Order CHARACIFORMES: Families DISTICHODONTIDAE, CITHARINIDAE, CRENUCHIDAE, ALESTIDAE and HEPSETIDAE

COMMENTS
v.13.0 – 30 Dec. 2016  view/download PDF

Family DISTICHODONTIDAE Distichodontids
16 genera · 103 species/subspecies

Belonophago Giltay 1929    belone, Greek for needle, i.e., a Phago with an elongate upper jaw, similar to needlefishes (Belone)

Belonophago hutsebouti Giltay 1929    in honor of Belgian Catholic missionary Joseph Hutsebaut, who collected type [note apparent misspelling, –bouti instead of –bauti]

Belonophago tinanti Poll 1939    in honor of André Tinant, who collected fishes in the Belgian Congo, including type of this one

Congocharax Matthes 1964    Congo, referring to Democratic Republic of Congo, where genus is endemic; charax, referring to previous placement of type species in Hemigrammocharax (=Nannocharax; also a common root name for characiform fishes)

Congocharax olbrechtsi (Poll 1954)    in honor of Frans M. Olbrechts (1899-1958), director, Musée Royal du Congo Belge

Distichodus Müller & Troschel 1844    distichus, of two rows; odon, tooth, referring to two rows of bifid teeth on both jaws

Distichodus affinis Günther 1873    related, i.e., “allied” to D. notospilus

Distichodus altus Boulenger 1899    high, probably referring to body height, 2-21/5 times in total length

Distichodus antonii Schilthuis 1891    in honor of Anton Greshoff (1856-1905), Dutch trader and collector who presented several Congo species, including type of this one, to the Zoological Museum of Utrecht University

Distichodus atroventralis Boulenger 1898    atra-, black; ventralis, ventral, referring to black or blackish ventral fins

Distichodus brevipinnis Günther 1864    brevis, short; pinnis, fin, presumably referring to length of dorsal fin base, “only three-fourths of that of the head”

Distichodus decemmaculatus Pellegrin 1926    decem, ten; maculatus, spotted, referring to 10 small rounded black spots along lateral line

Distichodus engycephalus Günther 1864    engys, near; cephalus, head, presumably referring to compressed head

Distichodus fasciolatus Boulenger 1898    banded, referring to 18-20 dark vertical bars on body

Distichodus hypostomatus Pellegrin 1900    hypo-, under; stomatus, mouthed, referring to mouth situated underneath and behind strongly projecting snout

Distichodus kolleri Holly 1926    patronym not identified but probably in honor of Holly’s Vienna colleague, ichthyologist Otto Koller

Distichodus langi Nichols & Griscom 1917    in honor of taxidermist Herbert Lang (1879-1957), American Museum of Natural History, who collected type

Distichodus lusosso Schilthuis 1891    local name for this species in the Congo (not name of type locality as reported by many online references, including the Catalog of Fishes)

Distichodus maculatus Boulenger 1898    spotted, referring to large blackish round spots forming irregular oblique series across body

Distichodus mossambicus Peters 1852    icus, belonging to: Mozambique, where type locality (Zambezi River) is situated

Distichodus nefasch (Bonnaterre 1788)    manuscript name used by Forsskål, based on Egyptian vernacular for this species

Distichodus noboli Boulenger 1899    indigenous name for this species in the Upper Congo

Distichodus notospilus Günther 1867    noto-, back; spilos, spot or stain, referring to large, oblique, band-like black blotch on dorsal fin

Distichodus petersii Pfeffer 1896    patronym not identifed but probably in honor of Wilhelm C. H. Peters (1815-1883), German naturalist and explorer who traveled to Africa and returned to Berlin with an enormous collection of natural history specimens, including many fishes which he described

Distichodus rostratus Günther 1864    beaked, referring to pointed, prominent nose

Distichodus rufigiensis Norman 1922    from Rufigi River, Tanganyika Territory (now Tanzania), type locality

Distichodus schenga Peters 1852    etymology not explained, perhaps a latinization of M’chenga, a stream near Tete, Mozambique, type locality

Distichodus sexfasciatus Boulenger 1897    sex, six; fasciatus, banded, referring to 6-7 broad blackish vertical bars on body

Distichodus teugelsi Mamonekene & Vreven 2008    in memory of ichthyologist Guy Teugels (1954-2003), Africa Museum (Tervuren, Belgium), who first promoted the project that led to the collection of this species

Dundocharax    Poll 1967  etymology not explained, probably referring to Musée de Dundo, Angola, where type specimens are housed; charax, possibly referring to similarity with Hemigrammocharax (=Nannocharax; also a common root name for characiform fishes)

Dundocharax bidentatus Poll 1967    bi-, two; dentatus, toothed, referring to two rows of bicuspid teeth

Eugnathichthys Boulenger 1898    eu-, very, gnathus, jaw, referring to massive jaws with moveable upper jaw; ichthys, fish

Eugnathichthys eetveldii Boulenger 1898    in honor of Belgian diplomat Edmond van Eetvelde (1852-1925), General Secretary of the Congo Free State, where type was collected

Eugnathichthys macroterolepis Boulenger 1899    macro-, long or large; lepis, scale, presumably referring to larger scales compared to E. eetveldii; it is unclear what tero– means as neither possibility (ptero-, fin; teres, rounded) seem to apply

Eugnathichthys virgatus Stiassny, Denton & Monsembula Iyaba 2013    branched, referring to conspicuous midlateral band or streak intersected by numerous vertical bars

Ichthyborus Günther 1864    ichthys, fish; boros, greedy or gluttonous, presumably referring to its ichthyophagous diet and/or gluttonous appearance of mobile upper jaw and elongate snout with canine teeth, i.e., a gluttonous fish

Ichthyborus besse besse (Joannis 1835)    Arabian name for this species along the Nile River

Ichthyborus besse congolensis Giltay 1930    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Belgian (now Democratic Republic of) Congo, where it appears to be endemic

Ichthyborus monodi (Pellegrin 1927)    in honor of naturalist and explorer Théodore Monod (1902-2000), who collected type

Ichthyborus ornatus (Boulenger 1899)    decorated, referring to ornate coloration: purplish gray above, silvery or greenish on sides with three olive bands along lateral line, orange or gray dorsal fin, and orange tail with 6-7 longitudinal black stripes

Ichthyborus quadrilineatus (Pellegrin 1904)    quadri-, four; lineatus, lined, referring to four black longitudinal stripes on sides

Mesoborus Pellegrin 1900    meso-, middle, i.e., placed “in the midst” (translation) of –borus, suffix referring to other ichthyoborine genera (Eugnathichthys, Ichthyborus, Parahago, Phago)

Mesoborus crocodilus Pellegrin 1900    probably referring to crocodile-like appearance of elongate snout, large mouth armed with 29-30 small teeth on each side and two canines on lower jaw separated by a pair of small teeth, and upwards-moving upper jaw

Microstomatichthyoborus Nichols & Griscom 1917    micro-, small; stomatus, mouthed, described as a “small, weak-mouthed derivative of Ichthyoborus-like fishes” [at 23 characters, the longest genus name of any Recent fish]

Microstomatichthyoborus bashforddeani Nichols & Griscom 1917    in honor of ichthyologist Bashford Dean (1867-1928), Nichols’ colleague at the American Museum of Natural History [at 36 total characters, the longest binomen of any Recent fish species]

Microstomatichthyoborus katangae David & Poll 1937    of Katanga, Lualaba River basin, Democratic Republic of Congo, type locality

Monostichodus Vaillant 1886    of one row, referring to single row of bifid teeth (compared to two rows in Distichodus)

Monostichodus elongatus Vaillant 1886   elongate, presumably referring to its relatively elongate body

Monostichodus lootensi (Poll & Daget 1968)    in honor of Révérend Père Lootens, Catholic missionary and naturalist, who collected type

Monostichodus mesmaekersi (Poll 1959)    in honor of Is. Mesmaekers, commander of the port of Boma, Democratic Republic of the Congo

Nannaethiops Günther 1872    etymology not explained, perhaps nanus, dwarf, referring to its small size and/or its affinity with Nannocharax (also described by Günther); Æthiops, Latin for Ethiopian or Negro (from the Greek aithein, to burn and ops, face), possibly referring to Aethiopia, a classical term for Sub-Saharan Africa, i.e, a small “Ethiopian”

Nannaethiops bleheri Géry & Zarske 2003    in honor of explorer and ornamental-fish wholesaler and supplier Heiko Bleher, who collected type

Nannaethiops gracilis (Matthes 1964)    slender, referring to elongate, compressed body

Nannaethiops unitaeniatus Günther 1872    uni-, one; taeniatus, banded, referring to narrow black band running along side below lateral line

Nannocharax Günther 1867    nanus, dwarf, probably referring to small size of N. fasciatus and N. niloticus (both 5 cm); Charax, typical genus of the Characiformes, from Greek word meaning “palisade of pointed sticks,” referring to densely packed sharp teeth, now a common root-name formation in the order

Nannocharax altus Pellegrin 1930    high, probably referring to higher dorsal fin compared to N. brevis

Nannocharax angolensis (Poll 1967)    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Angola, where it is endemic

Nannocharax ansorgii Boulenger 1911    in honor of explorer William John Ansorge (1850-1913), who collected type

Nannocharax brevis Boulenger 1902    short, presumably referring to short body length, 4.5 cm TL

Nannocharax dageti Jerep, Vari & Vreven 2014    in honor of the late Jacques Daget (1919-2009), formerly of the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (Paris), for major contributions to our knowledge of African freshwater fishes

Nannocharax elongatus Boulenger 1900    referring to more elongate body compared to N. fasciatus

Nannocharax fasciatus Günther 1867    banded, referring to 8-10 brown bars across back, more or less confluent with similar bars on sides, 2-3 brown bars across dorsal fin, and one each on ventral and anal fins

Nannocharax fasciolaris Nichols & Boulton 1927    fasciola, diminutive of fascia, band, referring to ~17 dark cross-bars on body

Nannocharax gracilis Poll 1939    slender, presumably referring to caudal peduncle, which is ~2 times as long as it is high

Nannocharax hastatus Jerep & Vari 2014    like a spear, referring to spear-shaped body

Nannocharax hollyi Fowler 1936    in honor of Maximilian Holly, Naturhistorisches Staatsmuseum, Vienna, for his “valuable” work on the freshwater fishes of the Cameroons in 1930

Nannocharax intermedius Boulenger 1903    described as intermediate in form between N. niloticus and N. fasciatus

Nannocharax latifasciatus Coenen & Teugels 1989    latus, wide; fasciatus, banded, referring to wider longitudinal band compared to known congeners at time of description

Nannocharax lineomaculatus Blache & Miton 1960    lineo-, line; maculatus, spotted, referring to 3-5 lenticular spots along lateral line

Nannocharax lineostriatus (Poll 1967)    lineo-, line; striatus, striped, referring to black lateral band running from tip of nose to root of tail, transversed by 9-12 vertical black lines

Nannocharax luapulae Boulenger 1915    of Luapula River at Kasenga, Democratic Republic of Congo, type locality

Nannocharax machadoi (Poll 1967)    in honor of António de Barros Machado (1912-2002), “distinguished” (translation) zoologist of the Musée de Dundo, Angola, where type specimens are housed

Nannocharax macropterus Pellegrin 1926    macro-, long; pterus, fin, referring to longer pectoral and ventral fins compared to N. taenia

Nannocharax maculicauda Vari & Géry 1981    macula, spot; cauda, tail, referring to dark spot on caudal peduncle

Nannocharax micros Fowler 1936    small, type 27 mm in length

Nannocharax minutus Worthington 1933    small, presumably referring to small size (26-28 mm long)

Nannocharax monardi (Pellegrin 1936)    in honor of Swiss naturalist and explorer Albert Monard (1886-1952), who collected type

Nannocharax multifasciatus Boulenger 1923    multi-, many; fasciatus, banded, referring to 15 brown vertical bars on sides

Nannocharax niloticus niloticus (Joannis 1835)    icus, belonging to: Nile River, presumably type locality (type now lost)

Nannocharax niloticus tchadensis Blache & Miton 1961    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Tchad (French for Chad), referring to endorheic Chad (or Lake Chad) basin, central Africa, where it is endemic

Nannocharax occidentalis Daget 1959    western, described as a western subspecies of N. niloticus

Nannocharax ocellicauda Boulenger 1907    ocellus, eyespot; cauda, tail, referring to large, black, light-edged ocellus at root of caudal fin

Nannocharax ogoensis Pellegrin 1911    ensis, suffix denoting place: Ogowe River at Franceville, Gabon, type locality

Nannocharax parvus Pellegrin 1906    small, up to 4.2 cm TL

Nannocharax procatopus Boulenger 1920    pro-, forward; cato-, low; pous, foot, referring to origin of ventral fins (“low feet”) well in front of origin of dorsal fin

Nannocharax pteron Fowler 1936    fin, referring to long, “well-developed” paired fins

Nannocharax reidi Vari & Ferraris 2004    in honor of Gordon McGregor Reid, North of England Zoological Society, who first reported that this fish represented an undescribed form, and who has “contributed broadly” to the knowledge and conservation of African freshwater fishes

Nannocharax rubensteini (Jerep & Vari 2013)    in honor of David Rubenstein, who funded the Rubenstein Fellowships of the Encyclopedia of Life at the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution)

Nannocharax rubrolabiatus Van den Bergh, Teugels, Coenen & Ollevier 1995    ruber, red; labiatus, lipped, referring to bright red lips

Nannocharax schoutedeni Poll 1939    in honor of zoologist Henri Schouteden (1881-1972), who collected many new species in the Belgian Congo, including type of this one

Nannocharax signifer Moritz 2010    signum, mark; fero, to bear (i.e., color sergeant or standard bearer), referring to “unusual” red-orange color on dorsal fin

Nannocharax taenia Boulenger 1902    band, probably referring to 12 brown bars across back and sides

Nannocharax uniocellatus (Pellegrin 1926)    uni-, one; ocellatus, eye-spotted, referring to ocellus at caudal-fin base

Nannocharax usongo Dunz & Schliewen 2009    in honor of Dr. Leonard Usongo, “highly successful conservation biologist and supporter of numerous fish inventories in Cameroon”

Nannocharax wittei (Poll 1933)    in honor of of herpetologist Gaston François De Witte (1897-1980), who collected type

Nannocharax zebra Dunz & Schliewen 2009    referring to striped pattern of preserved specimens

Neolebias Steindachner 1894    neo-, new; lebias, Greek name for a kind of small fish, often used to compose names of killifishes (Steindachner erroneously placed N. unifasciatus in Cyprinodontidae)

Neolebias ansorgii Boulenger 1912    in honor of explorer William John Ansorge (1850-1913), who collected type

Neolebias axelrodi Poll & Gosse 1963     in honor of pet-book publisher Herbert R. Axelrod (b. 1927), who collected type

Neolebias gossei (Poll & Lambert 1964)    patronym not identified but clearly in honor of Poll’s Belgian ichthyological colleague, Jean-Pierre Gosse (1924-2001)

Neolebias kerguennae Daget 1980    in honor of Daget’s wife, Kerguenne

Neolebias lozii Winemiller & Kelso-Winemiller 1993    in honor of the Lozi tribe, traditional caretakers of the Barotse floodplain, Zambia (where it occurs), and the floodplain’s fishery resources

Neolebias philippei Poll & Gosse 1963    in honor of R. Philippe (no other information provided), who collected type

Neolebias powelli Teugels & Roberts 1990    in honor of C. B. Powell, University of Port Hancourt (Nigeria), who collected part of type series

Neolebias spilotaenia Boulenger 1912    spilos, mark or spot; taenia, band, presumably referring to vertical bar at base of the caudal fin and darker broad band along side of body, respectively

Neolebias trewavasae Poll & Gosse 1963    in honor of ichthyologist Ethelwynn Trewavas (1900-1993), for her assistance (e.g., loan of specimens) in the preparation of the authors’ revision of this genus

Neolebias trilineatus Boulenger 1899    tri-, three; lineatus, lined, referring to three black lines on sides, separated by silvery bands

Neolebias unifasciatus Steindachner 1894    uni-, one; fasciatus, banded, presumably referring to dark line running from tip of snout to caudal-peduncle base

Paradistichodus Pellegrin 1922    para-, near, described as a dwarf relative of Distichodus

Paradistichodus dimidiatus (Pellegrin 1904)    halved or divided, referring to broad, dark longitudinal band that divides body into two equal parts

Paraphago Boulenger 1899    para-, near, presumably referring to similarity and/or affinity with Phago (both genera feature narrow, elongate snouts but markedly differ in number of lateral-line scales)

Paraphago rostratus Boulenger 1899    beaked, referring to narrow, beak-like snout

Phago Günther 1865    eating or devouring, presumably referring to mouth “armed with a series of strongish, compressed, tricuspid teeth round its entire margin”

Phago boulengeri Schilthuis 1891    patronym not identified but clearly in honor of Georges A. Boulenger (1858-1937), British Museum (Natural History), who published extensively on fishes from the Congo

Phago intermedius Boulenger 1899    intermediate in squamation between P. loricatus and P. boulengeri

Phago loricatus Günther 1865    armored, referring to large, hard, rugose scales on body, forming a hard carapace

Xenocharax Günther 1867    xenos, strange or foreign, allusion not explained and meaning not evident; Charax, typical genus of the Characiformes, from Greek word meaning “palisade of pointed sticks,” referring to densely packed sharp teeth, now a common root-name formation in the order

Xenocharax crassus Pellegrin 1900    thick, referring to its stockier shape compared to X. spilurus

Xenocharax spilurus Günther 1867    spilos, spot; oura, tail, referring to large round black spot at root of caudal fin


Family CITHARINIDAE Lutefishes                        
3 genera · 10 species/subspecies

Citharidium Boulenger 1902    ium, adjectival suffix, i.e., Citharinus-like (differing in having ctenoid scales)

Citharidium ansorgii Boulenger 1902     in honor of explorer William John Ansorge (1850-1913), who collected type

Citharinops Daget 1962    ops, appearance, originally proposed as a subgenus of Citharinus, i.e., Citharinus-like

Citharinops distichodoides distichodoides (Pellegrin 1919)    oides, having the form of: Distichodus (Distichodontidae), referring to larger scales than other species of Citharinus (genus in which it was described)

Citharinops distichodoides thomasi (Pellegrin 1924)    in honor of Jean Thomas, who collected fishes for the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (Paris) in Africa, including type of this one

Citharinus Cuvier 1816    inus, adjectival suffix, i.e., harp-like, referring to scale rows of C. citharus, which are said to resemble the strings of a harp

Citharinus citharus citharus (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1809)    harp, lyre or lute, a name dating to Aristotle, referring to its conspicuous transverse scales rows, “nearly straight and parallel, which resemble the strings of a harp” (translation)

Citharinus citharus intermedius Worthington 1932    intermediate in form between C. c. citharus and C. latus

Citharinus congicus Boulenger 1897    icus, belonging to: Congo River of Zaire (now Democratic Republic of the Congo), referring to Stanley Falls, type locality

Citharinus eburneensis Daget 1962    ensis, suffix denoting place: eburn, ivory, referring to type locality in the Ivory Coast

Citharinus gibbosus Boulenger 1899    humpbacked, referring to convex dorsal profile

Citharinus latus Müller & Troschel 1844    wide, allusion not explained (name coined by Ehrenberg, who collected type), perhaps referring to larger adipose fin compared to C. geoffroyi (=citharus), or to elevated body shape of all citharines

Citharinus macrolepis Boulenger 1899    macro-, large; lepis, scale, referring to larger scales compared to C. citharus


Family CRENUCHIDAE South American Darters
12 genera • 95 species

Subfamily CRENUCHINAE

Crenuchus Günther 1863    crena, notch; nucha, nape of the neck, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to broad depression between the eyes, a character noted by Eigenmann (1912) [online claims that name is derived from krenoychos, the god of running waters, or means “guardian of the spring,” are offered without support and source]

Crenuchus spilurus Günther 1863    spilos, spot; oura, tail, referring to round black spot at end of tail

Poecilocharax Eigenmann 1909    poecilo-, referring to resemblance to some genera of Poeciliidae (Cyprinodontiformes); Charax, typical genus of the Characiformes, from Greek word meaning “palisade of pointed sticks,” referring to densely packed sharp teeth, now a common root-name formation in the order

Poecilocharax bovaliorum Eigenmann 1909    in honor of Edward and Edwin Bovalius, Essequibo Exploration Company, without whose help Eigenmann’s trip to the Tumatumari and Kaieteur regions of Guyana “would have been practically impossible” [originally spelled bovalii; since name honors more than one person, spelling must be amended to bovaliorum per ICZN Art. 31.1.2-3]

Poecilocharax weitzmani Géry 1965    in honor of Smithsonian ichthyologist (and characid expert) Stanley H. Weitzman

Subfamily CHARACIDIINAE                  

Ammocryptocharax Weitzman & Kanazawa 1976    Ammocrypta, a genus of North American darters (Perciformes: Percidae), referring to superficial resemblance between the genera; Charax, typical genus of the Characiformes, from Greek word meaning “palisade of pointed sticks,” referring to densely packed sharp teeth, now a common root-name formation in the order

Ammocryptocharax elegans Weitzman & Kanazawa 1976    special, choice, fine or select, allusion not explained but possibly referring to bright “grassy” green coloration in life; according to senior author (S. H. Weitzman, pers. comm.), name simply refers to both sexes being elegant fishes

Ammocryptocharax lateralis (Eigenmann 1909)    of the side, presumably referring to broad band, bordered by a light streak above, from tip of snout to base of middle caudal-fin rays

Ammocryptocharax minutus Buckup 1993    small, the smallest member of the genus (up to 19.8 mm SL)

Ammocryptocharax vintonae (Eigenmann 1909)    in honor of Mrs. C. Vinton (no other information available), “one of the few ladies who have visited the habitat of this species” [originally spelled vintoni, but prevailing usage of gender-correct spelling is continued]

Characidium Reinhardt 1867    diminutive of Charax, i.e., a small characid, perhaps reflecting Reinhardt’s description of C. fasciatum as a “curious little fish” (translation)

Characidium alipioi Travassos 1955    in honor of Brazilian ichthyologist-herpetologist Alípio de Miranda Ribeiro (1874-1939), founder of the Museu Nacional’s fish collection

Characidium amaila Lujan, Agudelo-Zamora, Taphorn, Booth & López-Fernández 2013    named for Amaila Falls (downstream of type locality), “a striking feature of the Guiana Shield escarpment in western Guyana that will have altered flow following completion of a dam that is now being planned”

Characidium bahiense Almeida 1971    ensis, suffix denoting place: Bahia, Brazil, where it is endemic

Characidium bimaculatum Fowler 1941    bi-, two; maculatum, spotted, referring to broad black subbasal blotch or band on dorsal fin, and large oval black blotch embracing dark lateral band at caudal peduncle and caudal-fin base

Characidium boaevistae Steindachner 1915    of Boa Vista, capital of Brazilian state of Roraima, on western bank of Rio Branco, type locality (also occurs in Venezuela) [often spelled boavistae, without the first e]

Characidium boehlkei Géry 1972    in honor of James E. Böhlke (1930-1982), Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, who suspected that Ecuadorian specimens of this species, which he identified as C. fasciatum, represented a new species

Characidium bolivianum Pearson 1924     anum, belonging to: Bolivia, where it is endemic to the Upper Madeira River basin

Characidium borellii (Boulenger 1895)    in honor of zoologist Alfredo Borelli (1858-1943), who led expedition that collected type

Characidium brevirostre Pellegrin 1909    brevis, short; rostris, snout, referring to shorter snout compared to C. steindachneri

Characidium caucanum Eigenmann 1912    anum, belonging to: Cauca River basin, Colombia, where it is endemic

Characidium chupa Schultz 1944    local name for this species in Venezuela

Characidium clistenesi Melo & Espíndola 2016    in honor of colleague Alexandre Clistenes de Alcântara Santos, Feira de Santana State University, for his long dedication in researching the natural history of the fishes of Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil, where this species occurs

Characidium crandellii Steindachner 1915    patronym not identified, probably in honor of geologist Roderic Crandall (note spelling), Brazilian Geological Survey, who lived in Boa Vista, Brazil, along the Rio Branco, one of the type localities

Characidium declivirostre Steindachner 1915    declivis, sloping; rostrum, snout, referring to obtuse angle of snout, sloping in a straight line from anterior edge of small mouth

Characidium deludens Zanata & Camelier 2015    false, referring to “deceitful” vertical bars on body, similar to those on congeners such as C. fasciatum

Characidium etheostoma Cope 1872    “having much the same coloration of the Poecilichthys or Etheostoma [Perciformes: Percidae] of North American streams”

Characidium etzeli Zarske & Géry 2001    in honor of veterinarian Vollrad Etzel, who helped collect type

Characidium fasciatum Reinhardt 1867    banded, referring to black stripe along body (and perhaps also to its 10-15 dusky vertical bands)

Characidium gomesi Travassos 1956    in honor of Alcides Lourenço Gomes, Estacão Experimental de Caça e Pesca (São Paulo, Brazil), who collected many of the paratypes in 1949 and described the similar C. pterostictum in 1947

Characidium grajahuense Travassos 1944    ensis, suffix denoting place: Grajaú, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, type locality

Characidium hasemani Steindachner 1915    in honor of John D. Haseman (d. 1969), Carl Eigenmann’s student and field collector for the Carnegie Museum of Natural History, who collected type

Characidium heinianum Zarske & Géry 2001    anum, belonging to: freelance ichthyologist Günter Hein, who contributed in many ways to the senior author’s collecting trip to Bolivia, including helping to collect type

Characidium heirmostigmata da Graça & Pavanelli 2008    heirmos, series; stigmata, marked, referring to series of black marks on sides

Characidium helmeri Zanata, Sarmento-Soares & Martins-Pinheiro 2015    in honor of José Luis Helmer, who collected part of the type species, for his pioneer studies on the natural history of the freshwater fishes of Espírito Santo and Bahia (Brazil) since 1976

Characidium interruptum Pellegrin 1909    interrupted, referring to lateral-line scalation that ends at dorsal-fin origin, comprising only nine scales

Characidium japuhybense Travassos 1949    ensis, suffix denoting place: Japuhyba (Japuíba), Angra dos Reis, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, type locality

Characidium kamakan Zanata & Camelier 2015    named after the Kamakã indigenous people who originally inhabited lower portion of río Pardo basin, Bahia, Brazil, type locality

Characidium lagosantense Travassos 1947    ensis, suffix denoting place: Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, type locality

Characidium lanei Travassos 1967    in honor of the late John Lane, entomologist, who collected type

Characidium laterale (Boulenger 1895)    lateral, referring to black line that extends from tip of snout, through eye, to base of caudal fin

Characidium lauroi Travassos 1949    in honor of helminthologist-entomologist Lauro Travassos (1890-1970), who collected type

Characidium littorale Leitão & Buckup 2014    of the seashore, referring to distribution in coastal drainages between the Serra do Mar (Brazil) and the Atlantic Ocean

Characidium longum Taphorn, Montaña & Buckup 2006    long, referring to its extremely elongate body

Characidium macrolepidotum (Peters 1868)    macro-, large; lepidotum, scaled, allusion not explained in Peters’ one-paragraph description; perhaps he believed it had larger scales than other Leporinus (Anostomidae), the genus to which he had erroneously assigned it

Characidium marshi Breder 1925    in honor of Richard Oglesby Marsh (1883-1953), engineer, American diplomat and amateur ethnologist, for his financial support of the Marsh-Darien Expedition to Panama in 1924

Characidium mirim Netto-Ferreira, Birindelli & Buckup 2013    Tupí word for small, being the smallest known species in the genus

Characidium nana Mendonça & Netto-Ferreira 2015    in honor of Mariana Barreira Mendonça, the senior author’s sister, known by her family and friends as “Naná”

Characidium nupelia da Graça, Pavanelli & Buckup 2008    recognizing the role of Nupélia (Núcleo de Pesquisas em Limnologia, Ictiologia e Aqüicultura) in the survey and ecological research of fishes from the manso Reservoir region (Mato Grosso, Brazil), which led to the discovery of this species

Characidium occidentale Buckup & Reis 1997    western, referring to its distribution to the west of C. orientale

Characidium oiticicai Travassos 1967    in honor of the late José Oiticica Filho (1906-1964), entomologist, photographer and Travassos’ colleague at the Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Characidium orientale Buckup & Reis 1997    eastern, referring to its distribution to the east of C. occidentale

Characidium papachibe Peixoto & Wosiacki 2013    papa-chibé, a name traditionally associated with people from Pará, Brazil (type locality), named in their honor

Characidium pellucidum Eigenmann 1909    “pellucid in life” and resembling the North American percid (Perciformes) Ammocrypta pellucida

Characidium phoxocephalum Eigenmann 1912    phoxos, pointed; cephalum, head, probably referring to more-pointed snout compared to the similar C. caucanum

Characidium pteroides Eigenmann 1909    oides, having the form of: meaning not explained, perhaps alluding to the lionfish genus Pterois and/or to the word pteron, wing or fin, referring to its long pectoral fins, which reach the ventrals

Characidium pterostictum Gomes 1947    pteros, fin; stictum, spotted, referring to light-brown spots on dorsal fin and variegated caudal fin

Characidium purpuratum Steindachner 1882    purplish, referring to purple caudal and anal fins

Characidium rachovii Regan 1913    in honor of German aquarist Arthur Rachow, who presented type to the British Museum (Natural History)

Characidium roesseli Géry 1965    in honor of Fritz Rössel, catfish specialist, Senckenberg Museum (Frankfurt, Germany)

Characidium samurai Zanata & Camelier 2014    in honor of the warrior caste of 11th- to 19th-century Japan, specifically their expertise in martial arts, attested today by the term “black belt,” referring to conspicuous midlateral black band

Characidium sanctjohanni Dahl 1960    of San Juan (latinized), referring to Río San Juan, western Colombia, type locality

Characidium satoi Melo & Oyakawa 2015    in honor of biologist Yoshimi Sato, Companhia de Desenvolvimento dos Vales do São Francisco e do Parnaíba (CODEVASF), for his contributions to the knowledge and conservation of the fishes of the Rio São Francisco drainage, where this species occurs

Characidium schindleri Zarske & Géry 2001    in honor of ichthyologist Otto Schindler (1906-1959), Zoologische Staatssammlung München, who collected type in 1953

Characidium schubarti Travassos 1955    in honor of Otto Schubart (1900-1962), myriapodist, Estação Experimental de Biologia e Piscicultura do Ministério de Agricultura (São Paulo, Brazil), who collected type

Characidium serrano Buckup & Reis 1997    Portuguese for “inhabitant of the serras,” referring to high plateau where rio Uruguay headwaters (where this fish occurs) are located

Characidium steindachneri Cope 1878    in honor of Austrian ichthyologist Franz Steindachner (1834-1919), “who has added much to our knowledge of the fishes of the Amazon” and from whom Cope has “derived much instruction in this department from his very full diagnostic analyses”

Characidium stigmosum Melo & Buckup 2002    full of marks, referring to vertically oriented black marks on sides of body

Characidium summum Zanata & Ohara 2015    high or elevated, referring to high altitude where it occurs, near Pico Tracoá, higher than 1100 m above sea level in the Serra dos Pacaás Novos, Rondônia, Brazil

Characidium tenue (Cope 1894)    tenuis, thin, allusion not explained, probably referring to its very slender body

Characidium timbuiense Travassos 1946    ensis, suffix denoting place: Timbuí River basin, Espírito Santo, Brazil, where it is endemic

Characidium travassosi Melo, Buckup & Oyakawa 2016    in honor of the late Haroldo P. Travassos, Museu Nacional (of Brazil), for his contributions to the taxonomy of the genus Characidium

Characidium vestigipinne Buckup & Hahn 2000    vestigium, vestige; pinna, fin, referring to reduced adipose fin

Characidium vidali Travassos 1967    in honor of Travassos’ colleague, geologist Nei Vidal

Characidium xanthopterum Silveira, Langeani, da Graça, Pavanelli & Buckup 2008    xanthos, yellow; pterum, fin, referring to bright yellow fins in life

Characidium xavante da Graça, Pavanelli & Buckup 2008    Xavante, indigenous ethnic group inhabiting region between Rio das Mortes and Rio Culuene (Mato Grosso, Brazil), where this species occurs; type locality (Córrego Vivanta, a stream) is also named after this group

Characidium zebra Eigenmann 1909    referring to its zebra-like markings, ~10 crossbands, sometimes doubling on the sides, giving the appearance of many narrow bands

Elachocharax Myers 1927    elacho-, insignificant, presumably referring to small size (22 mm) and/or small mouth, “with scarcely any gape”; Charax, typical genus of the Characiformes, from Greek word meaning “palisade of pointed sticks,” referring to densely packed sharp teeth, now a common root-name formation in the order

Elachocharax geryi Weitzman & Kanazawa 1978    in honor of Jacques Géry (1917-2007), “whose enthusiasm for the study of characoid fishes of South America has been especially expressed in his publications on members of the Characidiinae”

Elachocharax junki (Géry 1971)    in honor of Amazon-floodplain ecologist Wolfgang Junk, who helped collect type

Elachocharax mitopterus Weitzman 1986    mitos, thread; pterus, fin, referring to long thread-like rays of pectoral fin

Elachocharax pulcher Myers 1927    beautiful, a “pretty little species”

Geryichthys Zarske 1997    in honor of characiform fish taxonomist Jacques Géry (1917-2007), on the occasion of his 80th birthday; ichthys, fish

Geryichthys sterbai Zarske 1997    in honor of zoologist and aquarist Günther Sterba (b. 1922), University of Leipzig, on the occasion of his 75th birthday

Klausewitzia Géry 1965    ia, belonging to: ichthyologist Wolfgang Klausewitz (b. 1922), Senckenberg Museum (Frankfurt, Germany), in honor of their friendship

Klausewitzia ritae Géry 1965    in honor of Rita Klausewitz (d. 1995), wife of ichthyologist Wolfgang Klausewitz

Leptocharacidium Buckup 1993    leptos, thin, fine or elegant, referring to relatively elongate snout of genus; Characidium, type genus of subfamily

Leptocharacidium omospilus Buckup 1993    omos, shoulder; spilos, spot, referring to dark mark on skin overlaying the cleithrum

Melanocharacidium Buckup 1993    melas, dark or black, referring to dark pigmentation of most congeners; Characidium, type genus of subfamily

Melanocharacidium auroradiatum Costa & Vicente 1994    aurum, gold; radiatum, rayed, referring to golden rays on dorsal, anal and caudal fins

Melanocharacidium blennioides (Eigenmann 1909)    –oides, having the form of, referring to its blenny-like shape

Melanocharacidium compressum Buckup 1993    referring to relatively compressed body form

Melanocharacidium depressum Buckup 1993    referring to relatively depressed body form

Melanocharacidium dispilomma Buckup 1993    di-, two; spilos, spot; omma, eye, referring to two dark marks above orbit

Melanocharacidium melanopteron Buckup 1993    melas, black; pteron, fin, referring to dark pigmentation of fins

Melanocharacidium nigrum Buckup 1993    black, referring to black coloration of entire body

Melanocharacidium pectorale Buckup 1993    of the breast, referring to disproportionally large cleithra, which ventrally forms a prominent crest across the prepectoral area and extends dorsally considerably beyond the supracleithra

Melanocharacidium rex (Böhlke 1958)    king, presumably referring to its size (102.2 mm SL), large for a characidiine

Microcharacidium Buckup 1993    micro-, small, referring to minute size of all species; Characidium, type genus of subfamily

Microcharacidium eleotrioides (Géry 1960)    oides, having the form of: resembling a young sleeper goby (Eleotris, Perciformes: Eleotridae)

Microcharacidium geryi Zarske 1997    in honor of ichthyologist Jacques Géry (1917-2007), for significant contributions to the knowledge of characiform fishes, on the occasion of his 80th birthday

Microcharacidium gnomus Buckup 1993    gnome, a diminutive fabled being, referring to its small size

Microcharacidium weitzmani Buckup 1993    in honor of Smithsonian ichthyologist Stanley H. Weitzman, “whose interest in miniature fishes led to the description of several small characiforms”; this species is “one of the smallest among these miniatures”

Odontocharacidium Buckup 1993    odontos, tooth, referring to presence of maxillary teeth on only known species; Characidium, type genus of the subfamily

Odontocharacidium aphanes (Weitzman & Kanazawa 1977)    Greek for obscure or unseen, referring to its “cryptic qualities” in life (e.g., small size, hiding in vegetation, slowly moving from place to place)

Skiotocharax Presswell, Weitzman & Bergquist 2000    skiotus, shaded by gradation in color, referring to gradation of pigmentation from dorsal (dark) to ventral (pale); Charax, typical genus of the Characiformes, from Greek word meaning “palisade of pointed sticks,” referring to densely packed sharp teeth, now a common root-name formation in the order

Skiotocharax meizon Presswell, Weitzman & Bergquist 2000    larger or greater, i.e., “somewhat larger” than other miniature member of its clade, Odontocharacidium aphanes


Family ALESTIDAE African Tetras
20 genera · 121 species/subspecies

Alestes Müller & Troschel 1844    Greek for miller or grinder, presumably referring to inner row of premaxillary molariform teeth

Alestes ansorgii Boulenger 1910    in honor of explorer William John Ansorge (1850-1913), who collected type

Alestes baremoze baremoze (Joannis 1835)    Arabian name for this species along the Nile in Egypt

Alestes baremoze eburneensis (Daget 1965)    ensis, suffix denoting place: eburn, ivory, referring to type locality in the Ivory Coast

Alestes bartoni Nichols & La Monte 1953    in honor of Otis Barton (1899-1992), deepsea diver, inventor and actor, “whose unconquerable spirit of adventure has taken him many places, and who has brought back to the American Museum [of Natural History] various new or little-known fishes from diverse parts of the world,” including type of this one

Alestes batesii Boulenger 1903    in honor of George Latimer Bates (1863-1940), Cameroon farmer and ornithologist, who collected specimens for the Natural History Museum (London), including type of this species

Alestes bimaculatus Boulenger 1899    bi-, two; maculatus, spotted, referring to two large, round, highly reflective and metallic spots on each side of body, one between lateral line and last rays of dorsal fin, other at base of caudal fin

Alestes carmesinus Nichols & Griscom 1917    crimson, referring to rose-red cheeks and lower sides

Alestes comptus Roberts & Stewart 1976    ornamented or adorned, referring to iridescent golden band and iridescent violet and bluish-green bands on sides

Alestes dentex (Linnaeus 1758)    with large teeth; name coined by Hasselquist (1757) in a work edited by Linnaeus, described as a toothed Cyprinus, referring to inner row of premaxillary molariform teeth

Alestes grandisquamis Boulenger 1899    grandis, large; squamus, scale, referring to larger lateral-line scales compared to A. (=Brycinus) macrolepidotus

Alestes humilis Boulenger 1905    low or humble, allusion not explained nor evident

Alestes inferus Stiassny, Schelly & Mamonekene 2009    lower or southern, referring to occurrence below a series of rapids in a south-bank tributary on the lower Congo River

Alestes liebrechtsii Boulenger 1898    in honor of Charles Liebrechts (1858-1938), Secretary-General of Home and Military Affairs of the Congo Free State, and president of the Museum of the Belgian Congo, for his services to science

Alestes macrophthalmus Günther 1867    macro-, large; ophthalmus, eye, referring to “very large [eye], scarcely less than one-third of the length of the head, with broad adipose eyelids”

Alestes peringueyi Boulenger 1923    patronym not identified but probably in honor of entomologist Louis Péringuey (1855-1924), director of the South African Museum, where type is housed and in whose publication this species was described

Alestes schoutedeni Boulenger 1912    in honor of zoologist Henri Schouteden (1881-1972), who collected many new species in the Belgian Congo

Alestes stuhlmannii Pfeffer 1896    in honor of Franz Stuhlmann (1863-1928), German zoologist and African explorer, who collected type

Alestes taeniurus Günther 1867    taenia, band; urus, tail, referring to black streak on posterior part of body that extends into middle rays of caudal fin

Alestes tholloni Pellegrin 1901    in honor of botanist François-Romain Thollon (1855-1896), Muséum d’histoire naturelle (Paris), who collected type

Alestopetersius Hoedeman 1951    etymology not explained, presumably a combination of Alestes and Petersius, i.e., an alestid species closely resembling and related to Petersius (=Alestopetersius) caudalis

Alestopetersius bifasciatus (Poll 1967)    bi-, two; fasciatus, banded, presumably referring to median black band extending to caudal-fin margin and flanked by dense black bands in both upper and lower fin lobes

Alestopetersius brichardi Poll 1967    in honor of aquarium-fish exporter Pierre Brichard (1921-1990), who collected one of the paratypes

Alestopetersius caudalis (Boulenger 1899)    of the tail, probably referring to silvery lateral band that becomes blackish on caudal peduncle and extends as a black band on caudal fin

Alestopetersius compressus (Poll & Gosse 1963)    referring to more laterally compressed body shape compared to Petersius modestus (=A. hilgendorfi)

Alestopetersius conspectus Mbimbi Mayi Munene & Stiassny 2012    conspicuous, referring to conspicuous markings on caudal fin and striking, bright coloration in life

Alestopetersius hilgendorfi (Boulenger 1899)    in honor of zoologist and paleontologist Franz Hilgendorf (1839-1904), who established Petersius (original genus for this species) in 1894

Alestopetersius leopoldianus (Boulenger 1899)    anus, belonging to: Lake Leopold (now Lake Mai-Ndombe), Democratic Republic of the Congo, type locality

Alestopetersius nigropterus Poll 1967    nigro-, black; pterus, fin, referring to intensely black dorsal and caudal fins and blackened pectoral and ventral fins

Alestopetersius smykalai Poll 1967    in honor of E. R. Smykala (no other information available), who collected type

Alestopetersius tumbensis Hoedeman 1951    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Lake Tumba, Democratic Republic of the Congo, type locality

Arnoldichthys Myers 1926    named for German aquarist Johann Paul Arnold (1869-1952), who sent types of A. spilopterus to George A. Boulenger; ichthys, fish

Arnoldichthys spilopterus (Boulenger 1909)    spilos, spot; ptera, fin, referring to large black spot on dorsal fin

Bathyaethiops Fowler 1949    bathys, deep; aethiops, Fowler said “burned or glowing” but a more appropriate translation would be “black or scorched” considering that the “peculiar” color pattern of B. greeni is said to comprise blackish-gray blotches and bars on its sides (while aethiops can mean “fiery looking” or “sunburned,” Fowler may have simply repeated the adjective Æthiops, Ethiopian or Negro [from the Greek aithein, to burn and ops, face], which Günther used to form the names of two related genera, Bryconaethiops and Nannaethiops)

Bathyaethiops atercrinis Mamonekene & Stiassny 2012    ater, black; crinis, comet tail, referring to “striking” black markings on caudal peduncle and anal fin of mature males

Bathyaethiops baka    Moritz & Schliewen 2016    named after the Baka people, the native hunter-gatherer tribe in southeastern Cameroon, where this species occurs

Bathyaethiops breuseghemi (Poll 1945)    in honor of mycologist Raymond Van Breuseghem, who collected type

Bathyaethiops caudomaculatus (Pellegrin 1925)    cauda-, tail; maculatus, spotted, referring to oval black spot at beginning of caudal peduncle

Bathyaethiops flammeus Moritz & Schliewen 2016    bright red or burning, referring to bright-red spot on nape in front of dorsal fin

Bathyaethiops greeni Fowler 1949    in honor of Harold T. Green, Curator of Exhibits, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, who cared for the fish specimens collected by William K. Carpenter during his African expeditions, 1946-1948

Brachypetersius Hoedeman 1956    brachys, short, allusion not explained nor evident, originally (but invalidly) named by Hoedeman in 1951 as subgenus of Alestopetersius; validly named in 1956 as a subgenus of Phenacogrammus

Brachypetersius altus (Boulenger 1899)    high, probably referring to concave dorsal profile and subsequent high body depth

Brachypetersius cadwaladeri (Fowler 1930)    in honor of ornithologist Charles M. B. Cadwalader (1885-1959), Managing Director, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, to whom Fowler is “indebted for much encouragement in ichthyology”

Brachypetersius gabonensis Poll 1967    ensis, suffix denoting place: Gabon, West Central Africa, where it is endemic

Brachypetersius huloti (Poll 1954)    in honor of A. Hulot, Institut National pour l’Etude Agronomique du Congo, who collected type

Brachypetersius notospilus (Pellegrin 1930)    notos, back (in this case, probably referring to rear, or back, portion of fish); spilos, spot, probably referring to large peduncular spot

Brachypetersius pseudonummifer Poll 1967    pesudo-, false, apparently referring to Poll’s 1945 classification of this species as a juvenile Micralestes nummifer (=Phenacogrammus altus)

Brycinus Valenciennes 1850    etymology not explained, possibly –inus, an adjectival suffix, i.e., Brycon-like, Brycon being a general term for characiform fishes, derived from bryco, to bite, gnash teeth or eat greedily, originally an allusion to fully toothed maxillae; a second possibility is that the name is a latinization of the French vernacular brycin that Valenciennes proposed for the genus)

Brycinus abeli (Fowler 1936)    in honor of Henri Abel, Administrator at Fort Sibut, Central African Republic, type locality, “who developed native interest and materially assisted the expedition” that collected type

Brycinus affinis (Günther 1894)    related, “allied to” B. imberi

Brycinus brevis (Boulenger 1903)     short, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to “rather short and thin” gill rakers

Brycinus carolinae (Paugy & Lévêque 1981)    matronym not explained but in honor of the senior author’s wife at the time, Caroline (D. Paugy, pers. comm.)

Brycinus chaperi (Sauvage 1882)    in honor of botanist-conchologist Maurice Armand Chaper (d. 1896), who collected type

Brycinus derhami Géry & Mahnert 1977    in honor of Swiss ichthyologist and aquarist Patrick de Rham, who collected type

Brycinus epuluensis Decru, Vreven, Sadio & Snoeks 2016    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Epulu River, Middle Congo basin, Democratic Republic of the Congo, type locality

Brycinus ferox (Hopson & Hopson 1982)    fierce, referring to its large teeth

Brycinus fwaensis Géry 1995    ensis, suffix denoting place: Lake Fwa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, where it is endemic

Brycinus imberi (Peters 1852)    etymology not explained, presumably from imberi or mberi, local name for this species in central and southeast Africa

Brycinus intermedius (Boulenger 1903)    described in Alestes, intermediate between A. (=Bryconalestes) longipinnis and A. tholloni, with smaller scales than the former and fewer anal rays than the latter

Brycinus jacksonii (Boulenger 1912)    in honor of Frederick John Jackson (1859-1929), English administrator, explorer and ornithologist, who collected type

Brycinus kingsleyae (Günther 1896)    in honor of writer and explorer Mary Henrietta Kingsley (1862-1900), who “obtained” type

Brycinus lateralis (Boulenger 1900)    of the side, presumably referring to dark lateral band on sides

Brycinus leuciscus (Günther 1867)    leukiskos, Greek word for chub, probably derived from leukos, white, referring to “bright silvery” coloration

Brycinus luteus (Roman 1966)    yellow, referring to lemon-yellow dorsal, anal and adipose fins, caudal fin lobes, and upper part of eye

Brycinus macrolepidotus Valenciennes 1850    macro-, large; lepidotus, scaled, referring to its “très-grandes” scales

Brycinus minutus (Hopson & Hopson 1982)    small, referring to small size, males reaching 3.3 cm SL

Brycinus nigricauda (Thys van den Audenaerde 1974)    nigri-, black; cauda, tail, referring to black caudal fin margin

Brycinus nurse (Rüppell 1832)    presumably the local name for this species along the Nile River in Egypt

Brycinus opisthotaenia (Boulenger 1903)    opisto-, behind; taenia, band, referring to black lateral band on posterior half of body, extending into middle rays of caudal fin

Brycinus poptae (Pellegrin 1906)    in honor of Canna Maria Louise Popta (1860-1929), curator, Leyden Museum, and “ichtyologiste distinguée”

Brycinus rhodopleura (Boulenger 1906)    rhodo-, rosy; pleuro-, side, referring to pink band on sides

Brycinus sadleri (Boulenger 1906)    in honor of Lieut.-Col. James Hayes Sadler (1827-1910), Commissioner of the Uganda Protectorate when type was collected

Brycinus tessmanni (Pappenheim 1911)    in honor of German explorer, ethnographer and plant collector Günter Tessmann (1884-1969), who collected type

Bryconaethiops Günther 1873    Brycon, described as an “African representative” of this South American genus; Æthiops, Latin for Ethiopian or Negro (from the Greek aithein, to burn and ops, face), possibly referring to Aethiopia, a classical term for Sub-Saharan Africa, i.e, an “Ethiopian” Brycon

Bryconaethiops boulengeri Pellegrin 1900    in honor of ichthyologist-herpetologist George A. Boulenger (1858-1937), who provided an illustration of this species in 1899 but considered it a variety of B. microstoma

Bryconaethiops macrops Boulenger 1920    macro-, large; ops, eye, referring to larger eye compared to B. microstoma

Bryconaethiops microstoma Günther 1873    micro-, small; stoma, mouth, presumably referring to “very small toothless maxillary”

Bryconaethiops quinquesquamae Teugels & Thys van den Audenaerde 1990    quinque, five; squama, scale, referring to number of scales between lateral line and dorsal-fin origin

Bryconalestes Hoedeman 1951    etymology not explained, probably a combination of Brycon (a neotropical characid) or Brycinus and Alestes, i.e., a Brycon– or Brycinus-like alestid

Bryconalestes longipinnis (Günther 1864)    longus, long; pinnis, fin, referring to filamentous fourth and fifth dorsal-fin rays on adults

Clupeocharax Pellegrin 1926    clupea, a herring, referring to its herring-like appearance; Charax, typical genus of the Characiformes, from Greek word meaning “palisade of pointed sticks,” referring to densely packed sharp teeth, now a common root-name formation in the order

Clupeocharax schoutedeni Pellegrin 1926    in honor of zoologist Henri Schouteden (1881-1972), who collected many new species in the Belgian Congo, including this one

Hemigrammopetersius Pellegrin 1926    hemi-, partial; gramme, line, i.e., similar to Petersius but with an incomplete lateral line

Hemigrammopetersius barnardi (Herre 1936)    in honor of marine biologist and museum director Keppel Harcourt Barnard (1887-1964), “whose publications are invaluable to the student of South and East African fishes”

Hemigrammopetersius pulcher (Boulenger 1909)    beautiful, presumably referring to coloration (greenish-yellow above and silvery below, fins tinged with orange) and markings (oval black spot on shoulder and broad black band on sides of tail)

Hydrocynus Cuvier 1816    hydro, water; kyon, dog, transliteration of local Egyptian name Kelb el bahr, or water dog, referring to voracious behavior of H. forskahlii

Hydrocynus brevis (Günther 1864)    short, referring to shorter body compared to H. forskahlii

Hydrocynus forskahlii (Cuvier 1819)    in honor of Swedish explorer and naturalist Peter Forsskål (also spelled Forsskåhl, 1732-1763), who identified this species as Salmo (=Alestes) dentex in 1775

Hydrocynus goliath Boulenger 1898    giant, presumably referring to large size, up to 1.5 m and 50 kg

Hydrocynus tanzaniae Brewster 1986    of Tanzania, where it is endemic

Hydrocynus vittatus Castelnau 1861    banded, referring to seven bright blue longitudinal stripes on sides

Ladigesia Géry 1968    ia, belonging to: Werner Ladiges (1910-1984), director, Zoologisches Staatsinstitut und Zoologischen Museum (Hamburg), who “kindly loaned the type material”

Ladigesia roloffi Géry 1968    in honor of German aquarist Erhard Roloff (1903-1980), who collected type

Lepidarchus Roberts 1966    lepis, scale; archos, anus, referring to presence of one cycloid scale on either side of anterior part of anal-fin base

Lepidarchus adonis adonis Roberts 1966    from Greek mythology, a beautiful youth beloved by Venus, allusion not explained, probably referring to youthful combination of minute size, translucent color, virtually scaleless body, and spotted coloration of males

Lepidarchus adonis signifer Isbrücker 1970    signum, mark; fero, to bear, referring to “peculiar” color pattern in males, different from that of L. a. adonis

Micralestes Boulenger 1899    micro-, small, referring to smaller size compared to other alestid species

Micralestes acutidens (Peters 1852)    acutus, sharp or pointed; dens, teeth, referring to internal row or eight sharp multicuspid teeth (“posterioribus octo acutis multicuspidatus”)

Micralestes ambiguus Géry 1995    ambiguous, referring to Géry’s difficulty in placing it in the proper genus

Micralestes argyrotaenia Trewavas 1936    arguros, silver; taenia, banded, referring to silvery lateral band with dark upper edge

Micralestes comoensis Poll & Roman 1967    ensis, suffix denoting place: Comoe (also spelled Komoé) River, Burkina Faso, Africa, type locality

Micralestes congicus Poll 1967    –icus, belonging to: Congo River basin, where it is endemic

Micralestes elongatus Daget 1957    referring to more elongate body compared to M. acutidens

Micralestes fodori Matthes 1965    in honor of “Dr. Fodor” (no other information available), who collected type

Micralestes holargyreus (Günther 1873)    holo-, entire; arguros, silver, referring to bright silvery coloration, without spots

Micralestes humilis Boulenger 1899    low or humble, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to small size (type specimen 48 mm)

Micralestes lualabae Poll 1967    of Lualaba River, Democratic Republic of Congo, type locality

Micralestes occidentalis (Günther 1899)    western, described as a western representive of the East African Petersius

Micralestes sardina Poll 1938    sardine, referring to similarity of shape to that of small clupeids

Micralestes schelly Stiassny & Mamonekene 2007    in honor of Robert C. Schelly, American Museum of Natural History, colleague and “intrepid” collector of the type series

Micralestes stormsi Boulenger 1902    in honor of M. Maurice Storms, “a cousin of the late Raymond Storms, so well known for his important contributions to paleoichthyology,” who collected type for the Brussels Museum

Micralestes vittatus (Boulenger 1917)    banded, referring to blackish lateral band that widens from gill cover to below dorsal fin

Nannopetersius Hoedeman 1956    nanno-, dwarf, allusion not explained nor evident, originally (but invalidly) named by Hoedeman in 1951 as subgenus of Alestopetersius; validly named in 1956 as a subgenus of Phenacogrammus

Nannopetersius ansorgii (Boulenger 1910)    in honor of explorer William John Ansorge (1850-1913), who collected type

Nannopetersius lamberti Poll 1967    in honor of Poll’s frequent collaborator J. G. Lambert, who collected type

Nannopetersius mutambuei Wamuini Lunkayilakio & Vreven 2008    in honor of Prof. Mutambue Shango, General Academic Secretary, École Régionale post-universitaire d’Aménagement et gestion Intégrée des Forêts et territoires Tropicaux (Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo), who collected many fishes from the Inkisi River basin in 1985 and 1986

Petersius Hilgendorf 1894    ius, pertaining to: Wilhelm Peters (1815-1883), German naturalist and explorer who traveled to Africa and returned to Berlin with an enormous collection of natural history specimens; Hilgendorf noted that it was surprising that Peters had heretofore been honored in botany (Petersia) but not zoology

Petersius conserialis Hilgendorf 1894    con-, together with; serialis, rowed, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to two rows of intermaxillary teeth, the anterior row pressed into the gap of the posterior row

Phenacogrammus Eigenmann 1907    phenaco-, cheat; grammus, line, referring to incomplete lateral line of type species, P. interruptus

Phenacogrammus aurantiacus (Pellegrin 1930)    orange-colored, referring to overall body coloration

Phenacogrammus bleheri Géry 1995    in honor of explorer and ornamental fish wholesaler and supplier Heiko Bleher, who provided most of the specimens for Géry’s study, including type of this one

Phenacogrammus deheyni Poll 1945    in honor of J. J. Deheyn, Royal Museum of Central Africa, who collected type

Phenacogrammus interruptus (Boulenger 1899)    interrupted, referring to incomplete lateral line

Phenacogrammus major (Boulenger 1903)    great or greater, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to greater number of scales and anal-fin rays compared to P. (=Alestopetersius) caudalis

Phenacogrammus polli Lambert 1961    in honor of Belgian ichthyologist Max Poll (1908-1991), for his frequent and friendly help and advice

Phenacogrammus stigmatura (Fowler 1936)    stigma, spot; oura, tail, referring to black spot at base of lower caudal lobe

Phenacogrammus taeniatus Géry 1996    striped or banded, referring to narrow, longitudinal band prolonged into middle caudal rays, a unique coloration in the tribe Petersiini

Phenacogrammus urotaenia (Boulenger 1909)    uro-, tail; taenia, band, referring to blackish streak on caudal part of body, extending to median rays of caudal fin

Rhabdalestes Hoedeman 1951    an alestid with rhabdo-, rod, stick or staff, allusion not explained nor evident from Hoedeman’s brief description within a key

Rhabdalestes aeratis Stiassny & Schaefer 2005    copper, bronze or brassy, referring to bronze flank coloration

Rhabdalestes brevidorsalis (Pellegrin 1921)    brevis, short; dorsalis, dorsal, referring to shorter dorsal fin compared to Petersius (now Hemigrammopetersius) pulcher

Rhabdalestes leleupi Poll 1967    in honor of entomologist Narcisse Leleup (1912-2001), Institut pour la Recherche Scientifique en Afrique Centrale, who helped collect type

Rhabdalestes maunensis (Fowler 1935)    –ensis, suffix denoting place: Maun, Botswana, where Thamalakane River (type locality) is situated

Rhabdalestes rhodesiensis (Ricardo-Bertram 1943)    ensis, suffix denoting place: northern Rhodesia (now Zambia), referring to type localities at Chambezi River and swamps and edge of Lake Bangweulu

Rhabdalestes septentrionalis (Boulenger 1911)    northern, being the northernmost species of Petersius (original genus)

Rhabdalestes tangensis (Lönnberg 1907)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Tanga, eastern Africa, type locality

Rhabdalestes yokai Ibala Zamba & Vreven 2008    in honor of Paul Yoka, Director of the Institut de Développement Rural at the University of Brazzaville (Republic of Congo), for his administrative help during the Léfini 2004-2008 Expeditions, during which type was collected

Tricuspidalestes Poll 1967    an Alestes with tricuspid teeth (although some teeth are pentacuspid)

Tricuspidalestes caeruleus (Matthes 1964)    blue, referring to brilliant blue reflections on head, back and sides

Virilia Roberts 1967    Latin for male genitals, referring to tremendously thickened third simple ray of anal fin of adult males

Virilia pabrensis (Roman 1966)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Reservoir of Pabré, White Volta basin, 22 kilometers northeast of Ouagodougou, West Africa, type locality


Family HEPSETIDAE African Pikes

Hepsetus Swainson 1838    etymology not explained, probably from the ancient Greek hepsetos, a small fish boiled for human consumption (e.g., the anchovy Anchoa hepsetus); however, name is also used for toothy, pike-like piscivores, perhaps alluding to a line from the Greek poet Archippus (late 5th-century BC): “An hepsetus fell in with an anchovy / And quick devoured him,” and/or to the ecologically convergent characid Oligosarcus hepsetus (Cuvier 1829) from South America

Hepsetus cuvieri (Castelnau 1861)    in honor of Georges Cuvier (1769-1832), one of the three zoologists (including Dumeril and Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire) whom Castelnau called his “masters” (translation); Cuvier also described the genus (Alestidae: Hydrocynus) to which this species was presumed to be related

Hepsetus kingsleyae Decru, Vreven & Snoeks 2013    in honor of writer and explorer Mary Henrietta Kingsley (1862-1900), who collected several species of fishes from the Ogowe Basin in Gabon, including a few specimens of Hepsetus

Hepsetus lineatus (Pellegrin 1926)    lined, presumably referring to “very crisp brown longitudinal lines between each series of scales” (translation)

Hepsetus microlepis (Boulenger 1901)    micro-, small; lepis, scale, referring to its smaller, more numerous scales compared to H. odoe

Hepsetus occidentalis Decru, Snoeks & Vreven 2013    western, the westernmost species of the genus (western part of West Africa)

Hepsetus odoe (Bloch 1794)    local name for this species in Guinea (now Republic of Guinea), Africa