Order CHARACIFORMES: Family CHARACIDAE: Subfamilies STETHAPRIONINAE, RHOADSIINAE, CHARACINAE, TETRAGONOPTERINAE, APHYOCHARACINAE and APHYODITEINAE

COMMENTS
v. 18.0 – 16 April 2017  view/download PDF

Subfamily STETHAPRIONINAE Silver Dollar Tetras
6 genera • 17 species

Brachychalcinus Boulenger 1892    brachy, short, perhaps referring to short, compressed body; Chalcinus (meaning brazen), a genus of characins (now a synonym of Triportheus), i.e., a short Chalcinus, allusion not explained nor evident

Brachychalcinus copei (Steindachner 1882)    in honor of zoologist-paleontologist Edward Drinker Cope (1840-1897), who described genus (Stethaprion) in which this species was originally placed

Brachychalcinus nummus Böhlke 1958    coin, allusion not explained, probably referring to circular (i.e., coin-like) shape of body

Brachychalcinus orbicularis (Valenciennes 1850)    circular or disc-shaped, referring to round body

Brachychalcinus parnaibae Reis 1989    of the Parnaíba River basin, Brazil, where it is endemic

Brachychalcinus retrospina Boulenger 1892    retro-, behind; spina, spine, perhaps referring to dorsal fin, which is behind a movable, anteriorly directed spine

Gymnocorymbus Eigenmann 1908    gymnos, bare or naked, presumably referring to “naked [i.e., scaleless] predorsal line”; corymbus, summit, presumably referring to humped dorsal profile

Gymnocorymbus bondi (Fowler 1911)    in honor of Frank E. Bond, who collected specimens in the Orinoco delta of Venezuela for the Academy of Natural Science of Philadelphia, including type of this species

Gymnocorymbus flaviolimai Benine, Melo, Castro & Oliveira 2015    in honor of Flávio César Thadeo de Lima (Universidade Estadual de Campinas), a “dear friend,” for his contribution to our knowledge of neotropical ichthyology

Gymnocorymbus ternetzi (Boulenger 1895)    in honor of ichthyologist and naturalist Carl Ternetz (1870-1928), who “formed” the collection that contained type

Gymnocorymbus thayeri Eigenmann 1908    in memory of S. V. R. Thayer, a volunteer on the Thayer Expedition that collected type

Orthospinus Reis 1989    orthos, straight; spina, spine, referring to simple and straight predorsal spine of O. franciscensis [replacement name for Buritia Brant 1974, preoccupied by Buritia Young 1952 in Insecta]

Orthospinus franciscensis (Eigenmann 1914)    ensis, suffix denoting place: São Francisco River basin, Brazil, where it is endemic

Poptella Eigenmann 1908    ella, diminutive connoting endearment: named for ichthyologist Canna Maria Louise Popta (1860-1929), Leyden Museum, who described P. longipinnis in 1901 and donated one of the types to Eigenmann’s collection at Indiana University

Poptella brevispina Reis 1989    brevis, brief or short; spina, spine, referring to small size (2.6-4.2% of SL) of predorsal spine

Poptella compressa (Günther 1864)    referring to “much compressed and elevated” body

Poptella longipinnis (Popta 1901)    longus, long; pinnis, fin, referring to extended dorsal- and pectoral-fin rays

Poptella paraguayensis (Eigenmann 1907)    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Paraguay (described from Paraguayan specimens of P. compressus; also occurs in Argentina and Brazil)

Stethaprion Cope 1870    stethos, breast or chest; prion, saw, referring to incipient serrations on ventral edge

Stethaprion crenatum Eigenmann 1916    crenate (i.e., having a round-toothed or scalloped edge), referring to “concentric free edges” on scales

Stethaprion erythrops Cope 1870    erythros, red; ops, eye, referring to dark red iris

Stichonodon Eigenmann 1903    stichos, in a row; odon, tooth, allusion not evident, presumably referring to placement of “two series of graduated notched teeth” on premaxillary

Stichonodon insignis (Steindachner 1876)    marked or conspicuous, presumably referring to large round humeral spot


Subfamily RHOADSIINAE
5 genera • 29 species                                   

Carlana Strand 1928    –ana, belonging to: ichthyologist Carl H. Eigenmann (1863-1927), who suggested that type species warranted a new genus [replacement name for Carlia Meek 1914, preoccupied by Carlia Gray 1845 in Reptilia]                     

Carlana eigenmanni (Meek 1912)    in honor of ichthyologist Carl H. Eigenmann (1863-1927), “who has done more than any one else to increase our knowledge of the Characins, the most interesting family of fishes in the fresh waters of the Americas” [notice how full name mirrors Eigenmann’s own]                                

Nematocharax Weitzman, Menezes & Britski 1986    nemato-, thread, referring to long, thread-like extensions of dorsal, anal and pelvic fins; Charax, typical genus of the Characiformes, from Greek word meaning “palisade of pointed sticks,” referring to densely packed sharp teeth, now a common root-name formation in the order                                       

Nematocharax venustus Weitzman, Menezes & Britski 1986   beautiful, elegent or graceful, referring to “graceful flowing” shape of dorsal, anal and pelvic fins                        

Parastremma Eigenmann 1912    para-, to the side; stremma, twist, referring to its “twisted lower jaw,” Eigenmann wrote in 1929, presumably referring to recurved posterior teeth on sides of lower jaw                     

Parastremma album Dahl 1960    albus, white, referring to whitish sheen when taken out of the water; also called blanca by native fishermen                                    

Parastremma pulchrum Dahl 1960    beautiful or lovely, referring to its “elegant form”                          

Parastremma sadina Eigenmann 1912    local name for this species in western Colombia                       

Rhoadsia Fowler 1911    ia, belonging to: Philadelphia bookstore owner and naturalist Samuel N. Rhoads (1862-1952), who collected type, “in slight recognition of his ability as a naturalist and explorer”                      

Rhoadsia altipinna Fowler 1911    altus, high; pinna, fin, referring to elevated dorsal fin of adult                           

Rhoadsia minor Eigenmann & Henn 1914    small, a “dwarf mountain form” (elevation 4000 feet) of R. altipinna

Oligosarcus Günther 1864    oligos, scanty or few; arcus, bowed, allusion not explained nor evident, perhaps referring to “compressed, oblong” shape of O. argenteus

Oligosarcus acutirostris Menezes 1987    acutus, pointed or sharp; rostris, snout, referring to its “sharply acute muzzle” (translation)

Oligosarcus amome Almirón, Casciotta, Piálek, Doubnerová & Říčan 2015    Guaraní word that means rare or once in a while, referring to its low occurrence in the localities where types were captured

Oligosarcus argenteus Günther 1864    silvery, referring to its “shining silvery” color in spirits, with a silvery band down middle of body

Oligosarcus bolivianus (Fowler 1940)    Bolivian, referring to country where type locality (Rio Lipeo) is situated (also occurs in Argentina)

Oligosarcus brevioris Menezes 1987    brevis, short; oris, mouth, referring to proportionally smaller mouth compared to congeners

Oligosarcus hepsetus (Cuvier 1829)    etymology not explained, probably from the ancient Greek hepsetos, a small fish boiled for human consumption (e.g., the anchovy Anchoa hepsetus); however, name is also used for toothy, pike-like piscivores (see the ecologically convergent Hepsetidae from Africa), perhaps alluding to a line from the Greek poet Archippus (late 5th-century BC): “An hepsetus fell in with an anchovy / And quick devoured him”

Oligosarcus itau Mirande, Aguilera & Azpelicueta 2011    referring to small tributary of Río Itau, Río Bermejo basin, Argentina, type locality (name probably derives from the guaraní words itá, stone and y [pronounced as the German ü], water

Oligosarcus jacuiensis Menezes & Ribeiro 2010    ensis, suffix denoting place: Rio Jacuí, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, type locality

Oligosarcus jenynsii (Günther 1864)    in honor of clergyman-naturalist Leonard Jenyns (1800-1893), who identified this species as Hydrocyon (=Oligosarcus) hepsetus in 1842

Oligosarcus longirostris Menezes & Géry 1983    longus, long; rostris, snout, referring to pointed and long snout, equal or larger than orbital diameter in specimens 100 mm SL or larger

Oligosarcus macrolepis (Steindachner 1877)    macro-, large; lepis, scale, referring to its “rather large” (translation) scales, 44 along the lateral line

Oligosarcus menezesi Miquelarena & Protogino 1996    in honor of Naércio A. Menezes, Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil), presumably for his taxonomic work on the genus

Oligosarcus oligolepis (Steindachner 1867)    oligos, small; lepis, scales, referring to its small scales, 75 along the lateral line

Oligosarcus paranensis Menezes & Géry 1983    ensis, suffix denoting place: upper Paraná River basin (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay), where it is endemic

Oligosarcus perdido Ribeiro, Cavallaro & Froehlich 2007    Portuguese for lost, referring to Rio Perdido, Mato Grosso, Brazil, type locality

Oligosarcus pintoi Amaral Campos 1945    in honor of Brazilian zoologist Olivério Mário de Oliveira Pinto (1896-1981)

Oligosarcus planaltinae Menezes & Géry 1983    of Córrego Planaltina, tributary of Rio São Bartolomeu, Rio Paraná system, Goiás, Brazil, type locality

Oligosarcus platensis (Messner 1962)    ensis, suffix denoting place: La Plata River basin, Uruguay, where it is endemic

Oligosarcus robustus Menezes 1969    stout, referring to “large and massive” body

Oligosarcus schindleri Menezes & Géry 1983    in honor of the late Otto Schindler, former curator, Ichthyology Department, Zoologische Staatssammlung (Munich), who helped collect type in 1953

Oligosarcus solitarius Menezes 1987    alone or isolated, referring to distribution in an isolated system of lakes, Vale do Rio Doce, Minas Gerais, Brazil

Oligosarcus varii Menezes & Ribeiro 2015    in honor of Richard P. Vari (1949-2016), Smithsonian Institution, for his “outstanding” contribution to the knowledge of South American freshwater fishes


Subfamily CHARACINAE
11 genera • 88 species

Acanthocharax Eigenmann 1912    resembling Charax, but with an acanthus, or thorn, referring to strong spine on angle of preopercle

Acanthocharax microlepis Eigenmann 1912    micro-, small; lepis, small, referring to small, imbricate scales, 47-53 along lateral line

Acestrocephalus Eigenmann 1910    akestra, ancient Greek for darning needle; cephalus, head, presumably referring to conspicuous needle-like teeth, i.e., “needle head”

Acestrocephalus acutus Menezes 2006    sharp, referring to “pointed nature” of snout

Acestrocephalus anomalus (Steindachner 1880)    odd or irregular, presumably referring to second row of teeth on front of lower jaw, which “differs strikingly” from other species then placed in Xiphorhamphus (=Acestrorhynchus)

Acestrocephalus boehlkei Menezes 1977    in honor of ichthyologist James E. Böhlke (1930-1982), Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, who made specimens under his care available for study

Acestrocephalus maculosus Menezes 2006    spotted, referring to dark spots and stripes on body

Acestrocephalus nigrifasciatus Menezes 2006    niger, black; fasciatus, banded or striped, referring to dark lateral stripe on body

Acestrocephalus pallidus Menezes 2006    pale, referring to overall body color

Acestrocephalus sardina (Fowler 1913)    latinization of sardinha, native name for this species along the Rio Madeira, Brazil

Acestrocephalus stigmatus Menezes 2006    marked or spotted, referring to dark spot on humeral region

Bryconexodon Géry 1980    brycon, generalized term used in generic names of many characiform fishes, derived from bryco, to bite, gnash teeth or eat greedily, originally an allusion to fully formed maxillae but here possibly alluding to its “general characid shape” (translation); exodon, referring to similarity to Exodon

Bryconexodon juruenae Géry 1980    of upper Rio Juruena, tributary of Rio Tapajoz, Mato Grosso, Brazil, type locality

Bryconexodon trombetasi Jégu, Santos & Ferreira 1991    of Rio Trombetas, Parà, Brazil, type locality

Charax Scopoli 1777    from a non-binominal introduced by Gronow (1763) for the typical genus of the Characiformes, from Greek word meaning “palisade of pointed sticks,” referring to densely packed sharp teeth

Charax apurensis Lucena 1987    ensis, suffix denoting place: Estado Apure, Venezuela, where Rio Canito, type locality, is situated

Charax caudimaculatus Lucena 1987    caudi-, tail; maculatus, spotted, referring to conspicuous lozenge-shaped spot at end of caudal peduncle

Charax condei (Géry & Knöppel 1976)    in honor of zoologist Bruno Condé (1920-2004), director of l’Aquarium de Nancy

Charax delimai Menezes & Lucena 2014    in honor of Flávio César Thadeo de Lima (Universidade Estadual de Campinas), for “great contributions to the knowledge of neotropical freshwater fishes” and for collecting the paratypes

Charax gibbosus (Linnaeus 1758)    humpbacked, referring to projecting nape

Charax hemigrammus (Eigenmann 1912)    hemi-, partial; gramme, line, referring to incomplete lateral line “developed on a few anterior pores only”

Charax leticiae Lucena 1987    in honor of Lucena’s daughter, Leticia

Charax macrolepis (Kner 1858)    macro-, large; lepis, scale, referring to larger scales compared to C. gibbosus

Charax metae Eigenmann 1922    of the Río Meta, Orinoco system, Colombia, type locality

Charax michaeli Lucena 1989    in honor of conservation ecologist Michael Goulding, who collected type

Charax niger Lucena 1989    black, referring to dark color pattern

Charax notulatus Lucena 1987    little-marked, referring to small spot at end of caudal peduncle

Charax pauciradiatus (Günther 1864)    paucus, few; radiatus, rayed, referring to fewer anal-fin rays compared to C. gibbosus

Charax rupununi Eigenmann 1912    referring to Rupununi River, Guyana, type locality (also occurs in Brazil)

Charax stenopterus (Cope 1894)    stenos, narrow; ptera, fin, allusion not explained nor evident in Cope’s brief description, possibly referring to long and narrow anal fin

Charax tectifer (Cope 1870)    tectus, roof or covering; –ifer, to bear, “named for the fact that the free anterior margin of the nasal bones is more prolonged than in other species [of Anacyrtus (=Charax)], and overhangs the nares and premaxillaries”

Cynopotamus Valenciennes 1850    cyno-, dog; potamus, river, i.e., river dog, referring to their conspicuous needle-sharp teeth

Cynopotamus amazonum (Günther 1868)    although epithet translates as “of the Amazons,” referring to warrior women for whom Amazon was named, it actually refers to the Amazon River basin (Brazil and Peru), where it occurs

Cynopotamus argenteus (Valenciennes 1836)    silvery, referring to shiny silver coloration

Cynopotamus atratoensis (Eigenmann 1907)      ensis, suffix denoting place: Río Atrato system, Colombia, type locality

Cynopotamus bipunctatus Pellegrin 1909    bi-, two; punctatus, spotted, referring to black humeral spot and a small black spot at base of median caudal-fin rays

Cynopotamus essequibensis Eigenmann 1912    ensis, suffix denoting place: Essequibo River drainage, Guyana, type locality (also occurs in Brazil, Suriname and French Guiana)

Cynopotamus gouldingi Menezes 1987    in honor of conservation ecologist Michael Goulding, who collected type specimens and has contributed to the ichthyology of Brazil

Cynopotamus juruenae Menezes 1987    of the Rio Juruena, Brazil, type locality

Cynopotamus kincaidi (Schultz 1950)    in honor of Schultz’ “good friend” Trevor Kincaid (1872-1970), zoologist and oyster farmer, University of Washington (Seattle, USA), in a Festschrift honoring Kincaid

Cynopotamus magdalenae (Steindachner 1879)    of the Rio Magdalena or its basin, presumed type locality (name dates to a figure with no description)

Cynopotamus tocantinensis Menezes 1987    ensis, suffix denoting place: Rio Tocantins, Brazil, one of the major river systems where type material was collected

Cynopotamus venezuelae (Schultz 1944)    of Venezuela, where it is endemic to the Lake Maracaibo basin

Cynopotamus xinguano Menezes 2007    named after the Xinguano, an Amerindian tribe living in Parque Indígena do Xingu, a national park in the rio Xingu basin, Brazil, type locality

Exodon Müller & Troschel 1844    ex-, outside; odon, tooth, referring to outward-projecting teeth

Exodon paradoxus Müller & Troschel 1844    strange, presumably referring to strange appearance of outward-projecting teeth

Galeocharax Fowler 1910    etymology not explained, possibly galeo-, shark, referring to shark-like appearance of needle-sharp teeth used to hold prey; Charax, typical genus of the Characiformes, from Greek word meaning “palisade of pointed sticks,” referring to densely packed sharp teeth, now a common root-name formation in the order

Galeocharax goeldii (Fowler 1913)    in honor of Swiss-Brazilian zoologist Émil (or Emílio) Goeldi (1859-1917), Director of the Museo Paraense and author of numerous works on the natural history of Brazil

Galeocharax gulo (Cope 1870)    Latin for glutton, probably referring to large mouth filled with needle-sharp teeth used to hold prey

Galeocharax humeralis (Valenciennes 1834)    pertaining to shoulder, referring to blackish humeral spot

Phenacogaster Eigenmann 1907    phenax, a cheat; gaster, belly, referring to reduced numer of preventral scales compared to other characins (per Eigenmann 1927, “The American Characidae”)

Phenacogaster apletostigma Lucena & Gama 2007     apletos, immense; stigma, mark or spot, referring to large and vertically elongate humeral blotch

Phenacogaster beni Eigenmann 1911    referring to Río Beni, Bolivia, type locality (also occurs in Brazil)

Phenacogaster calverti (Fowler 1941)    in honor of entomologist Philip P. Calvert (1871-1961), University of Pennsylvania, “well known for his contributions on the Odonata” (dragonflies)

Phenacogaster capitulata Lucena & Malabarba 2010    diminutive of capitulum, head, referring to smaller head length compared to all congeners except P. napoatilis and P. pectinatus complex

Phenacogaster carteri (Norman 1934)    in honor of Cambridge University zoologist G. S. Carter, who led expedition to Guyana that collected type

Phenacogaster franciscoensis Eigenmann 1911    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Francisco River basin, Brazil, where it is endemic

Phenacogaster jancupa Malabarba & Lucena 1995     anagram composed from names of localities and drainages of the type locality: Janganda, rio Cuibá and rio Paraguay (Mato Grosso, Brazil)

Phenacogaster maculoblonga Lucena & Malabarba 2010    maculus, blotch; oblongus, oblong, referring to straight, elongate and vertical humeral spot

Phenacogaster megalostictus Eigenmann 1909    megalo-, long; stictus, spot, referring to “large conspicuous, sub-circular” humeral spot

Phenacogaster microstictus Eigenmann 1909    micro-, small; stictus, spot, referring to “very faint and small” humeral spot

Phenacogaster napoatilis Lucena & Malabarba 2010    ilis, adjectival suffix: of the Napo River system, Ecuador, where it is endemic

Phenacogaster ojitatus Lucena & Malabarba 2010     diminutive of the Spanish ojito, eye, referring to smaller eye compared to congeners except P. megalostictus, P. simulatus and P. tegatus

Phenacogaster pectinata (Cope 1870)     raked or combed, allusion not explained nor evident, perhaps referring to minute teeth along entire anterior margin of maxillary bone

Phenacogaster prolata Lucena & Malabarba 2010    extended or elongated, referring to relatively large and extended maxillary

Phenacogaster retropinnus Lucena & Malabarba 2010    retro-, behind; pinna, fin, referring to posterior placement of anal-fin origin

Phenacogaster simulata Lucena & Malabarba 2010    similar, referring to similarity to P. megalostictus

Phenacogaster suborbitalis Ahl 1936    referring to second suborbital, “sculptured in a heavily wrinkled way” (translation)

Phenacogaster tegatus (Eigenmann 1911)     etymology not explained, possibly adjectival form of tegos, covering, referring to black blotch over urinary bladder and/or to conspicuous spot on caudal peduncle [since etymology is uncertain, there is no requirement to change spelling (e.g, tegata) to agree with feminine gender of Phenacogaster]

Phenacogaster wayampi Le Bail & Lucena 2010    in honor of the Wayampi, indigenous people who live in the upper Rio Oiapoque system, French Guiana, where it is endemic

Phenacogaster wayana Le Bail & Lucena 2010    in honor of the Wayana, indigenous people who live in Rio Maroni system, French Guiana (also occurs in Suriname)

Priocharax Weitzman & Vari 1987    prio, saw, referring to numerous small jaw teeth; Charax, typical genus of the Characiformes, from Greek word meaning “palisade of pointed sticks,” referring to densely packed sharp teeth, now a common root-name formation in the order

Priocharax ariel Weitzman & Vari 1987    an airy spirit, referring to tiny size (up to 15.1 mm SL) and translucent coloration in life

Priocharax nanus Toledo-Piza, Mattox & Britz 2014    dwarf, referring to tiny size of adults (up to 15.4 mm SL)

Priocharax pygmaeus Weitzman & Vari 1987    dwarf, referring to tiny size (up to 16.4 mm SL)

Roeboexodon Géry 1959    intermediate in form between Roeboides and Exodon (original genus of type species)

Roeboexodon guyanensis (Puyo 1948)    ensis, suffix denoting place: French Guiana, where original specimens (now lost) were collected (also occurs in Brazil)

Roeboides Günther 1864   oides: having the form of: presumably referring to similarity to Roestes (Acestrorhynchidae), which at the time was considered consubgeneric

Roeboides affinis (Günther 1868)    related, presumably referring to perceived close relationship and/or similarity to Cynopotamus amazonum (both species described in the genus Anacyrtus [=Charax] in the same publication)

Roeboides araguaito Lucena 2003    Araguaito, a stream in the Orinoco River basin, Venezuela, type locality

Roeboides biserialis (Garman 1890)    bi-, two; serialis, rowed, referring to two series of conical teeth on intermaxillaries and anterior halves of mandibles

Roeboides bouchellei Fowler 1923    in honor of chemist Theodore W. Bouchelle, Eden Mining Company, who sent a collection of Nicaraguan fishes to the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, including type of this one

Roeboides bussingi Matamoros, Chakrabarty, Angulo, Garita-Alvarado & McMahan 2013    in honor of ichthyologist William Bussing (1933-2014), for his contributions to the knowledge of Costa Rican and Central American fishes; he was the first to suggest that this species was new to science

Roeboides carti Lucena 2000    referring to Río Cartí Grande, Comarca de San Blas, Panama, type locality

Roeboides dayi (Steindachner 1878)    patronym not identified, possibly in honor of Francis Day (1829-1889), Inspector-General of Fisheries in India and author of many papers on Indian fishes (although this fish is not Indian)

Roeboides descalvadensis Fowler 1932    ensis, suffix denoting place: Descalvados, Mato Grosso, Brazil, type locality (but widespread in South America)

Roeboides dientonito Schultz 1944    local name for this species in Venezuela, derived from the Spanish diente, teeth, referring to small, toothlike protuberances on upper lips

Roeboides dispar Lucena 2001    dissimilar, referring to a number of characters (e.g., 31-48 vs. 19 or fewer maxillary conical teeth) that makes this species unique in the genus

Roeboides guatemalensis (Günther 1864)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Guatemala, an apparent misnomer since it is endemic to Panama

Roeboides ilseae Bussing 1986    in honor of Bussing’s daughter Ilse, who accompanied her father on numerous collecting trips and assisted in the collection and sorting of specimens

Roeboides loftini Lucena 2011    in honor of Horace Loftin, Florida State University, for his contributions to the knowledge of the distribution of the freshwater fishes of Panama

Roeboides margareteae Lucena 2003    in honor of Lucena’s wife, Zilda Margarete

Roeboides microlepis (Reinhardt 1851)     micro-, small; lepis, scale, referring to smaller, more numerous scales compared to Charax gibbosus (then placed in same genus, Epicyrtus)

Roeboides myersii Gill 1870    in honor of Philip V. Myers, a traveling companion of naturalist-explorer James Orton (1830-1877), who led expedition that collected type (and requested that this species be named after Myers)

Roeboides numerosus Lucena 2000    many, referring to higher number (45-50) branched anal-fin rays compared to R. oligistos

Roeboides occidentalis Meek & Hildebrand 1916     western, referring to distribution on Pacific slope of Panama (compared to eastern distribution of R. guatemalensis on the Atlantic slope)

Roeboides oligistos Lucena 2000    very few, referring to smaller number of branched anal-fin rays (38-44) compared to R. numerosus

Roeboides sazimai Lucena 2007    in honor of Ivan Sazima, Universidade de Campinas, for his contribution to the knowledge of the lepidophagous habits of Roeboides in particular and Brazilian fishes in general

Roeboides xenodon (Reinhardt 1851)    xenikos, strange; odontos, tooth, referring to several larger tooth-like prongs that extend forward from upper jaw at margin of lip; Reinhardt also called this species a “strange little fish” (translation)


Subfamily TETRAGONOPTERINAE
8 genera/subgenera · 197 species/subspecies   

Astyanacinus Eigenmann 1907    inus, adjectival suffix, i.e., Astyanax-like, referring to close relationship with Astyanax and former placement of A. moorii in that genus

Astyanacinus moorii (Boulenger 1892)    in honor of botanist Spencer Moore (1850-1931), who helped collect type

Astyanacinus multidens Pearson 1924    multi-, many; dens, teeth, presumably referring to 11 teeth on maxillary compared to none on A. mooorii

Astyanacinus yariguies Torres-Mejia, Hernández & Senechal 2012    named for the Yariguíes, an indigenous group that inhabited the Río Cascajales watershed, Colombia, where it is endemic; their fierce defense of their territory for 400 years likely contributed to the protection of this species, but they eventually succumbed to invasion and extermination in the mid-20th century

Astyanax Baird & Girard 1854    Astyanax, son of Hector in Greek mythology, presumably referring to resemblance of silvery scales of A. argentatus (=mexicanus) to armor

Subgenus Astyanax                                

Astyanax aeneus (Günther 1860)    brazen, referring to uniform brown coloration

Astyanax altior Hubbs 1936    higher, probably referring to “unusually high” fins

Astyanax angustifrons (Regan 1908)    angustus, narrow; frons, front, face or brow, allusion not evident, possibly referring to smaller snout compared to A. mexicanus

Astyanax aramburui Protogino, Miquelarena & López 2006    in honor of Raúl H. Arámburu (1924-2004), researcher and professor of the Museo de La Plata, Buenos Aires, and founder of the first chair of ichthyology in Argentina, where it is endemic

Astyanax argyrimarginatus Garutti 1999    argyros, silver; marginatus, bordered, referring to silver edge around black lateral stripe

Astyanax bagual Bertaco & Vigo 2015    Tupí-Guaraní word meaning wild horse, or what is mortal, or dangerous to mount, an expression used to convey that a male horse is reproductively ready in the countryside of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, where this species occurs, alluding to presence of bony hooks on all fins of mature males

Astyanax bifasciatus Garavello & Sampaio 2010    bi-, two; fasciatus, striped, referring to two vertical dark brown bars crossing humeral region

Astyanax biotae Castro & Vari 2004    in honor of Biota, i.e., the “BIOTA/FAPESP—The Virtual Biodiversity Institute Program (www.biota.org.br), for its “pioneering role” in the inventory, conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity resources in São Paulo, Brazil; in addition, the special research program of the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) supported the collecting efforts that yielded all known specimens of this species

Astyanax bockmanni Vari & Castro 2007    in honor of Flávio A. Bockman, Universidade de São Paulo, who collected much of the type series, for his contributions to the knowledge of neotropical catfishes and fishes of the upper Rio Paraná basin, Brazil

Astyanax brachypterygium Bertaco & Malabarba 2001    brachys, short; pterygion, fin, referring to short anal fin

Astyanax brevirhinus Eigenmann 1908    brevis, short; rhinus, snout, referring to its blunt snout

Astyanax burgerai Zanata & Camelier 2009    in honor of Rafael Burger, a student who “enthusiastically” collected type

Astyanax chaparae Fowler 1943    of Río Chapare, Cochabamba, Bolivia, type locality

Astyanax chico Casciotta & Almirón 2004    in honor of Francisco Alves “Chico” Mendes (1944-1988), Brazilian rubber tapper and union leader who fought to preserve the Amazonian rainforest; he was assassinated by a rancher whom Mendes had prevented from logging a protected area, while gaining a warrant for the rancher’s arrest for a murder committed elsewhere

Astyanax clavitaeniatus Garutti 2003    clava, club; taeniatus, banded, referring to black club-shaped lateral stripe

Astyanax cocibolca Bussing 2008    named for Lake Cocibolca, indigenous name for Lake Nicaragua (Nicaragua and Costa Rica) and rivers draining into it, where it is endemic

Astyanax cordovae (Günther 1880)    of the Río de Cordova, Argentina, type locality

Astyanax courensis Bertaco, Carvalho & Jerep 2010    ensis, suffix denoting place: rio dos Couros, upper rio Tocantins basin, Goiás, Brazil, type locality

Astyanax cremnobates Bertaco & Malabarba 2001    Greek for frequenter of steep places, referring to occurrence at altitudes higher than 800 meters

Astyanax daguae Eigenmann 1913    of the Dagua River, Colombia, type locality

Astyanax depressirostris Miranda Ribeiro 1908    depressus, pressed down; rostris, snout, referring to “highly depressed muzzle” (translation)

Astyanax dissensus Lucena & Thofehrn 2013    Latin for disagreement, referring to larger maxillary heptacuspid tooth peculiar to this species and unusual in the genus

Astyanax dissimilis Garavello & Sampaio 2010    not similar, referring to “differences of this species in relation to the remaining species of Astyanax” described in same paper

Astyanax douradilho Bertaco 2014    regional southern Brazilian name for a horse’s color pattern consisting of a reddish-brown or a golden-yellow, referring to color of all fins in life

Astyanax eigenmanniorum (Cope 1894)    –orum, commemorative suffix, plural: in honor of Carl H. Eigenmann (1863-1927) and his wife Rosa (1858-1947) University of Indiana, for their work on the fishes of South America

Astyanax elachylepis Bertaco & Lucinda 2005    elachis, small; lepis, scale, referring to small size of scales

Astyanax endy Mirande, Aguilera & Azpelicueta 2006    Chiriguano (Guaraní-speaking Indians of Bolivia and Argentina, the latter country being where this fish is endemic) word meaning flame, referring to color of caudal fin in life

Astyanax epiagos Zanata & Camelier 2008    epi-, above; agos, rocky cleft, referring to area above waterfall and valley formed by rio Ferro Doido, Bahia, Brazil, where it is endemic

Astyanax eremus Ingenito & Duboc 2014    alone or uninhabited, referring to absence of other fish species in the type locality

Astyanax fasciatus fasciatus (Cuvier 1819)    banded, referring to band-like blackish spot at root of caudal fin which sometimes extends forward to humeral spot (sometimes blackish band is entirely or partly replaced by a silvery band or absent)

Astyanax fasciatus jequitinhonhae (Steindachner 1877)    of the Rio Jequitinhonha, Brazil, type locality

Astyanax fasslii (Steindachner 1915)    in honor of entomologist A. H. Fassl, who collected type

Astyanax gisleni Dahl 1943    in honor of Swedish zoologist Torsten Gislen (1893-1954), who gave Dahl the opportunity to work at the Zoological Institute of Lund, and for his kind interest in Dahl’s studies

Astyanax giton Eigenmann 1908    neighbor, presumably alluding to inferred close relationships with A. taeniatus and A. brevirhinus based on similarity

Astyanax goyanensis (Miranda Ribeiro 1944)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Goiás, Brazil, where it is endemic

Astyanax gracilior Eigenmann 1908    comparative of gracilis, slender, allusion not evident, perhaps more slender than the “closely related” A. multidens

Astyanax guaporensis Eigenmann 1911    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Rio Guaporé at Maciel, Brazil, type locality

Astyanax guaricana Oliveira, Abilhoa & Pavanelli 2013    referring to type locality, Guaricana Reservoir, Paraná State, Atlantic Rainforest of Brazil

Astyanax guianensis Eigenmann 1909    ensis, suffix denoting place: Warraputa, Guyana, type locality (also occurs in Venezuela, Brazil, Colombia and Bolivia)

Astyanax gymnodontus (Eigenmann 1911)    gymnos, bare or naked; odontos, tooth, probably referring to absence of lips (“the teeth exposed”)

Astyanax gymnogenys Eigenmann 1911    gymnos, bare or naked; genys, cheek or chin, presumably referring to “naked area” on second suborbital bone

Astyanax hastatus Myers 1928    armed with a spear, referring to “hastate” (narrow triangular shape like that of a spearhead) caudal spot

Astyanax henseli de Melo & Buckup 2006    in honor of R. Hensel, for his contributions to ichthyology in southern Brazil (Hensel described this species in 1870 but used a preoccupied name, Tetragonopterus aeneus)

Astyanax hermosus Miquelarena, Protogino & López 2005    osus, adjectival suffix: referring to town of Valle Hermoso, Córdoba Province, Argentina, type locality

Astyanax integer Myers 1930    complete, whole or unbroken, probably referring to complete scalation of dorsal midline, a character that defines the subgenus Astyanax

Astyanax intermedius Eigenmann 1908    intermediate in form between A. taeniatus and A. scabripinnis

Astyanax ita Almirón, Azpelicueta & Casciotta 2002    itá, Guaraní word meaning stone, referring to rocky bottom habitat

Astyanax jacobinae Zanata & Camelier 2008    of municípo de Jacobina, Bahia, Brazil, where it appears to be endemic

Astyanax janeiroensis Eigenmann 1908    ensis, suffix denoting place: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, type locality

Astyanax jenynsii (Steindachner 1877)    in honor of English clergyman and naturalist Leonard Jenyns (1800-1893), who described the similar A. scabripinnis in 1842

Astyanax jordanensis Vera Alcaraz, Pavanelli & Bertaco 2009    ensis, suffix denoting place: Rio Jordão, a tributary of the Rio Iguaçu basin, Paraná, Brazil, type locality

Astyanax jordani (Hubbs & Innes 1936)    in honor of C. Basil Jordan, Texas Aquaria Fish Company (Dallas, Texas, USA), for the “gift” of the type specimens and for the “privilege of making his interesting discovery [first recorded blind characin] known to the scientific and aquarium world”

Astyanax kennedyi Géry 1964     in memory of the late President of the United States of America, John F. Kennedy (1917-1963)

Astyanax kompi Hildebrand 1938    in honor of the “distinguished” medical entomologist W. H. W. Komp, United States Public Health Service, who accompanied Hildebrand in his investigations in the Volcán region of Panama, where this species was discovered

Astyanax latens Mirande, Aguilera & Azpelicueta 2004    hidden, referring to name of type locality (Arroyo El Oculto, Argentina), which means “hidden stream” in Spanish

Astyanax laticeps (Cope 1894)    latus, wide; ceps, head, presumably referring to wider “frontal region” compared to A. fasciatus

Astyanax leonidas Azpelicueta, Casciotta & Almirón 2002    referring to Spartan King Leonidas (d. 480 BC), who fought a million-man Persian army with only 300 soldiers; this epithet is “dedicated to all the academic teachers of Argentina that stand in defense of a free and independent education”

Astyanax leopoldi Géry, Planquette & Le Bail 1988    in honor of King Léopold III of Belgium (1901-1983), an amateur entomologist who spent some of his post-abdication life exploring South America, for helping to collect type and for contributions to the knowledge of Neotropical fauna

Astyanax longior (Cope 1878)    longer, described as one of the “more elongate forms of the genus”

Astyanax longirhinus Garavello & Sampaio 2010    longus, long; rhinus, nose, referring to its elongated snout

Astyanax marionae Eigenmann 1911    in honor of Marion Durbin Ellis (1887-ca. 1972), Eigenmann’s student and “collaborator in monographing the minute” species of Tetragonopterinae

Astyanax maximus (Steindachner 1876)    greatest or longest, presumably referring to its large size for an Astyanax, up to 20 cm

Astyanax megaspilura Fowler 1944    mega-, large; spilos, spot; oura, tail, referring to “greatly conspicuous” black caudal blotch

Astyanax metae Eigenmann 1914    of Río Meta, Orinoco System, Colombia, presumably the type locality

Astyanax mexicanus (De Filippi 1853)    Mexican, referring to type locality in México (also occurs in Guatemala and Texas, USA)

Astyanax microlepis Eigenmann 1913     micro-, small; lepis, scale, referring to smaller, more numerous scales compared to the similar A. (Zygogaster) caucanus

Astyanax microschemos Bertaco & Lucena 2006    micro-, small (or in this case, low); schema, form or shape (or in this case, stature), referring to shallow body depth

Astyanax minor Garavello & Sampaio 2010    small, referring to small body size compared with congeners in the Iguaçu basin of Brazil

Astyanax multidens Eigenmann 1908    multi-, many; dens, teeth, referring to “large number” (5) of maxillary teeth

Astyanax mutator Eigenmann 1909    changer, allusion not explained; in 1917 Eigenmann wrote that A. mutator and Hyphessobrycon proteus “furnish bridges between” their respective genera, so perhaps name alludes to the former changing into the latter

Astyanax nasutus Meek 1907    large-nosed, referring to longer snout compared to A. aeneus

Astyanax nicaraguensis Eigenmann & Ogle 1907    ensis, suffix denoting place: Nicaragua, where it is endemic

Astyanax obscurus (Hensel 1870)    dark, referring to darker coloration compared to its silvery congener at the time, Tetragonopterus (=Cyanocharax) alburnus

Astyanax ojiara Azpelicueta & Garcia 2000    name of spirit (in Tupí-Guaraní language) that protects fresh waters

Astyanax pampa Casciotta, Almirón & Azpelicueta 2005    Quichua word for one of the aboriginal groups that lived in the plain regions of Buenos Aires (Agentina) province where it occurs

Astyanax parahybae Eigenmann 1908    of the Rio Paraíba (spelled Parahyba by Eigenmann), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, type locality (also occurs in Argentina)

Astyanax paranae Eigenmann 1914    of Paraná, Brazil, type locality

Astyanax paranahybae Eigenmann 1911    of Rio Paranahyba, Brazil, type locality

Astyanax paris Azpelicueta, Almirón & Casciotta 2002    named for Paris, uncle of Astyanax, who fought in the Trojan war

Astyanax pelecus Bertaco & Lucena 2006    Greek for axe, referring to axe-like shape at junction of humeral spot and black midlateral stripe

Astyanax pirabitira Lucena, Bertaco & Berbigier 2013    pira and ybytyra, Tupí-Guaraní words for fish and mountain, respectively, referring to occurrence at altitudes higher than 800 m

Astyanax pirapuan Tagliacollo, Britzke, Silva & Benine 2011    pira and apu, Tupí-Guaraní words for fish and mountain, respectively, referring to geological characteristics of type locality, Chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso, Brazil

Astyanax procerus Lucena, Castro & Bertaco 2013    Greek for tall, referring to high body depth

Astyanax puka Mirande, Aguilera & Azpelicueta 2007    Quichua word for red, referring to intensely red anal and caudal fins

Astyanax pynandi Casciotta, Almirón, Bechara, Roux & Ruíz Díaz 2003    Guaraní word for people without shoes, in honor of the “‘descalzos’ [of Argentina] that every day struggle to recover their dignity in an unjust world”

Astyanax ribeirae Eigenmann 1911    etymology not explained; possibly in honor of Brazilian ichthyologist-herpteologist Alípio de Miranda Ribeiro (1874-1939), whose works are frequently cited in Eigenmann’s monograph, but more likely referring to Rio Ribeiro da Iguape, river basin of the type locality

Astyanax rivularis (Lütken 1875)    of a brook, presumably referring to its abundance in Rio das Velhas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, type locality

Astyanax robustus Meek 1912    referring to its robust, moderately compressed body

Astyanax ruberrimus Eigenmann 1913    very red, referring to brick-red coloration of dorsal- and anal-fin bases and most of caudal fin

Astyanax rupununi Fowler 1914    named for the Rupununi River, Guiana, where it is endemic

Astyanax rutilus (Jenyns 1842)    ruddy, probably referring to “dirty orange” fins

Astyanax saguazu Casciotta, Almirón & Azpelicueta 2003    from the Guaraní words sa, eye and guazú, large, referring to large eye, 41-45% HL

Astyanax saltor Travassos 1960    etymology not explained nor evident, perhaps derived from saltare, to jump or leap

Astyanax scabripinnis (Jenyns 1842)    scaber, rough; pinnis, fin, referring to rough anal-fin rays, with a “scabrous harsh feel to the touch, when the finger is passed along them from the base upwards”

Astyanax schubarti Britski 1964    in honor of the late Otto Schubart (1900-1962), myriapodist, Estação Experimental de Biologia e Piscicultura do Ministério de Agricultura (São Paulo, Brazil), who provided railway access for Britski’s research

Astyanax scintillans Myers 1928    shiny or bright, referring to “highly iridescent” coloration

Astyanax serratus Garavello & Sampaio 2010    serrate, referring to numerous fin hooks on pelvic-fin of males, “resembling the profile of a serrae”

Astyanax siapae Garutti 2003    of Rio Siapa and/or campamento [campsite] Siapa II, Amazonas, Venezuela, type locality

Astyanax stenohalinus Messner 1962    stenohaline (stenos, narrow; halos, salt), i.e., intolerant of salt water, referring to strictly freshwater habitat compared to A. fasciatus and A. eigenmanniorum, which both enter estuaries

Astyanax taeniatus (Jenyns 1842)    banded, referring to bright silver lateral band, “more brilliant” than the band on A. scabripinnis

Astyanax totae Ferreira Haluch & Abilhoa 2005    in honor of Tota, nickname of Adelinyr Azevedo de Moura Cordeiro, for her contribution to the fish collection at Museu de História Natural Capão, Parques de Curitiba, Imbuia de Prefeitura Municipal de Curitiba, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil

Astyanax troya Azpelicueta, Casciotta & Almirón 2002    referring to the mythological Troya, in allusion to the name of the genus Astyanax, who was one of the sons of Hector, prince of Troya

Astyanax tumbayaensis Miquelarena & Menni 2005    -ensis, suffix denoting place: Tumbaya village, Grande River basin, Jujuy Province, Argentina, type locality

Astyanax tupi Azpelicueta, Mirande, Almirón & Casciotta 2003    in honor of the Tupí aborigines who lived in northern Argentina, where it occurs

Astyanax turmalinensis Triques, Vono & Caiafa 2003    ensis, suffix denoting place: Turmalina county, Minas Gerais, Brazil, type locality

Astyanax utiariti Bertaco & Garutti 2007    Utiariti (“place of clever people”), e.g., Salto Utiarity, or Utiarity Falls, indigenous Pareci name for upper rio Tapajós drainage, Mato Grosso, Brazil, type locality

Astyanax varzeae Abilhoa & Duboc 2007    –ensis, suffix denoting place: rio da Várzea drainage, Paraná State, Brazil, type locality

Astyanax venezuelae Schultz 1944    of Venezuela, where it is endemic

Astyanax vermilion Zanata & Camelier 2009    vermilion or orange-red (dervied from the Latin vermiculus, a small worm that yields red dye), referring to red coloration of posterior body portion in life

Astyanax villwocki Zarske & Géry 1999    in honor of Wolfgang Villwock, University of Hamburg, who collected some of the type series and made them available for study

Astyanax xavante Garutti & Venere 2009    named for the Xavante ethnic group, who inhabit the Serra do Roncador and middle rio Araguaia, Mato Grosso, Brazil, where this species appears to be endemic

Astyanax xiru Lucena, Castro & Bertaco 2013    Tupí-Guaraní word for “an old wise Indian,” an honorific used in the countryside of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, where it occurs

Subgenus Poecilurichthys Gill 1858    poecilio-, variegated; oura, tail; ichthys, fish, referring to bands or spots that are “almost always” on tail (at least among those species mentioned by Gill)

Astyanax abramis (Jenyns 1842)    abramis, Greek for bream, probably referring to its “subrhomboidal form,” similar to that of the Bream, Abramis brama, a European cyprinid

Astyanax bahiensis (Steindachner 1877)     ensis, suffix denoting place: Bahia, Brazil, type locality

Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758)    bi-, two; maculatus, spotted, referring to humeral and caudal spots

Astyanax bourgeti Eigenmann 1908    in memory of D. Bourget, Thayer Expedition, who collected type

Astyanax correntinus (Holmberg 1891)    inus, pertaining to: Corrientes, a city at Río Paraná, Argentina, type locality

Astyanax erythropterus (Holmberg 1891)    erythros, red; pterus, fin, referring to bright red, almost vermilion, paired fins in life

Astyanax festae (Boulenger 1898)    in honor of Italian naturalist Enrico Festa (1868-1939), who collected type

Astyanax goyacensis Eigenmann 1908    ensis, suffix denoting place: Goiás (spelled Goyaz by Eigenmann), Brazil, where it is endemic

Astyanax incaicus Tortonese 1942    icus, belonging to, the Incas, probably referring to its distribution in southeast Ecudaor, which was part of the Inca Empire in the 15th century

Astyanax kullanderi Costa 1995    in honor of Sven O. Kullander (b. 1952), Swedish Museum of Natural History, who collected type and made it available for study, and for his contributions to neotropical ichthyology

Astyanax lacustris (Lütken 1875)    lacustrine (belonging to a lake), described from Lagoa Santa, Brazil

Astyanax lineatus (Perugia 1891)    lined, referring to 10-12 black narrow longitudinal bands on body

Astyanax maculisquamis Garutti & Britski 1997    macula, stain or mark; squamis, scale, referring to black spot on middle of each scale, creating a pattern of parallel longitudinal stripes

Astyanax myersi (Fernández-Yépez 1950)    in honor of Stanford University ichthyologist George S. Myers (1905-1985), to whom Fernández-Yépez owed much of his “limited” (translation) knowledge of South American fishes

Astyanax novae Eigenmann 1911    of the Rio Nova, Goiás (spelled Goyaz by Eigenmann), Brazil, where 13 of the 26 type specimens were collected

Astyanax orthodus Eigenmann 1907    –us, adjectival suffix: orthos, straight; odon, tooth, i.e., straight-toothed, referring to denticles on surface of teeth arranged in a line compared to the nearly identical A. bimaculatus, in which the denticles are arranged in a curve

Astyanax pellegrini Eigenmann 1907    patronym not identified, probably in honor of French ichthyologist Jacques Pellegrin (1873-1944) [spelled pelegrini by Eigenmann but prevailing usage favors the “corrected” spelling]

Astyanax poetzschkei Ahl 1932    in honor of Paul Pötzschke (1881-1957), co-owner of Scholze & Pötzschke, an aquarium supply and tropical fish importation firm in Berlin, who donated a large number of “valuable objects” (translation) to the Zoological Museum of Berlin, including type of this species [see also Hyphessobrycon scholzei, below]

Astyanax superbus Myers 1942    excellent, superior or splendid, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to intricate color pattern of wavy lines, unusual for the genus

Astyanax symmetricus Eigenmann 1908    referring to nearly symmetrical caudal spot

Astyanax trierythropterus Godoy 1970    tri-, three; erythro, red; pterus, fin, referring to deep-red dorsal, anal and caudal fins

Astyanax unitaeniatus Garutti 1998    uni-, one; taeniatus, banded, referring to single black stripe on sides

Astyanax validus Géry, Planquette & Le Bail 1991    strong, vigorous or robust, referring to its “vigorous appearance” (translation)

Subgenus Zygogaster Eigenmann 1913    zygos, pair or balanced; gaster, belly, referring to compressed, almost keeled, preventral area, the scales at the two sides apposed at the midline (sometimes with a median series of small scales)

Astyanax atratoensis Eigenmann 1907    ensis, suffix denoting place: Atrato River basin, Colombia, where it is endemic

Astyanax caucanus (Steindachner 1879)    anus, belonging to: Río Cauca, Colombia, type locality

Astyanax filiferus (Eigenmann 1913)    filum, thread; fero, to bear, referring to prolonged (“filiform”) outer rays of ventral fins and first ray of dorsal fin in males

Astyanax magdalenae Eigenmann & Henn 1916    of the Río Magdalena basin, Colombia, type locality (also occurs in Venezuela)

Astyanax stilbe (Cope 1870)    lamp or mirror (i.e., shining), presumably referring to “very distinct” silver lateral band

Incertae sedis

Astyanax ajuricaba Marinho & Lima 2009    in honor of Ajuricaba, paramount chief of the Manau Indians in the early 18th century, which formerly inhabited the Rio Negro area of Brazil, roughly where this species occurs; Ajuricaba unsuccessfully resisted the assaults of Portuguese slavers and averted trial as a rebel by drowning himself in the Rio Negro while shackled, an act of bravery that became a symbol of Indian resistance against Portuguese oppression

Astyanax anterior Eigenmann 1908    referring to anterior position of humeral spot

Astyanax baileyi (Rosen 1972)    in honor of ichthyologist Reeve M. Bailey (1911-2011), University of Michigan, “teacher, friend, and colleague of 26 years, and field companion in Guatemala during 1966, 1968, and 1971”

Astyanax bransfordii (Gill 1877)    in honor of John F. Bransford (1846-1911), Assistant Surgeon, U.S. Navy, who collected type and co-authored Gill’s paper on the fishes of Lake Nicaragua

Astyanax brucutu Zanata, Lima, Di Dario & Gerhard 2017    Portuguese adjective meaning a strong and rough person, referring to blunt and massive general aspect of anterior portion of cranium and lower jaw

Astyanax caballeroi (Contreras-Balderas & Rivera-Teillery 1985)    in memory of the “distinguished” (translation) Mexican biologist Eduardo Caballero y Caballero (1904-1974)

Astyanax dorioni (Rosen 1970)    in honor of Robert C. Dorion, for “continuing assistance for our field efforts in Guatemala since 1963, and whose companionship and hard work during several field trips have always been greatly appreciated”

Astyanax hamatilis Camelier & Zapata 2014    with hooks, referring to small bony hooks on all fins of mature males, unique among Brazilian congeners   

Ctenobrycon Eigenmann 1908    cteno-, referring to ctenoid scales, which are “especially rough” on the breast; brycon, generalized term used in generic names of many characiform fishes, derived from bryco, to bite, gnash teeth or eat greedily, originally an allusion to fully toothed maxillae

Ctenobrycon alleni (Eigenmann & McAtee 1907)    in honor of ornithologist Joel Asaph Allen (1838-1921), American Museum of Natural History

Ctenobrycon hauxwellianus (Cope 1870)    –anus, belonging to: naturalist and explorer John Hauxwell, who “procured” most of the species described in Cope’s paper on the fishes of Marañón River, Peru, including type of this one

Ctenobrycon multiradiatus (Steindachner 1876)    multi-, many; radiatus, rayed, presumably referring to 40-41 anal-fin rays

Ctenobrycon oliverai Benine, Lopes & Ron 2010    in honor of Claudio de Oliveira, who collected type and is a “great contributor” to our knowledge of neotropical ichthyology

Ctenobrycon spilurus (Valenciennes 1850)    spilos, spot; oura, tail, referring to black spot near base of caudal fin

Jupiaba Zanata 1997    combination of the Tupí words ju, thorn, and piaba, small riverine fish, referring to spine-like pelvic bones; piaba is also a local Brazilian name for species in the genus

Jupiaba abramoides (Eigenmann 1909)    –oides, having the form of: believed to be closely allied to Astyanax abramis at time of description

Jupiaba acanthogaster (Eigenmann 1911)    acanthus, spine; gaster, belly, referring to strong pelvic bones, “diverging forward, the ends protruding as spines”

Jupiaba anteroides (Géry 1965)    –oides, having the form of: referring to similarity to Astyanax anterior

Jupiaba apenima Zanata 1997    combination of the Tupí words apê, crooked, and pinima, stain or mark, referring to asymmetric spot on caudal peduncle

Jupiaba asymmetrica (Eigenmann 1908)    referring to triangular, asymmetrically placed caudal spot

Jupiaba atypindi Zanata 1997    combination of the Tupí words atypy, cheek, and ndi, with, referring to bare infraorbital area on face

Jupiaba citrina Zanata & Ohara 2009    lemon or orange, referring to orange-yellowish coloration in life

Jupiaba elassonaktis Pereira & Lucinda 2007    elasson, few; aktis, rays, referring to small number of anal-fin rays

Jupiaba essequibensis (Eigenmann 1909)    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Essequibo, Guyana, where it is endemic to the Essequibo River basin

Jupiaba iasy Netto-Ferreira, Zanata, Birindelli & Sousa 2009    îasy, goddess of the moon in Brazilian Tupí indian mythology, referring to crescent-shaped humeral blotch

Jupiaba keithi (Géry, Planquette & Le Bail 1996)    in honor of aquatic biologist Philippe Keith, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle (Paris), who helped collect type

Jupiaba kurua Birindelli, Zanata, Sousa & Netto-Ferreira 2009    from the Tupí kurua, referring to rio Curuá, Xingu basin, central Brazil, type locality

Jupiaba maroniensis (Géry, Planquette & Le Bail 1996)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Maroni River (at confluence of Latini River), French Guiana, type locality

Jupiaba meunieri (Géry, Planquette & Le Bail 1996)    in honor of fish osteologist François Jean Meunier, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle (Paris), who helped collect type

Jupiaba minor (Travassos 1964)    lesser, referring to small size, holotype 20.2 mm SL

Jupiaba mucronata (Eigenmann 1909)    atus, provided with: mucro-, sharp point, presumably referring to “conspicuous bullet-shaped humeral spot”

Jupiaba ocellata (Géry, Planquette & Le Bail 1996)    having little eyes, referring to eye-like humeral spot, or ocellus

Jupiaba paranatinga Netto-Ferreira, Zanata, Birindelli & Sousa 2009    Tupí name meaning “white river,” referring to rio Teles Pires, type locality, Mato Grosso, Brazil

Jupiaba pinnata (Eigenmann 1909)    referring to pinnate black markings on the sides

Jupiaba pirana Zanata 1997    combination of the Tupí words pira, fish, and rana, similar, referring to resemblance to J. zonata

Jupiaba poekotero Zanata & Lima 2005    common name of this species among the Tuyuka people of Brazil: poe, waterfall; kotero, warder, referring to occurrence in pools immediately downstream of waterfalls

Jupiaba polylepis (Günther 1864)    poly, many; lepis, scales, presumably referring to its having more lateral line scales than most other species placed by Günther in the catch-all genus Tetragonopterus

Jupiaba poranga Zanata 1997    Tupí word for beautiful, presumably referring to its pale-yellow coloration, two dark spots and dark chromatophores on lips, head, fins and body

Jupiaba potaroensis (Eigenmann 1909)    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Potaro River, Guyana, type locality (and endemic to Potaro River basin)

Jupiaba scologaster (Weitzman & Vari 1986)    skolos, thorn or pointed object; gaster, belly, referring to “exserted spinous pelvic bones” on ventral surface

Jupiaba yarina Zanata 1997    combination of ty, Tupí word for river, and Arinos, referring to Rio Arinos, Mato Grosso, Brazil, type locality

Jupiaba zonata (Eigenmann 1908)    banded, referring to “cross-bar” on caudal fin

Psellogrammus Eigenmann 1908    psellos, faltering; gramme, line, referring to interrupted lateral line

Psellogrammus kennedyi (Eigenmann 1903)    in honor of Eigenmann’s student Clarence Hamilton Kennedy (1879-1952), later a renowned entomologist, who co-authored paper on Paraguayan fishes in which this description appeared

Tetragonopterus Cuvier 1816    misspelling of Tetragonoptrus, coined by Klein in 1740, who said it meant “quadratus aspectu” (square appearance) and applied it to quadrate or rhomboidal fishes (e.g., butterflyfishes, Chaetodontidae); in 1759, Séba (not Artedi, as Cuvier and Günther reported) referred T. argenteus to Klein’s genus, which Cuvier misspelled as Tetragonopterus when his publication made the name available, thus creating false impression that name means square pterus, or fin

Tetragonopterus anostomus Silva & Benine 2011    ano-, upward or above; stoma, mouth, referring to superior mouth position, unique in the genus

Tetragonopterus araguaiensis Silva, Melo, Oliveira & Benine 2013    ensis, suffix denoting place: Rio Araguaia, a large tributary of the Amazon basin, central Brazil, where it is endemic

Tetragonopterus argenteus Cuvier 1816    silvery, referring to bright, silvery coloration (pre-Linnaean name coined by Séba in 1759)

Tetragonopterus carvalhoi Melo, Benine, Mariguela & Oliveira 2011    in honor of Marcelo Rodrigues de Carvalho, Universidade de São Paulo, leader of expedition that collected type, for his contributions to the knowledge of neotropical ichthyology

Tetragonopterus chalceus Spix & Agassiz 1829    copper, presumably referring to light brown (“laete fuscus”) body coloration

Tetragonopterus denticulatus Silva, Melo, Oliveira & Benine 2013    small-toothed, referring to small teeth on dentary, unique to the genus

Tetragonopterus franciscoensis Silva, Melo, Oliveira & Benine 2016    -ensis, suffix denoting place: Rio São Francisco, northeastern Brazil, where it is well known and abundant

Tetragonopterus georgiae (Géry 1965)    matronym not identified but probably in honor of Géry’s wife, Georgie, or Georgette

Tetragonopterus juruena Silva, Melo, Oliveira & Benine 2016    named for the Rio Juruena, Mato Grosso, Brazil, type locality

Tetragonopterus kuluene Silva, Melo, Oliveira & Benine 2016    indigenous spelling of Rio Culuene, rio Xingu basin, Brazil, type locality

Tetragonopterus ommatus Silva, Melo, Oliveira & Benine 2016    eyed, referring to the “great” diameter of its orbits

Tetragonopterus rarus (Zarske, Géry & Isbrücker 2004)    rare, referring to small distribution and endangerment due to mining and mercury pollution

Tetragonopterus signatus Burmeister 1861    marked, probably referring to black dot at beginning of lateral line


Subfamily APHYOCHARACINAE
9 genera • 22 species

Aphyocharacidium Géry 1960    aphya, a small sardine-like fish, probably referring to Aphyocharax; characidium, diminutive of charax, a common suffix for characiform fishes, probably referring to Characidium, apparently reflecting Géry’s belief that it represents a “border genus” between cheirodontines (now in Cheirodontinae) and subfamily Characidiinae (in Crenuchidae)

Aphyocharacidium bolivianum Géry 1973    Bolivian, referring to country where it is endemic

Aphyocharacidium melandetum (Eigenmann 1912)    melanos, black; detus, given, i.e., blackened, probably referring to black margin on caudal peduncle

Aphyocharax Günther 1868    aphya, a small sardine-like fish, referring to small size of A. pusillus; charax, typical genus of the Characiformes, from Greek word meaning “palisade of pointed sticks,” referring to densely packed sharp teeth, now a common root-name formation in the order

Aphyocharax agassizii (Steindachner 1882)    in memory of zoologist-geologist Louis Agassiz (1807-1873), who gave the two type specimens to Steindachner

Aphyocharax alburnus (Günther 1869)    Latin for whitefish, from albus, white, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to superficial resemblance to the European cyprinid Alburnus alburnus

Aphyocharax anisitsi Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903    in honor of Juan Daniel Anisits (1856-1911), National University of Paraguay, who provided Indiana University with a “well-preserved” collection of fishes, including type of this one

Aphyocharax colifax Taphorn & Thomerson 1991    collum, neck or stem; fax, torch, referring to bright red caudal peduncle, “like a flame of fire that it carries on its back” (translation)

Aphyocharax dentatus Eigenmann & Kennedy 1903    toothed, referring to more mandibular teeth compared to A. alburnus and A. pusillus

Aphyocharax erythrurus Eigenmann 1912    erythros, red; oura, tail, referring to brick-red caudal fin in life

Aphyocharax gracilis Fowler 1940    slender, referring to more slender body compared to A. nasutus (=dentatus)

Aphyocharax nattereri (Steindachner 1882)    patronym not identified, likely in honor of Johann Natterer (1787-1843), who explored South America and collected specimens for 18 years

Aphyocharax pusillus Günther 1868    very small, referring to size (~50 mm)

Aphyocharax rathbuni Eigenmann 1907    in honor of biologist and administrator Richard Rathbun (1852-1918), U.S. National Museum

Aphyocharax yekwanae Willink, Chernoff & Machado-Allison 2003    of the Ye’Kwana tribe that lives in and oversees most of the Río Caura basin, Brazil, type locality, for their “fervid desire to protect and manage their home territory and its environment”

Inpaichthys Géry & Junk 1977    INPA, acronym for Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, whose field station in Núcleo Aripuanã, Mato Grosso, Brazil, is near the type locality; ichthys, fish

Inpaichthys kerri Géry & Junk 1977     in honor of Warwick Estevam Kerr (b. 1922), Brazilian agricultural engineer, geneticist, entomologist, and director of INPA (see genus)

Leptagoniates Boulenger 1887    leptos, thin, possibly referring to narrow mouth cleft compared to wide mouth cleft of Paragoniates, i.e., a thin Paragoniates

Leptagoniates steindachneri Boulenger 1887    patronym not identified but clearly in honor of Austrian ichthyologist Franz Steindachner (1834-1919), who described Paragoniates in 1876

Paragoniates Steindachner 1876    para-, near, referring to presumed close relationship with Agoniates (Triportheidae) based on similarly compressed abdomens

Paragoniates alburnus Steindachner 1876    Latin for whitefish, from albus, white, presumably referring to pale, silvery coloration

Phenagoniates Eigenmann & Wilson 1914    phena-, misspelling of phanos (which Eigenmann later attempted to correct, but original spelling prevails), bright or clear, referring to translucent coloration; agoniates, referring to close relationship/similarity with Paragoniates

Phenagoniates macrolepis (Meek & Hildebrand 1913)    macro-, long or large; lepis, scale, probably referring to larger scales compared to other species in Roeboides (original genus)

Prionobrama Fowler 1913    prion, saw, probably referring to “completely denticulated maxillary,” i.e., saw-toothed; brama, referring to “superficial resemblance” to the European cyprinid Abramis brama

Prionobrama filigera (Cope 1870)    filum, thread; –gera, to carry, referring to long and pointed anal fin on adults, the first ray being opaque white

Prionobrama paraguayensis (Eigenmann 1914)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Río Paraguay, Brazil, type locality (also occurs in Argentina, Bolivia and Paraguay)

Rachoviscus Myers 1926    –iscus, masculine diminutive: in honor of German aquarist Arthur Rachow, who provided type specimens

Rachoviscus crassiceps Myers 1926    crassus, thick, fat or stout; ceps, head, referring to “very strongly developed [body], especially the head” (translation)

Rachoviscus graciliceps Weitzman & Cruz 1981    gracilia, slender or thin; ceps, head, referring to more slender head compared to R. crassiceps

Xenagoniates Myers 1942    xeno-, different, allied to Leptagoniates and Phenagoniates but differing in the presence of a well-developed patch on each palatine and more posterior dorsal fin

Xenagoniates bondi Myers 1942    in honor of F. F. Bond, University of Rochester (Rochester, New York, USA), who collected type while researching mosquito-control fishes in Venezuela


Subfamily APHYODITEINAE
8 genera • 20 species

Aphyodite Eigenmann 1912    aphya, a small fish; dite, “born of,” according to Eigenmann, presumably referring to small size of A. grammica (~32 mm)                           

Aphyodite grammica Eigenmann 1912    lined, presumably referring to “black median line” on sides              

Atopomesus Myers 1927    atopos, peculiar; mesus, middle, probably referring to a series of large scales on each side of preventral region that overlap at midline of body

Atopomesus pachyodus Myers 1927    pachys, thick; odon, tooth, referring to “extremely massive and heavy” teeth                

Axelrodia Géry 1965    ia, belonging to: pet-book publisher Herbert R. Axelrod (b. 1927), president and founder of Tropical Fish Hobbyist, where many of Géry’s descriptions of characiform taxa (but not this one) were published                              

Axelrodia lindeae Géry 1973    in honor of Linde Geisler, who collected type with German biologist and aquarist Rolf Geisler (1925-2012), presumably her husband                              

Axelrodia riesei Géry 1966    in honor of tropical-fish exporter William Riese, who helped collect type                   

Axelrodia stigmatias (Fowler 1913)    a branded person, referring to large and conspicuous black oval spot at base of caudal fin                    

Leptobrycon Eigenmann 1915    leptos, small or delicate, referring to size of L. jatuaranae, type specimen (29 mm); brycon, generalized term used in generic names of many characiform fishes, derived from bryco, to bite, gnash teeth or eat greedily, originally an allusion to fully toothed maxillae                            

Leptobrycon jatuaranae Eigenmann 1915    of Jatuarana, Amazon River basin, Brazil, type locality

Microschemobrycon Eigenmann 1915    micro-, small and schema, form or shape, i.e., of small stature, referring to size of M. guaporensis (~37 mm); brycon, generalized term used in generic names of many characiform fishes, derived from bryco, to bite, gnash teeth or eat greedily, originally an allusion to fully toothed maxillae

Microschemobrycon callops Böhlke 1953    callos, beautiful; ops, eye, referring to “extremely attractive” eye, with “heavily pigmented” eyeball and silvery iris that appears bluish from certain angles, even after 27 years of preservation                           

Microschemobrycon casiquiare Böhlke 1953    named after the Canal de Casiquiare, Venezuela, “the marvellous natural waterway which permits intermingling between the great faunas of the Orinoco system to the north and the Amazonas system to the south,” one of the locations where this characin occurs                         

Microschemobrycon elongatus Géry 1973    referring to elongate body, largest depth in front of dorsal fin 4.5-5.05 in SL                  

Microschemobrycon geisleri Géry 1973    in honor of German biologist and aquarist Rolf Geisler (1925-2012), who collected type with Linde Geisler (presumably his wife)

Microschemobrycon guaporensis Eigenmann 1915    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Rio Guaporé, Amazon River system, Brazil, type locality (and where it is endemic)                  

Microschemobrycon melanotus (Eigenmann 1912)    melanos, black; notus, back, referring to dusky margined scales on back                                

Microschemobrycon meyburgi Meinken 1975    in honor of physician Gert Meyburg (Bremen, Germany), who collected type                                

Oxybrycon Géry 1964    oxys, sharp, referring to small, sharp teeth of O. parvulus; brycon, generalized term used in generic names of many characiform fishes, derived from bryco, to bite, gnash teeth or eat greedily, originally an allusion to fully toothed maxillae

Oxybrycon parvulus Géry 1964    diminutive of parvus, small, i.e., very small, a “miniscule” species, up to 16.3 mm                         

Parecbasis Eigenmann 1914    according to Eigenmann (1915), name means “a going out aside from,” i.e., to go out of limits, perhaps referring to toothless maxillary and sides of mandible

Parecbasis cyclolepis Eigenmann 1914    cyclo-, circle; lepis, scale, referring to “many radial striæ” on scales                   

Tyttobrycon Géry 1973    tytthos, small or young, referring to very small size (males fully mature at 14-18 mm) but also suggesting a “possible affinity” with Tyttocharax (now in Stevardiinae); brycon, generalized term used in generic names of many characiform fishes, derived from bryco, to bite, gnash teeth or eat greedily, originally an allusion to fully toothed maxillae

Tyttobrycon dorsimaculatus Géry 1973    dorsi-, dorsal; maculatus, spotted, presumably referring to black band on dorsal fin                          

Tyttobrycon hamatus Géry 1973    hooked, referring to “peculiar sexual hooklets” on anal fin of males                 

Tyttobrycon marajoara Marinho, Bastos & Menezes 2013    referring to Marajó Island, Brazil, where it is endemic                             

Tyttobrycon spinosus Géry 1973    spiny, referring to 11-14 prominent interhaemal spines on first caudal-fin ray of males

Tyttobrycon xeruini Géry 1973    referring to Rio Xeruini system (specifically the Rio Novo), middle Rio Negro basin, Brazil, type locality