphessobrycon minor Durbin 1909    little, probably referring to small size (described at 19-25 mm)

Hyphessobrycon moniliger Moreira, Lima & Costa 2002    monile, necklace; –ger, to carry, referring to resemblance of modified anal-fin rays of males to a string of beads

Hyphessobrycon montagi Lima, Coutinho & Wosiacki 2014    in honor to colleague and friend Luciano F. A. Montag, who collected part of the type series, for his contributions to the knowledge of the fishes from the lower Amazon basin   

Hyphessobrycon mutabilis Costa & Géry 1994    changeable, referring to its ability to change colors

Hyphessobrycon natagaima García-Alzate, Taphorn, Roman-Valencia & Villa-Navarro 2015    named for the Amerindian people of Natagaima County, Tolima, Colombia, where this species occurs; according to legend, a chief named Nataga and a princess named Aima were married to originate the tribe

Hyphessobrycon negodagua Lima & Gerhard 2001   named after Nego D’água, a legendary man-like creature from central Brazil, said to dwell in the bottoms of rivers and attack inattentive fishermen at night

Hyphessobrycon nicolasi Miquelarena & López 2010     in honor of Nicolás Bonelli, “whose affection and company we have enjoyed for the last few years”

Hyphessobrycon niger García-Alzate, Román-Valencia & Prada-Pedreros 2010    black, referring to conspicuous black spot at base of caudal fin

Hyphessobrycon nigricinctus Zarske & Géry 2004    nigri-, black; cinctus, girdle, referring to black longitudinal band on sides

Hyphessobrycon notidanos Carvalho & Bertaco 2006    Greek for “with pointed dorsal fin,” referring to elongate dorsal-fin rays of males

Hyphessobrycon ocasoensis García-Alzate & Román-Valencia 2008    ensis, suffix denoting place: Montaña el Ocaso, a nature reserve in Quimbaya, Quindio, Colombia, type locality

Hyphessobrycon oritoensis García-Alzate, Román-Valencia & Taphorn 2008    ensis, suffix denoting place: Orito River, Putumayo drainage, Colombia, type locality

Hyphessobrycon otrynus Benine & Lopes 2008    spur, referring to two very large spur-like hooks (processes of last unbranched and first branched anal-fin rays)

Hyphessobrycon paepkei Zarske 2014    in honor of Hans-Joachim Paepke, former (1977-1999) curator of ichthyology, Berlin Museum of Natural History, with whom Zarske has shared a “long-standing professional and personal friendship” (translation)

Hyphessobrycon panamensis Durbin 1908    ensis, suffix denoting place: Panama, type locality (also occurs in Colombia, Costa Rica and Ecuador)

Hyphessobrycon pando Hein 2009    named for Departamento Pando, federal state in Bolivia, where type locality at Rio Manuripi is situated

Hyphessobrycon parvellus Ellis 1911    very small, presumably referring to small size (described at 12-20 mm) [note: same author as Durbin, who described many small tetras; Ellis is her married name]

Hyphessobrycon paucilepis García-Alzate, Román-Valencia & Taphorn 2008    paucus, few; lepis, scale, referring to lower lateral and predorsal scale counts compared to Venezuelan congeners

Hyphessobrycon peruvianus Ladiges 1938    anus, belonging to: Peru, where it is endemic to the Upper Amazon River basin

Hyphessobrycon piabinhas Fowler 1941    local name for this species in Brazil

Hyphessobrycon poecilioides Eigenmann 1913    oides, having the form of: presumably Poecilia or Poeciliidae (Cyprinodontiformes), referring to its “Cyprinodontoid” shape

Hyphessobrycon procerus Mahnert & Géry 1987    slender, probably referring to very slender (“très élancé”) maxillary compared to H. coelestinus

Hyphessobrycon procyon Pastana & Ohara 2016    Procyon, brightest star in the Canis Minor constellation, which represents the state of Amazonas in the Brazilian national flag, referring to the state where it occurs

Hyphessobrycon proteus Eigenmann 1913    protean (i.e., capable of assuming many forms), perhaps referring to close similarity to Astyanax ruberrimus from the San Juan and Dagua rivers (Colombia), “from which the preserved specimens with a complete lateral line can only be distinguished with difficulty”

Hyphessobrycon psittacus Dagosta, Marinho, Camelier & Lima 2016    Latin for parrot, referring to type locality, the Rio Papagaio (Mato Grosso, Brazil), which means “Parrot River” in Portuguese

Hyphessobrycon pulchripinnis Ahl 1937    pulchra, lovely or beautiful; pinnis, fin, referring to attractive black-and-yellow dorsal and anal fins

Hyphessobrycon pyrrhonotus Burgess 1993    pyrrhos, flame-colored; notos, back, referring to bright-red coloration on back

Hyphessobrycon pytai Géry & Mahnert 1993    pyta’i, Guaraní for small stone, referring to characteristic shape of second point of humeral spot, located at the 7th longitudinal scale

Hyphessobrycon reticulatus Ellis 1911    net-like or netted, referring to scales “all clearly outlined with brownish,” which create a net-like or reticulated pattern [note: same author as Durbin, who described many small tetras; Ellis is her married name]

Hyphessobrycon robustulus (Cope 1870)    diminutive of robustus, stout or strong, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to five “stout but small teeth on the maxillary bone”

Hyphessobrycon rosaceus Durbin 1909    rosy, referring to rose-tinged scales above anal and ventral fins and base of caudal-fin lobes

Hyphessobrycon roseus (Géry 1960)    rosy, referring to “bright rose” body coloration

Hyphessobrycon rutiliflavidus Carvalho, Langeani, Miyazawa & Troy 2008    rutilus, reddish; flavidus, yellowish, referring to in vivo coloration of fins, respectively, in males and females

Hyphessobrycon saizi Géry 1964    in honor of Emilio Saiz (no other information available), who collected type

Hyphessobrycon santae (Eigenmann 1907)    of Lagoa Santa, Brazil, type locality

Hyphessobrycon savagei Bussing 1967    in honor of herpetologist Jay M. Savage, University of Southern California, who first aroused Bussing’s interest in the country of Costa Rica and encouraged and advised him in his ichthyological studies

Hyphessobrycon schauenseei Fowler 1926    in honor of ornithologist Rudolf M. de Schauensee (1901-1984), who collected type

Hyphessobrycon scholzei Ahl 1937    in honor of Arthur Scholze (1881-1956), co-owner of Scholze & Pötzschke, an aquarium supply and tropical fish importation firm in Berlin, who donated specimens to the Zoological Museum of Berlin, including type of this species [see also Astyanax poetzschkei, Characidae: Tetragonopterinae]

Hyphessobrycon scutulatus Lucena 2003     diamond- or lozenge-shaped, referring to marks formed by dark lines that border scales on dorsal portion of body

Hyphessobrycon sebastiani García-Alzate, Román-Valencia & Taphorn 2010    in honor of Sebastian, younger brother of senior author

Hyphessobrycon serigpanus Bragança, Ottoni & Rangel-Pereira 2016     –anus, belonging to: Sergipe State, northeastern Brazil, where it occurs [replacement name for H. ellisae of the same authors (2015), preoccupied by H. (now Bryconacidnus) ellisae (Pearson 1924) in Stevardiinae]

Hyphessobrycon simulatus (Géry 1960)    imitated or copied, described as a possible mimic of the sympatric Pristella riddlei (=maxillaris) and an unidentified Hyphessobrycon (cf. minor)

Hyphessobrycon socolofi Weitzman 1977    in honor of Ross Socolof (1925-2009), aquarium fish exporter, breeder and wholesaler, “who in a variety of ways has come to the aid of various ichthyologists and fisheries biologists,” including securing type of this species through his contacts in Brazil

Hyphessobrycon sovichthys Schultz 1944    in honor of Standard Oil Co. of Venezuela (SOV), which aided Schultz in his 1942 fish collecting trip; ichthys, fish

Hyphessobrycon stegemanni Géry 1961    in honor of German baker and aquarist Carlos Stegemann of São Paulo, Brazil, “close friend” of Harald Schultz (1909-1966), ethnographer and fish collector who collected type

Hyphessobrycon stramineus Durbin 1918    straw-like, presumably referring to its coloration (described as “badly faded”)

Hyphessobrycon sweglesi (Géry 1961)    in honor of tropical fish distributor Kyle Swegles (Rainbow Aquarium, Chicago, Illinois, USA), who collected type

Hyphessobrycon taguae García-Alzate, Román-Valencia & Taphorn 2010    of La Tagua Creek, Puerto Leguizamo, Putumayo, Colombia, type locality

Hyphessobrycon takasei Géry 1964    in honor of aquarist Roberto Takase, “one of the fish-collection pioneers in the Brazilian Amazon,” who collected type

Hyphessobrycon taphorni García-Alzate, Román-Valencia & Ortega 2013    in honor of colleague Donald C. Taphorn, for his “great contribution to the study and appreciation of the diversity of neotropical fishes” (translation)

Hyphessobrycon taurocephalus Ellis 1911    taurus, bull; cephalus, head, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to “snout very short” (italics in original) [same author as Durbin, who described many small tetras; Ellis is her married name]

Hyphessobrycon tenuis Géry 1964    thin, referring to its slender, elongate body and/or narrow caudal peduncle

Hyphessobrycon togoi Miquelarena & López 2006    in honor of friend Carlos Togo, “a great expert and pioneer of ichthyofaunal research in pampasic lagoons”

Hyphessobrycon tortuguerae Böhlke 1958    of Tortuguero River (Lagoon), Tortuguero, Costa Rica, type locality (also occurs in Honduras)

Hyphessobrycon tropis Géry 1963    keel, referring to “rather strongly keeled” body above the anal fin

Hyphessobrycon tukunai Géry 1965    of the Tukuna, Indian tribe that inhabits the Upper Solimões River basin, Brazil, where it is endemic

Hyphessobrycon tuyensis García-Alzate, Román-Valencia & Taphorn 2008    ensis, suffix denoting place: Tuy River drainage, northern Venezuela, type locality

Hyphessobrycon uaiso Carvalho & Langeani 2013    from the Portuguese uai sô, a common colloquial interjection used by most people living in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, to express surprise, confirmation, awe, amazement, particularly those from the Triângulo Mineiro region, where this species is found

Hyphessobrycon vanzolinii Lima & Flausino 2016    in honor of Paulo E. Vanzolini (1924-2013), “renowned” Brazilian herpetologist and former director of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, who conceived and coordinated the Expedição Permanente da Amazônia and directed the fish sampling during some of the expeditions, including travel to the rio Tapajós in 1970, resulting in collection of type series of this species

Hyphessobrycon vilmae Géry 1966    in honor of Vilma Schultz, wife of Harald Schultz (1909-1966), ethnographer and fish collector who collected type

Hyphessobrycon vinaceus Bertaco, Malabarba & Dergam 2007    reddish, referring to red or reddish body coloration in life

Hyphessobrycon wadai Marinho, Dagosta, Camelier & Oyakawa 2016    in honor of Luiz Wada, ornamental-fish breeder and “enthusiastic” aquarist, for his “help in many scientific researches with fishes” (for this species he provided live specimens to be photographed and information on sexual dimorphism)   

Hyphessobrycon wajat Almirón & Casciotta 1999    waját, Mataco-Mataguayo word for fish; the Matacos is one of the main ethnic groups in northeast Argentina where some specimens were collected

Hyphessobrycon weitzmanorum Lima & Moreira 2003    orum, commemorative suffix, plural: in honor of Stanley H. and Marilyn Weitzman, Smithsonian Institution, for their “life-long interest and extensive contributions” to the knowledge of neotropical freshwater fishes

Hyphessobrycon werneri Géry & Uj 1987    in honor of Arthur Werner, German aquarium fish exporter (Transfish), who helped collect type

Moenkhausia Eigenmann 1903    ia, belonging to: William J. Moenkhaus, Eigenmann’s colleague at Indiana University, formerly of the Museu Paulista in São Paulo, Brazil

Moenkhausia abyss Oliveira & Marinho 2016    from the Greek abyssos, deep water, referring to its probable habitat, the first case of a South American characiform with specializations (pale coloration, big eyes) for life in deeper water

Moenkhausia affinis Steindachner 1915    related, referring to similarity with M. jamesi

Moenkhausia agnesae Géry 1965    in honor of Agnes Frobenius (no other information available), at the request of Harald Schultz (who collected type)

Moenkhausia alesis Petrolli & Benine 2015    Greek for grinder, referring to robust teeth of the premaxilla and dentary, a diagnostic feature of the M. jamesi species complex (to which this species belongs)

Moenkhausia atahualpiana (Fowler 1907)    named for Atahualpa, “among the last of the unfortunate Incas of Peru, who was strangled by the Spaniards at Cajamarca, August 29, 1533

Moenkhausia aurantia Bertaco, Jerep & Carvalho 2011    orangish, referring to its “distinctive” coloration

Moenkhausia barbouri Eigenmann 1908    in honor of Harvard herpetologist (and wealthy patron of science) Thomas Barbour (1884-1946)

Moenkhausia bonita Benine, Castro & Sabino 2004    referring to Rio Baía Bonita, Rio Paraguay Basin, Bonito, Mato Grosso, Brazil, type locality

Moenkhausia britskii Azevedo-Santos & Benine 2016    in honor of Heraldo A. Britski (Universidade de São Paulo), who collected type, for his “enormous and valuable” contributions to neotropical ichthyology

Moenkhausia browni Eigenmann 1909    in memory of British geologist C. Barrington Brown, who discovered the “most beautiful” Kaieteur Falls of Guyana (near type locality) in 1870

Moenkhausia celibela Marinho & Langeani 2010    kelis, spot; belos, arrow, referring to roughly triangular spot on middle caudal-fin rays

Moenkhausia ceros Eigenmann 1908    keros, horn, presumably referring to “large retrorse hook” on each side of first fully developed anal-fin ray on males

Moenkhausia chlorophthalma Sousa, Netto-Ferreira & Birindelli 2010    chloros, green; ophthalmos, eye, referring to iridescent green eyes in live specimens

Moenkhausia chrysargyrea (Günther 1864)    chrysos, gold; argyrea, silvery, referring to silvery coloration with “golden reflexions”

Moenkhausia collettii (Steindachner 1882)    patronym not identified, probably in honor of Norwegian zoologist Robert Collett (1842-1913), who described many fish species

Moenkhausia comma Eigenmann 1908    referring to comma-shaped humeral spot

Moenkhausia conspicua Soares & Bührnheim 2016    Latin for visible, referring to two dark stripes, one extended along midbody and the other along anal-fin base

Moenkhausia copei (Steindachner 1882)    patronym not identified but clearly in honor of zoologist-paleontologist Edward Drinker Cope (1840-1897), who described several South American fish species

Moenkhausia cosmops Lima, Britski & Machado 2007    kosmos, Greek for ornament or decoration; ops, face, referring to red upper lip on living specimens

Moenkhausia costae (Steindachner 1907)    patronym not identified, probably in honor of Italian zoologist Oronzo Gabriele Costa (1787-1867)

Moenkhausia cotinho Eigenmann 1908    in honor of Major Cotinho (forename not available), “Brazilian attaché” of the Thayer Expedition that collected type

Moenkhausia crisnejas Pearson 1929    named for the Río Crisnejas, Peru, type locality

Moenkhausia dasalmas Bertaco, Jerep & Carvalho 2011    referring to rio das Almas basin, Goiás, Brazil, type locality

Moenkhausia diamantina Benine, Castro & Santos 2007    referring to Chapada Diamantina, the center of Bahia State, northeast Brazil, type region

Moenkhausia dichroura (Kner 1858)    di-, two; chroma, color; oura, tail, referring to distinctive black-and-white tail

Moenkhausia diktyota Lima & Toledo-Piza 2001    Greek for reticulated, referring to color pattern formed by dark pigmentation along posterior portion of scales

Moenkhausia dorsinuda Zarske & Géry 2002    dorsum, dorsal; nudum, bare, referring to scaleless anterior half of predorsal region

Moenkhausia eigenmanni Géry 1964    in honor of ichthyologist Carl H. Eigenmann (1863-1927), who described M. metae, with which this species had been identified

Moenkhausia eurystaenia Marinho 2010    eurys, broad; taenia, band, referring to broad, dark stripe, from opercle to end of caudal peduncle

Moenkhausia forestii Benine, Mariguela & Oliveira 2009    in honor of Fausto Foresti (Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho”) for his contributions to our knowledge of fish genetics

Moenkhausia gracilima Eigenmann 1908    very slender; described as a subspecies of M. lepidura, presumably referring to slender body depth compared to other subconspecifics

Moenkhausia grandisquamis (Müller & Troschel 1845)    grandis, large; squamis, scale, referring to “very large” (translation) body scales

Moenkhausia hasemani Eigenmann 1917    in honor of John D. Haseman (d. 1969), Eigenmann’s student and field collector for the Carnegie Museum of Natural History, who collected type

Moenkhausia heikoi Géry & Zarske 2004    in honor of explorer and ornamental fish wholesaler and supplier Heiko Bleher, who collected type

Moenkhausia hemigrammoides Géry 1965    oides, having the form of: “strongly resembling” Hemigrammus unilineatus

Moenkhausia hysterosticta Lucinda, Malabarba & Benine 2007    hysteros, after or posterior; stictus, spot, referring to humeral spot, which is located posteriorly on body side

Moenkhausia icae Eigenmann 1908    of Iça River basin, Brazil, type locality

Moenkhausia inrai Géry 1992    in honor of the work of I.N.R.A. (Institut national de la Recherche agronomique) of Guyana, whose ichthyofaunal research has recently and regretfully been abandoned

Moenkhausia intermedia Eigenmann 1908    intermediate, allusion not explained nor evident (proposed as a subspecies of M. dichroura but not described as an intermediate form between two or more taxa)

Moenkhausia ischyognatha Petrolli & Benine 2015    ischyo, strong; gnatha, jaw, referring to strong musculature associated to the dentary, and robust teeth of the premaxilla and dentary, a diagnostic feature of the M. jamesi species complex (to which this species belongs)

Moenkhausia jamesi Eigenmann 1908    in honor of philosopher-psychologist William James (1842-1910), a volunteer on the Thayer Expedition that collected type [brother of novelist Henry James]

Moenkhausia justae Eigenmann 1908    in honor of “Dr. Justa” (no other information available), a Brazilian who collected type

Moenkhausia lata Eigenmann 1908    broad; described as a subspecies of M. lepidura, probably referring to its deeper body

Moenkhausia latissima Eigenmann 1908    broadest or very broad, probably referring to its “very deep” body

Moenkhausia lepidura (Kner 1858)    lepidus, pleasant; oura, tail, referring to attractive caudal fin, dark-edged on upper lobe and orange near base

Moenkhausia levidorsa Benine 2002    laevis, smooth; dorsum, back, referring to absence of scales along predorsal median region

Moenkhausia lineomaculata Dagosta, Marinho & Benine 2015    lineo, line; maculata, spotted, referring to longitudinal series of aligned spots characteristic of this species

Moenkhausia lopesi Britski & de Silimon 2001    in honor of Balzac Santana Lopes, the authors’ collecting companion in the Pantanal (he also helped collect type)

Moenkhausia loweae Géry 1992    in honor of tropical-fish ecologist Rosemary Lowe-McConnell (1921-2014), who collected type

Moenkhausia margitae Zarske & Géry 2001    in honor of the senior author’s wife, Margit

Moenkhausia megalops (Eigenmann 1907)    mega-, large; ops, eye, probably referring to larger eye compared to the allied M. grandisquamis

Moenkhausia melogramma Eigenmann 1908    melano-, black; grammus, line, referring to black line along base of anal fin

Moenkhausia metae Eigenmann 1922    of the Upper Meta River basin, Colombia, where it is endemic

Moenkhausia miangi Steindachner 1915    of the Miang River, at the border of Venezuela and Bolivia, type locality

Moenkhausia mikia Marinho & Langeani 2010    mikiawu, common name employed by the Tuyuka indian people (who live at the upper rio Tiquié, type locality) for species of the M. lepidura complex

Moenkhausia moisae Géry, Planquette & Le Bail 1995    in honor of microbiologist Moïse Berniac-Bereau, a senior researcher with I.N.R.A. (Institut national de la Recherche agronomique, Guyana), since its inception in 1975

Moenkhausia monicae Marinho, Dagosta, Camelier & Lima 2016    in honor of friend and renowned ichthyologist Mônica Toledo-Piza Ragazzo (Universidade de São Paulo), for her contributions to the systematics of characiform fishes

Moenkhausia mutum Dagosta & Marinho 2016    Brazilian popular name of the curassow birds of the genus Crax, which are typically dark colored like the fins of this species; also refers to the Nova Mutum Municipality (Mato Grosso, Brazil), type locality

Moenkhausia naponis Böhlke 1958    –is, genitive singular of: reference not explained, probably referring to Napo Province, Ecuador (type locality) and/or to Napo River system, where it occurs

Moenkhausia newtoni Travassos 1964    in honor of entomologist Newton Dias dos Santos, for his contributions to the fish collection at the Museu Nacional (National Museum of Brazil)

Moenkhausia nigromarginata Costa 1994     nigrum, black; marginatus, margined, referring to black anterior margins of pelvic and anal fins

Moenkhausia oligolepis (Günther 1864)    oligos, few; lepis, scales, presumably referring to its having fewer lateral line scales than other species placed by Günther in the catch-all genus Tetragonopterus

Moenkhausia orteguasae Fowler 1943    of the Río Orteguasa, Colombia, type locality

Moenkhausia ovalis (Günther 1868)    oval, presumably referring to its shape, “height of body is one-half the total length (without caudal)”

Moenkhausia pankilopteryx Bertaco & Lucinda 2006    pan, all; ankilos, hooked; pteryx, fins, referring to hooks on all fins in males

Moenkhausia parecis Ohara & Marinho 2016 named for the Chapada dos Parecis (plateau     type locality), an important watershed that separates tributaries of three basins: rio Madeira, rio Tapajós and rio Paraguai, Brazil

Moenkhausia petymbuaba Lima & Birindelli 2006    Tupí word for the Portuguese cachimbo, or smoking pipe, referring to Serra do Cachimbo, Brazil, type locality

Moenkhausia phaeonota Fink 1979    phaios, dusky brown; –nota, having the attribute or quality of, referring to color pattern

Moenkhausia pirauba Zanata, Birindelli & Moreira 2010    pira and aúaba, Tupí words for fish and false, respectively, referring to its apparent mimicry with Jupiaba

Moenkhausia pittieri Eigenmann 1920    patronym not identified, probably in honor of Swiss-born geographer-botanist Henri François Pittier (1857-1950), who lived in Venezuela and collected some specimens for Eigenmann

Moenkhausia plumbea Sousa, Netto-Ferreira & Birindelli 2010    lead, referring to color of midlateral stripe below unpigmented stripe in live specimens

Moenkhausia pyrophthalma Costa 1994    pyros, fire; ophthalma, eye, referring to “remarkable” deep-red eyes in life

Moenkhausia robertsi Géry 1964    in honor of tropical-fish farmer and dealer Jack Roberts, who collected type

Moenkhausia rubra Pastana & Dagosta 2014    red, referring to reddish coloration of body, and dorsal, adipose and caudal fins in live specimens

Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae (Steindachner 1907)    of Santa Filomena on Rio Parnahyba, Brazil, type locality (also occurs in Argentina and Paraguay)

Moenkhausia schultzi Fernández-Yépez 1950    in honor of Leonard P. Schultz (1901-1986), Curator of Fishes at the U. S. National Museum, for his “interesting” (translation) publications on the fishes of Venezuela

Moenkhausia shideleri Eigenmann 1909    in honor of Mr. S. E. Shideler, volunteer assistant who collected type and “gave most effective help” during Eigenmann’s Guyana expedition

Moenkhausia simulata (Eigenmann 1924)    copied or imitated, referring to very close appearance to M. latissima

Moenkhausia sthenosthoma Petrolli & Benine 2015    sthenos, strong; sthoma, mouth (Greek spelling instead of Latin), referring to strong musculature associated to the dentary, and robust teeth of premaxilla and dentary, a characteristic feature of the M. jamesi species complex (to which this species belongs)

Moenkhausia surinamensis Géry 1965    ensis, suffix denoting place: Suriname, type locality (also occurs in Brazil and French Guiana)

Moenkhausia takasei Géry 1964    in honor of aquarist Roberto Takase, “one the the fish-collection pioneers in the Brazilian Amazon,” who collected type

Moenkhausia tergimacula Lucena & Lucena 1999    tergum, back; macula, mark, referring to saddle-like mark on dorsal portion of body immediately before dorsal-fin origin

Moenkhausia tridentata Holly 1929    tri-, three; dentata, toothed, referring to three pointed teeth on upper jaw

Moenkhausia uirapuru Ohara & Lima 2015    named for the cascata (waterfall) Uirapuru, rio Madeira basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil, type locality

Moenkhausia venerei Petrolli, Azevedo-Santos & Benine 2016    in honor of Paulo César Venere (Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Campus Universitário do Araguaia), who collected type, and for his contributions to our knowledge of the Rio Araguaia ichthyofauna of Brazil

Moenkhausia vittata (Castelnau 1855)    banded, referring to a “a very clear line on the sides, which resembles a band of silver” (translation)

Moenkhausia xinguensis (Steindachner 1882)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Xingú River basin, Brazil, where it is endemic

Myxiops Zanata & Akama 2004    myxa, slime; iops, small fish, referring to copious amount of mucous covering the body, which makes it very slippery when alive and even for some period after fixation in formalin and storage in alcohol

Myxiops aphos Zanata & Akama 2004    Greek for dark or obscure, referring to dark waters of the rio Lençóis, Bahia State, Brazil, type locality

Paracheirodon Géry 1960    para-, near, referring to resemblance of P. innesi to Cheirodon (now Paracheirodon) axelrodi, due to a “remarkable evolutive convergency or, more probably, by real phylogenetic affinity”

Paracheirodon axelrodi (Schultz 1956)    in honor of pet-book publisher Herbert R. Axelrod (b. 1927), who sent two specimens (provided by Sol Kessler, The Fish Bowl, Irvington, N.J., USA) to Schultz and the U.S. National Museum for study and “permanent preservation”

Paracheirodon innesi (Myers 1936)    in honor of American aquarist and publisher William T. Innes (1874-1969), who sent specimens of this “gorgeous little fish” to Myers “with a request for its identification”

Paracheirodon simulans (Géry 1963)     resembling, referring to how its color pattern “gives almost exactly the impression of the true Neon Tetra” (P. innesi)

Parapristella Géry 1964    para-, near, referring to similarity to Pristella

Parapristella aubynei (Eigenmann 1909)    in honor of Mr. Saint Aubyne, who hosted Eigenmann in Guyana and “did everything in his power to further the interests” of Eigenmann’s expedition

Parapristella georgiae Géry 1964    in honor of Géry’s wife, Georgie, or Georgette

Petitella Géry & Boutière 1964    –ella, diminutive connoting endearment: in honor of zoologist-anatomist Georges Petit (1892-1973), Directeur du Laboratoire Arago

Petitella georgiae Géry & Boutière 1964    in honor of Géry’s wife, Georgie, or Georgette

Pristella Eigenmann 1908    diminutive of pristis, saw, referring to minute conical teeth scattered along most of maxillary margin

Pristella maxillaris (Ulrey 1894)    –is, adjectival suffix: referring to minute conical teeth scattered along “entire” (actually most of) maxillary margin

Probolodus Eigenmann 1911    probolos, projecting or jutting; odus, tooth, referring to its “peculiar” outwardly projecting teeth

Probolodus heterostomus Eigenmann 1911    hetero-, different; stomus, mouth, referring to its “peculiar” outwardly projecting teeth

Probolodus oyakawai Santos & Castro 2014    in honor of Osvaldo T. Oyakawa, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, who collected much of the type series, for his major contributions to our knowledge of the fishes of the rio Ribeira de Iguape basin

Probolodus sazimai Santos & Castro 2014    in honor of Ivan Sazima, Museu de Zoologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (São Paulo, Brazil), for contributions to our knowledge of neotropical lepidophagous characiform fishes

Thayeria Eigenmann 1908    ia, belonging to: Boston banker Nathaniel Thayer (1851-1911), who sponsored a 15-month expedition to Brazil (1865-1866), and “through whose liberality most of the species described [in Eigenmann’s] paper were collected”

Thayeria boehlkei Weitzman 1957    in honor of James E. Böhlke (1930-1982), Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, for his special interest in and contributions to the study of South American characids

Thayeria ifati Géry 1959    in honor of the French Institute of Tropical America (I.F.A.T.), Cayenne, for their help in collecting the freshwater fishes of French Guiana

Thayeria obliqua Eigenmann 1908    oblique, referring to oblique downward turn of black line on sides continuing through caudal fin