Order CARCHARHINIFORMES (Ground Sharks)

COMMENTS
v. 17.0 – 12 Jan. 2017  view/download PDF

8 families • 53 genera/subgenera • 287 species/subspecies

Family SCYLIORHINIDAE Cat Sharks
17 genera • 155 species • Taxonomic note: contains taxa sometimes placed in the family Pentanchidae.

Apristurus Garman 1913    a-, not; pristis, referring to Pristiurus (=Galeus); oura, tail, referring to upper edge of caudal fin not “armed with modified scales somewhat as in species of the genus Pristiurus

Apristurus albisoma Nakaya & Séret 1999    albus, white; soma, body, referring to whitish color

Apristurus ampliceps Sasahara, Sato & Nakaya 2008    amplus, large; –ceps, head, which, apparently, it is

Apristurus aphyodes Nakaya & Stehmann 1998    whitish, referring to pale gray coloration

Apristurus australis Sato, Nakaya & Yorozu 2008    southern, referring to distribution in the southern hemisphere around Australia

Apristurus breviventralis Kawauchi, Weigmann & Nakaya 2014    brevis, short; ventralis, of the belly, referring to very short abdomen   

Apristurus brunneus (Gilbert 1892)    brown, referring to “uniform warm brown” color above and below

Apristurus bucephalus White, Last & Pogonoski 2008    bu, large; cephalus, head, referring to large, broad head

Apristurus canutus Springer & Heemstra 1979    hoary, referring to dark gray coloration with minute white spots underneath denticles

Apristurus exsanguis Sato, Nakaya & Stewart 1999    bloodless or lifeless, referring to characteristic pale coloration and flaccid body

Apristurus fedorovi Dolganov 1983    in honor of Vladimir Vladimirovich Fedorov (1939-2011), Zoological Institute, St. Petersburg, authority on North Pacific fishes

Apristurus garricki Sato, Stewart & Nakaya 2013    in honor of J. A. F. (Jack) Garrick (b. 1953), “pioneer” New Zealand shark taxonomist and biologist, the first to recognize this genus from New Zealand waters; he also “generously” shared his notes on this species with the authors

Apristurus gibbosus Meng, Chu & Li 1985    humpbacked, referring to convex dorsal outline

Apristurus herklotsi (Fowler 1934)    in honor of botanist and ornithologist G. A. C. Herklots (1902-1986), University of Hong Kong, “with many fond memories of the China Sea and Java”

Apristurus indicus (Brauer 1906)    Indian, referring to type locality in Indian Ocean off Somalia and Gulf of Aden

Apristurus internatus Deng, Xiong & Zhan 1988    growing among or between, allusion not explained nor evident

Apristurus investigatoris (Misra 1962)    is, genitive singular of: HMS Investigator station in Adaman Sea, where type was collected

Apristurus japonicus Nakaya 1975    Japanese, known only from the northwest Pacific off Chiba Prefecture, Honshu, Japan

Apristurus kampae Taylor 1972    in honor of Elizabeth Kampa Boden (1922-1986), Scripps Institution of Oceanography, chief scientist aboard RV Argos, from which type was collected

Apristurus laurussonii (Saemundsson 1922)    in honor of Saemundsson’s friend Gísli Lárusson (1865-1935), goldsmith, watchmaker, farmer and nature enthusiast, for his “long and invaluable support of the study of Icelandic fishes, and for carefully encouraging the skillful fishermen of Vestmannaeyjar Island [near type locality]” (translation)

Apristurus longicephalus Nakaya 1975    longus, long; cephalus, head, about ¼ of total length

Apristurus macrorhynchus (Tanaka 1909)    macro-, long or large; rhynchus, snout, referring to long, acutely pointed snout

Apristurus macrostomus Chu, Meng & Li 1985    macro-, long or large; stoma, mouth, probably referring to large arched mouth, which extends to slightly in front of anterior end of eyes

Apristurus manis (Springer 1979)    ghost or shade of the departed, referring to grayish-white color

Apristurus melanoasper Iglésias, Nakaya & Stehmann 2004    melanos, black; asper, rough, referring to black body color and rough skin

Apristurus microps (Gilchrist 1922)    micro-, small; ops, eye, having what Gilchrist described as the smallest eyes in the genus

Apristurus micropterygeus Meng, Chu & Li 1986    micro-, small; pterygion, diminutive of pteryx, fin, referring to first dorsal fin being 1/9 size of second dorsal fin

Apristurus nakayai Iglésias 2013    in honor of Japanese ichthyologist Kazuhiro Nakaya, who has dedicated his research on Apristurus, describing eight new species and revising the genus in 2009

Apristurus nasutus de Buen 1959    large-nosed, referring to elongated snout

Apristurus parvipinnis Springer & Heemstra 1979    parvus, small; pinnis, fin, referring to first dorsal fin being 2-4 times smaller than second dorsal fin

Apristurus pinguis Deng, Xiong & Zhan 1983    fat, probably referring to stout body

Apristurus platyrhynchus (Tanaka 1909)    platy, wide; rhynchus, snout, referring to its shorter, wider snout compared to A. macrorhynchus

Apristurus profundorum (Goode & Bean 1896)    Latin for “out of the depths” (type captured at 1492 m)

Apristurus riveri Bigelow & Schroeder 1944    in honor of Luis Howell Rivero, for his contributions to Cuban ichthyology

Apristurus saldanha (Barnard 1925)    referring to Saldanha Bay, South Africa, type locality

Apristurus sibogae (Weber 1913)    of the ship Siboga and Indonesian expedition (1898-1899) of same name, during which type was collected

Apristurus sinensis Chu & Hu 1981    ensis, suffix denoting place: Sinica (China), referring to distribution in the South China Sea

Apristurus spongiceps (Gilbert 1905)    spongia, sponge; –ceps, head, referring to soft and spongy snout

Apristurus stenseni (Springer 1979)    in honor of Danish geologist and anatomist Niels Stensen (1638-1686, also known as Nicolas Steno), for for his “important studies of elasmobranch anatomy, which, because of their scientific accuracy, were influential in the beginnings of elasmobranch systematics in the pre-Linnaean period and later, even to the time of the appearance of Müller and Henle’s ‘Plagiostomia’ in 1841”

Asymbolus Whitley 1939    a-, with; symbolum, mark, probably referring to spots and blotches on A. analis

Asymbolus analis (Ogilby 1885)    probably referring to anal fin, which is larger than second dorsal fin

Asymbolus funebris Compagno, Stevens & Last 1999    funereal, referring to somber appearance (i.e., duller color pattern) compared to other Asymbolus

Asymbolus galacticus Séret & Last 2008    milky, referring to striking color pattern with numerous milky white patches that resemble the Milky Way

Asymbolus occiduus Last, Gomon & Gledhill 1999    occidentalis, of the west, referring to western distribution in Australian seas

Asymbolus pallidus Last, Gomon & Gledhill 1999    pallid, referring to wan body color that is distinctively paler that other Asymbolus

Asymbolus parvus Compagno, Stevens & Last 1999    little, referring to small relative size within the genus

Asymbolus rubiginosus Last, Gomon & Gledhill 1999    rusty, referring to body coloration

Asymbolus submaculatus Compagno, Stevens & Last 1999    sub-, under; maculatus, spot or mark, referring to spots on undersurface in slightly more of half of the types

Asymbolus vincenti (Zietz 1908)    etymology not explained, probably referring to Gulf St Vincent, where Kangaroo Island, type locality, is situated

Atelomycterus Garman 1913    ateles, imperfect, unfilled or exempt; myctero-, nostril, referring to lack of posterior nasal valve

Atelomycterus baliensis White, Last & Dharmadi 2005    ensis, suffix denoting place: Bali, Indonesia, type locality and only known distribution

Atelomycterus erdmanni Fahmi & White 2015    in honor of marine biologist Mark V. Erdmann, who discovered and collected the type specimens

Atelomycterus fasciatus Compagno & Stevens 1993    banded, referring to slender, brown saddles on a white background

Atelomycterus macleayi Whitley 1939    presumably in honor of the Macleays, a prominent family of Australian natural history collectors, and/or to the eponymous natural history museum they founded

Atelomycterus marmoratus (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830)    marbled, referring to white blotches over large black spots and bars

Atelomycterus marnkalha Jacobsen & Bennett 2007    indigenous Australian (Rrumburriya clan) dialect for regional catshark species in Yanyuwa country, where one of the first specimens was recorded

Aulohalaelurus Fowler 1934    aulon, groove, being a form of Halaelurus with conspicuous labial folds

Aulohalaelurus kanakorum Séret 1990    –orum, commemorative suffix, plural: dedicated to the Kanak, Melanesian people of New Caledonia, where it is endemic

Aulohalaelurus labiosus (Waite 1905)    large-lipped, referring to prominent labial furrows

Bythaelurus Compagno 1988    bythos, depths of the sea, referring to its deepwater habitat; ailouros, cat, probably an allusion to the vernacular “catshark,” so named for its cat-like eyes

Bythaelurus alcockii (Garman 1913)    in honor of physician-naturalist Alfred William Alcock (1859-1933), who noted distinctiveness of this species in 1896

Bythaelurus bachi Weigmann, Ebert, Clerkin, Stehmann & Naylor 2016    in honor of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750), a “musical genius and one of the greatest composers of all time” (so named because the senior author is an admirer of Bach and not for any Bach-like feature the shark might possess, Simon Weigmann, pers. comm.)

Bythaelurus canescens (Günther 1878)    hoary gray, referring to its “uniform greyish” coloration (presumably in spirits since this shark is brown in life)

Bythaelurus clevai (Séret 1987)    in honor of Régis Cléva, biologist, Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (Paris), who collected type

Bythaelurus dawsoni (Springer 1971)    in honor of Elliot W. Dawson, National Museum of New Zealand, who brought the first specimens to Springer’s attention

Bythaelurus giddingsi McCosker, Long & Baldwin 2012    in honor of Al Giddings, underwater filmmaker, naturalist, and friend

Bythaelurus hispidus (Alcock 1891)    bristly, referring to its skin being covered with minute stony tricuspid spines

Bythaelurus immaculatus (Chu & Meng 1982)    im-, not; maculosus, spotted, referring to its lack of markings

Bythaelurus incanus Last & Stevens 2008    quite gray, referring to body and fin coloration

Bythaelurus lutarius (Springer & D’Aubrey 1972)    belonging to mud, referring to habitat on or just above muddy bottoms at 338-766 m depth

Bythaelurus naylori Ebert & Cherkin 2015    in honor of Gavin Naylor, College of Charleston (USA), for contributions and innovative molecular research into the higher classification of chondrichthyans and for his support of the junior author’s work in the Southwest Indian Ridge of the southwestern Indian Ocean

Bythaelurus tenuicephalus Kaschner, Weigmann & Thiel 2015    tenuis, slender; cephalus, head, referring to its “remarkably” narrow head and snout

Cephaloscyllium Gill 1862    cephalus, head, referring to its very broad and depressed head; skylion, Greek for dogfish or small shark, probably from skyllo, to tear or mangle

Cephaloscyllium albipinnum Last, Motomura & White 2008    albus, white; pinnum, fin, referring to distinctive white margins on fins

Cephaloscyllium cooki Last, Séret & White 2008    in honor of the late Sidney F. Cook (d. 1997), shark fisheries biologist, “whose energy, dedication and contribution to shark conservation is sadly missed”

Cephaloscyllium fasciatum Chan 1966    banded, referring to variegated color pattern of open saddles and circles with connecting dark lines

Cephaloscyllium formosanum Teng 1962    –anum, belonging to: Formosa, or Taiwan, referring to type locality off southwestern coast of Taiwan

Cephaloscyllium hiscosellum White & Ebert 2008    hisco, open; sella, saddle, referring to distinctive open-centered saddle-like markings that dominate its color pattern

Cephaloscyllium isabellum (Bonnaterre 1788)    based on “l’Isabelle” of Broussonet (1780), who said the shark’s color inspired the name; probably derived from isabelline, a pale cream-brown parchment color, consistent with Broussonet’s description as “roux cendré” (i.e., fawn, tan or ashy brown)

Cephaloscyllium laticeps (Duméril 1853)    latus, wide; ceps, head, referring to broad, parabola-shaped head

Cephaloscyllium pictum Last, Séret & White 2008    painted, referring to “somewhat painted” coloration

Cephaloscyllium sarawakense Yano, Ahmed, Gambang, Idris, Solahuddin & Azan 2005    ensis, suffix denoting place: Sarawak, Malaysia, type locality

Cephaloscyllium signourum Last, Séret & White 2008    signa, flag; oura, tail, referring to distinctive flag-like dark marking on terminal lobe of caudal fin

Cephaloscyllium silasi (Talwar 1974)    in honor of Eric Godwin Silas (b. 1928), Director, Central Marine Fisheries Institute (India), “whose excellent publications on the ichthyofauna of the continental shelf of the south-west coast of India have added much to our knowledge of the fauna of this region”

Cephaloscyllium speccum Last, Séret & White 2008    speckled, referring to dark brown spots and blotches that dominate its color pattern

Cephaloscyllium stevensi Clark & Randall 2011    in honor of John Stevens (b. 1947), whose 1994 work (with Peter Last) on Australian sharks was the “foundation for research that led to the descriptions of 37 new chondrichthyan fishes, including 11 species of Cephaloscyllium

Cephaloscyllium sufflans (Regan 1921)    puffing, referring to its inflatable stomach

Cephaloscyllium umbratile Jordan & Fowler 1903    shaded, “marbled above with shades of dark and deep brown”

Cephaloscyllium variegatum Last & White 2008    various, referring to strong intraspecific and ontogenetic variability in color pattern and morphology amongst the specimens examined

Cephaloscyllium ventriosum (Garman 1880)    venter, belly; –osum, full of, referring to its inflatable stomach

Cephalscyllium zebrum Last & White 2008    referring to zebra-like narrow bars on dorsal and lateral surfaces of head and body

Cephalurus Bigelow & Schroeder 1941    cephalus, head, referring to its expanded, flattened and rounded head; ailouros, cat, probably an allusion to the vernacular “catshark,” so named for its cat-like eyes

Cephalurus cephalus (Gilbert 1892)    head, referring to wider head compared to Parmaturus xaniurus

Figaro Whitley 1928    eponymous barber in various dramas (e.g., The Marriage of Figaro), allusion not explained nor evident

Figaro boardmani (Whitley 1928)    in honor of Whitley’s friend and colleague William Boardman, who collected type from a trawler

Figaro striatus Gledhill, Last & White 2008    striped, referring to its color pattern

Galeus Rafinesque 1810    Greek for weasel, an ancient name for sharks, perhaps alluding to what some may have perceived as a weasel-like body or pointed snout

Galeus antillensis Springer 1979    ensis, suffix denoting place: the Antilles, or West Indies, referring to Leeward Islands, type locality

Galeus arae (Nichols 1927)    named for William K. Vanderbilt’s yacht Ara, from which type was collected

Galeus atlanticus (Vaillant 1888)    icus, belonging to: referring to distribution in the eastern Atlantic

Galeus cadenati Springer 1966    in honor of French ichthyologist Jean Cadenat (1908-1992), Director, Marine Biological Section of the Institute Français d’Afrique Noire (Gorée, Senegal), who described the similar G. polli

Galeus corriganae White, Mana & Taylor 2016    in honor of Shannon Corrigan (College of Charleston, South Carolina, USA), “whose extensive molecular population and phylogenetic work on sharks has contributed toward an improved understanding of their alpha taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships” (she also captured some of the molecular data used in this description)

Galeus eastmani (Jordan & Snyder 1904)    patronym not identified, possibly in honor of fish paleontologist Charles Rochester Eastman (1868-1918)

Galeus gracilis Compagno & Stevens 1993    slender, referring to its firm, slender body

Galeus longirostris Tachikawa & Taniuchi 1987    longus, long; rostrum, snout, referring to its long snout

Galeus melastomus Rafinesque 1810    melas, black; stomus, mouth, referring to color inside of mouth (common in congeners but quickly lost after preservation)

Galeus mincaronei Soto 2001    in honor of Michael Maia Mincarone (b. 1971), for his “extensive work and tireless dedication” as collections manager of the Museu Oceanográfico do Vale do Itajaí (Brazil)

Galeus murinus (Collett 1904)    mouse-gray, possibly referring to its mouse-like “uniformly gray” color

Galeus nipponensis Nakaya 1975    ensis, suffix denoting place: Nippon, or Japan (known only from Japanese waters)

Galeus piperatus Springer & Wagner 1966    peppered, referring to black dots all over body and tail

Galeus polli Cadenat 1959    in honor of Belgian ichthyologist Max Poll (1908-1991), who first brought attention to this species

Galeus priapus Séret & Last 2008    Priapos, Greek god of reproduction, referring to its long claspers

Galeus sauteri (Jordan & Richardson 1909)    in honor of German businessman and entomologist Hans Sauter (1871-1943), who collected type from a fish market in Taiwan

Galeus schultzi Springer 1979    in honor of Leonard P. Schultz (1901-1986), Curator of Fishes at the U. S. National Museum (based on an unpublished name proposed by Henry W. Fowler)

Galeus springeri Konstantinou & Cozzi 1998    in honor of Stewart Springer (1906-1991), an “outstanding leader” in shark taxonomy, for his work with the family Scyliorhinidae

Halaelurus Gill 1862    halos, sea; ailouros, cat, probably an allusion to the vernacular “catshark,” so named for its cat-like eyes

Halaelurus boesemani Springer & D’Aubrey 1972    in honor of Marinus Boeseman (1916-2006), Leiden University, for his important contributions to ichthyology

Halaelurus buergeri (Müller & Henle 1838)    in honor of physician-biologist Heinrich Bürger (ca. 1804-1858), who collected and illustrated Japanese flora and fauna and apparently collected type of this species

Halaelurus lineatus Bass, D’Aubrey & Kistnasamy 1975    striped, referring to its 13 or pairs of narrow dark brown stripes

Halaelurus maculosus White, Last & Stevens 2007    spotted, referring to speckling of small dark spots over dorsal and lateral surfaces of body

Halaelurus natalensis (Regan 1904)    ensis, suffix denoting place: the coast of Natal, type locality

Halaelurus quagga (Alcock 1899)    etymology not explained, possibly referring to shark’s narrow vertical bars, similar to those of the zebra, Equus quagga

Halaelurus sellus White, Last & Stevens 2007    saddle, referring to dark saddles on head and body

Haploblepharus Garman 1913    haplo-, single or simple; blepharon, eyelid, referring to simple structure of the lower eyelid, which closes against upper eyelid to protect the eye

Haploblepharus edwardsii (Schinz 1822)    in honor of English naturalist George Edwards (1694-1773), who was the first to illustrate the species, in 1764

Haploblepharus fuscus Smith 1950    dusky, dark or swarthy, probably referring to overall drab-brown coloration

Haploblepharus kistnasamyi Human & Compagno 2006    in honor of Nat Kistnasamy (b. 1938), Oceanographic Research Institute, Durban, for outstanding efforts and pioneering work in the systematics and taxonomy of the chondrichthyan fauna of southern Africa

Haploblepharus pictus (Müller & Henle 1838)    painted or colored, probably referring to its variegated color pattern

Holohalaelurus Fowler 1934    holo-, entire, i.e., being a form of Halaeurus without any labial folds or grooves in the mouth

Holohalaelurus favus Human 2006    honeycomb, referring to color pattern of fresh specimens

Holohalaelurus grennian Human 2006    from the old English grennian, grin, referring to wide, broadly arched mouth and relatively large dentition, which resembles an “ominous grin”

Holohalaelurus melanostigma (Norman 1939)    melanos, black; stigma, mark or spot, probably referring to dark-colored spots on dorsal surface

Holohalaelurus punctatus (Gilchrist 1914)    spotted, referring to dense covering of small brown spots on dorsal surface

Holohalaelurus regani (Gilchrist 1922)    in honor of ichthyologist Charles Tate Regan (1878-1943), Natural History Museum (London), who described many South African fishes

Parmaturus Garman 1906    parma, small round shield or target; oura, tail, referring to caudal fin “armed” with scales

Parmaturus albimarginatus Séret & Last 2007    albus, white; marginatus, bordered, referring to broad, white, posterior fin margins

Parmaturus albipenis Séret & Last 2007    albus, white; penis, copulatory organ, referring to white claspers, which contrast strongly against dark brownish body coloration

Parmaturus bigus Séret & Last 2007    beige, referring to general plain and pale yellow-brown coloration

Parmaturus campechiensis Springer 1979    ensis, suffix denoting place: Bay of Campeche, Gulf of Mexico, type locality

Parmaturus lanatus Séret & Last 2007    Latin for “soft like wool,” referring to velvety feel of its skin

Parmaturus macmillani Hardy 1985    in honor of ichthyologist Peter McMillan (b. 1955, note latinization of “Mc” to “Mac”), who collected type and “many examples of undescribed or poorly known marine fish and invertebrate species” from deepwaters off New Zealand

Parmaturus melanobranchus (Chan 1966)    melano-, black; branchos, gill, referring to blackish color on gill septa

Parmaturus pilosus Garman 1906    hair-like, perhaps referring to minute, velvety scales

Parmaturus xaniurus (Gilbert 1892)    xanion, scraper; oura, tail, referring to crest-like row of tooth-like projections along upper edge of caudal fin

Pentanchus Smith & Radcliffe 1912    penta-, five; –anchus, perhaps an abridgement of branchos, gill, referring to five pairs of branchial apertures (gill slits), unique among the group of sharks (hexanchoid) in which the authors erroneously believed this shark belonged

Pentanchus profundicolus Smith & Radcliffe 1912    profund, deep; –colus, dwelling in, referring to deepwater habitat (type taken at 585 fathoms)

Poroderma Smith 1838    poro, hole or passage; derma, skin or hide, allusion unknown (Smith did not supply a description), perhaps referring to their rather tough hides

Poroderma africanum (Gmelin 1789)    African, described from the African seas

Poroderma pantherinum (Müller & Henle 1838)    leopard-like, referring to variable leopard-like spots, stripes and blotches

Schroederichthys Springer 1966    in honor of William C. Schroeder (1895-1977), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, for his pioneering work (with Henry B. Bigelow) on cartilaginous fishes; ichthys, fish

Schroederichthys bivius (Müller & Henle 1838)    bi-, two; via, way or passage, allusion not specified; possibly referring to double-valved nostrils, with incurrent and excurrent apertures

Schroederichthys chilensis (Guichenot 1848)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Chile, referring to type locality in eastern Pacific

Schroederichthys maculatus Springer 1966    spotted, referring to randomly distributed yellowish or white spots on dorsal surface

Schroederichthys saurisqualus Soto 2001    saurus, lizard; squalus, shark, from vernacular “lizard catshark,” apparently alluding to slender, lizard-like body and long tail

Schroederichthys tenuis Springer 1966    thin, referring to its slender body

Scyliorhinus Blainville 1816    skylion, Greek for dogfish or small shark, probably from skyllo, to tear or mangle; rhine, rasp, an ancient name for sharks alluding to their rasp-like skin

Scyliorhinus boa Goode & Bean 1896    presumably referring to its reticulated brownish markings, similar to those of a boa constrictor

Scyliorhinus cabofriensis Soares, Gomes & de Carvalho 2016    –ensis, suffix denoting place: off Cabo Frio, northeastern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, only known area of occurrence

Scyliorhinus canicula (Linnaeus 1758)    diminutive of canis, dog, ancient name for small dogfish or shark

Scyliorhinus capensis (Müller & Henle 1838)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Cape of Good Hope, type locality

Scyliorhinus cervigoni Maurin & Bonnet 1970    in honor of Venezuelan ichthyologist Fernando Cervigón Marcos (b. 1930), who recognized this shark as a distinct species in 1960

Scyliorhinus comoroensis Compagno 1988    ensis, suffix denoting place: Comoro Islands, where it appears to be endemic

Scyliorhinus garmani (Fowler 1934)    in honor of Harvard ichthyologist Samuel Garman (1843-1927), for his excellent work on shark and rays

Scyliorhinus haeckelii (Miranda Ribeiro 1907)    in honor of Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919), eminent biologist, philosopher and professor

Scyliorhinus hesperius Springer 1966    western, probably referring to occurrence in either the western Atlantic, the western Caribbean, or off the coast of western Panama

Scyliorhinus meadi Springer 1966    in honor of Harvard ichthyologist Giles W. Mead (1928-2003), who brought this species to Springer’s attention

Scyliorhinus retifer (Garman 1881)    rete, diminutive of reticulum, a net; fero, to bear, referring to mesh- or chain-like patterning

Scyliorhinus stellaris (Linnaeus 1758)    of the stars, referring to many large and small black and white spots on body

Scyliorhinus tokubee Shirai, Hagiwara & Nakaya 1992    from name of fishing boat and private lodge of Toshiyuki Iida, who captured type specimens and is familarly known as “Tokubee-san” (“Tokubee” being an old-fashioned male name in Japan)

Scyliorhinus torazame (Tanaka 1908)    Japanese vernacular for this species, meaning “tiger shark,” referring to its markings

Scyliorhinus torrei Howell Rivero 1936    in honor of Cuban zoologist Carlos de la Torre (1858-1950), who recognized this species as new and granted Howell Rivero permission to study and describe it

Scyliorhinus ugoi Soares, Gadig & Gomes 2015    in honor of Ugo de Luna Gomes, son of third author


Family PROSCYLLIIDAE Finback Cat Sharks
3 genera • 7 species

Ctenacis Compagno 1973    ktenos, comb; akis, point, referring to comblike posterior teeth

Ctenacis fehlmanni (Springer 1968)    in honor of ichthyologist-herpetologist Herman Adair Fehlmann (1917-2005), Smithsonian Oceanographic Sorting Center, for “setting high standards for field treatment of shark specimens collected for study”

Eridacnis Smith 1913    etymology not explained, possibly eri-, very; acnisos, without fat, meager or spare, referring to small size of E. radcliffei and its slender shape, or dacnis, to bite, possibly referring to wide, angular mouth

Eridacnis barbouri (Bigelow & Schroeder 1944)    in honor of Harvard herpetologist (and wealthy patron of science) Thomas Barbour (1884-1946), for the “constant assistance” he gave the authors in their studies of western North Atlantic sharks

Eridacnis radcliffei Smith 1913    in honor of ichthyologist-malacologist Lewis Radcliffe (1880-1950), member of Bureau of Fisheries team that collected type from the steamer Albatross

Eridacnis sinuans (Smith 1957)    sinuous, probably referring to slender body and/or long, ribbon-like caudal fin

Proscyllium Hilgendorf 1904    pro-, in front of, likely referring to far forward placement of dorsal fin compared to Scyllium (=Scyliorhinus) species

Proscyllium habereri Hilgendorf 1904    in honor of German physician, anthropologist and natural history collector Karl Albert Haberer, who collected type

Proscyllium magnificum Last & Vongpanich 2004    noble or splendid, referring to strikingly beautiful color pattern

Proscyllium venustum Tanaka 1912    beautiful, probably referring to spotted color pattern, as reflected in the local name Hyozame, meaning Leopard Shark


Family PSEUDOTRIAKIDAE False Cat Sharks
3 genera • 4 species

Gollum Compagno 1973    named for antihero of Tolkien’s Lord of the Rings trilogy, “to whom [G. attenuatus] bears some resemblance in form and habits”

Gollum attenuatus (Garrick 1954)    referring to “attenuate, almost anguilliform as though emaciated” shape

Gollum suluensis Last & Guadiano 2011    ensis, suffix denoting place: Sulu Sea, Philippines, type locality

Planonasus Weigmann, Stehmann & Thiel 2013     planus, flat; nasus, nose, referring to soft, flat snout

Planonasus parini Weigmann, Stehmann & Thiel 2013    in honor of the late Nikolai Vasil’evich Parin (1932-2012), Russian Academy of Sciences, ichthyologist and chief scientist of the “memorable” cruise 17 of RV Vityaz in 1988/89, when type was collected

Pseudotriakis de Brito Capello 1868    pseudo, false, referring to superficial resemblance to Triakis (which was a more broadly defined genus than it is now)

Pseudotriakis microdon de Brito Capello 1868    micro, small; odontos, tooth, referring to numerous small teeth (>200 rows in each jaw)


Family LEPTOCHARIIDAE Barbled Hound Shark

Leptocharias Smith 1838    etymology not explained, perhaps leptos, small or slender, i.e., a small and slender shark “very nearly related to Carcharias

Leptocharias smithii (Müller & Henle 1839)    in honor of Andrew Smith (1797-1872), Scottish military physician, explorer, ethnologist and zoologist, who collected many South African sharks and who coined many of the shark names later formally described by Müller and Henle


Family TRIAKIDAE Hound Sharks
9 genera • 47 species/subspecies
Subfamily TRIAKINAE Hound Sharks

Mustelus Linck 1790    Latin for weasel, an ancient name for sharks, perhaps alluding to what some may have perceived as a weasel-like body or pointed snout

Mustelus albipinnis Castro-Aguirre, Atuna-Mendiola, Gonzáz-Acosta & de la Cruz-Agüero 2005    albus, white; pinnis, fins, referring to white margin around dorsal, pectoral, pelvic and anal fins

Mustelus antarcticus Günther 1870    southern, referring to distribution in the southern Pacific around Australia

Mustelus asterias Cloquet 1821    starry, referring to many small white spots

Mustelus californicus Gill 1864    Californian, referring to its common occurrence along the California coast

Mustelus canis canis (Mitchill 1815)    dog (sharks were known as “sea dogs” among mariners until the late 16th century, because of their ferocious pack-like feeding behavior)

Mustelus canis insularis Heemstra 1997    of islands, referring to occurrence at several Caribbean islands (Cuba, Jamaica, Grand Cayman, Puerto Rico, Nevis Island, Sint Eustatius, the Bahamas and Bermuda), where it appears to be the only species of Mustelus

Mustelus dorsalis Gill 1864    of the back, referring to “projection of the posterior angle of the first dorsal fin to the vertical of the origin of the ventrals”

Mustelus fasciatus (Garman 1913)    banded, referring to vertical dark bars on body (at least in young)

Mustelus griseus Pietschmann 1908    gray, referring to gray or gray-brown color

Mustelus henlei (Gill 1863)    in honor of Friedrich Gustav Jacob Henle (1807-1885), German physician, pathologist and anatomist, who, along with Johann Müller, produced first authoritative work on sharks (1839-1841)

Mustelus higmani Springer & Lowe 1963    in honor of James B. Higman (1922-2009), U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, for his “initial interest in the species and his care in the preparation of excellent notes on its natural history” while serving as an observer on the vessel from which it was collected

Mustelus lenticulatus Phillipps 1932    freckled, referring to peppering of white spots on upper sides

Mustelus lunulatus Jordan & Gilbert 1882    somewhat moon-shaped, referring to concave margins of fins

Mustelus manazo Bleeker 1855    Japanese vernacular for this shark

Mustelus mento Cope 1877    etymology not explained, perhaps from the Latin mentum, chin, referring to its “long muzzle”

Mustelus minicanis Heemstra 1997    mini, small; canis, dog, being a dwarf version of M. canis

Mustelus mosis Hemprich & Ehrenberg 1899    etymology not explained (no written description); since mosis is the Latin spelling of Moses, might this be an allusion to the shark’s type locality in the Red Sea?

Mustelus mustelus (Linnaeus 1758)    as for genus

Mustelus norrisi Springer 1939    in honor of anatomist Harry Waldo Norris (1862-1946) of Grinnell College (Iowa), who studied the cranial nerves of the Spiny Dogfish, Squalus acanthias

Mustelus palumbes Smith 1957    wood-pigeon or ring-dove, referring to dove-gray coloration

Mustelus punctulatus Risso 1827    diminutive of punctum, spot, i.e., having tiny spots

Mustelus ravidus White & Last 2006    grayish, referring to pale gray dorsal coloration

Mustelus schmitti Springer 1939    in honor of Waldo L. Schmitt (1887–1977), curator of marine invertebrates at the U. S. National Museum, who collected type

Mustelus sinusmexicanus Heemstra 1997    icus, belonging to: sinus, bay, referring to  Gulf of Mexico, where it appears to be endemic

Mustelus stevensi White & Last 2008    in honor of John Stevens (b. 1947), who has “dedicated a lifetime to researching sharks around the world, and who has contributed greatly to our knowledge of sharks and rays in Australia”

Mustelus walkeri White & Last 2008    in honor of Terry Walker, for “dedicating a lifetime to the ecology and fisheries management of Australian chondrichthyans”

Mustelus whitneyi Chirichigno F. 1973    in honor of fisheries biologist Richard R. Whitney (1927-2011) for teachings and guidance in the study of sharks

Mustelus widodoi White & Last 2006    in honor of Johannes Widodo (b. 1944), Research Institute of Marine Fisheries (Jakarta, Indonesia), “whose research on the shark and ray fisheries of Indonesia has provided important baseline data for this important faunal region”

Scylliogaleus Boulenger 1902    etymology not explained, presumably a combination of Scyllium and galeus, i.e., a “galeid” shark with “nostrils as in Scyllium” (=Scyliorhinus)

Scylliogaleus quecketti Boulenger 1902    in honor of John Frederick Whitlie Queckett (1849-?), Curator, Durban Museum (South Africa), who provided type

Triakis Müller & Henle 1838    tri, three; akis, point, referring to tricuspid teeth

Triakis acutipinna Kato 1968    acutus, sharp; pinna, fin, referring to its sharp-tipped fins

Triakis maculata Kner & Steindachner 1867    spotted, referring to many small black spots (although some are unspotted)

Triakis megalopterus (Smith 1839)    mega-, large; pterus, fin, referring to broad, large fins

Triakis scyllium Müller & Henle 1839    skylion, Greek for dogfish or small shark, probably from skyllo, to tear or mangle

Triakis semifasciata Girard 1855    semi-, half; fasciatus, banded, referring to striking black saddle marks that cover only dorsal half of body

Subfamily GALEORHININAE School Sharks

Furgaleus Whitley 1951    fur, Latin for a “shark” or villain; galeus, Greek for weasel, an ancient name for sharks perhaps alluding to what some  may have perceived as a weasel-like body or pointed snout [replacement name for Fur Whitley 1943, preoccupied by Fur Jones 1940 in Diptera]

Furgaleus macki (Whitley 1951)    in honor of George Mack (1899-1963), ornithologist and ichthyologist of the National Museum, Melbourne

Galeorhinus Blainville 1816    galeus, Greek for weasel, an ancient name for sharks perhaps alluding to what some may have perceived as a weasel-like body or pointed snout; rhine, rasp, an ancient name for sharks alluding to their rasp-like skin

Galeorhinus galeus (Linnaeus 1758)    Greek for weasel (as for genus)

Gogolia Compagno 1973    ia, belonging to: Gogol River, near Madang, Northern New Guinea, type locality

Gogolia filewoodi Compagno 1973    in honor of Lionel Winston Filewood (b. 1936), Biologist-In-Charge of the Department of Agriculture, Stock and Fisheries, Konedobu, Papua-New Guinea, for his work on the poorly known elasmobranch fauna of New Guinea

Hemitriakis Herre 1923    hemi-, partial, being a genus which Herre believed was “most closely related” to Triakis

Hemitriakis abdita Compagno & Stevens 1993    hidden, referring to close external similarity to H. falcata

Hemitriakis complicofasciata Takahashi & Nakaya 2004    complico, complicated; fasciata, striped, referring to complex body color pattern when young

Hemitriakis falcata Compagno & Stevens 1993    sickle-shaped, referring to strongly falcate dorsal, pectoral and anal fins in adults

Hemitriakis indroyonoi White, Compagno & Dharmadi 2009    in honor of Indroyono Soesilo, “who has provided a great deal of support for shark research in Indonesia and was a strong advocate for the production of the field guide to sharks and rays of Indonesia”

Hemitriakis japanica (Müller & Henle 1839)    Japanese, referring to type locality (also occurs off China, Korea, Taiwan and New Caledonia)

Hemitriakis leucoperiptera Herre 1923    leukos-, white; peri, around; pteron, wing, referring to white margin around fins

Hypogaleus Smith 1957    hypo-, less than, under or beneath, perhaps alluding to original position as a subgenus (later a full genus) of Galeorhinus

Hypogaleus hyugaensis (Miyosi 1939)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Hyuga Nada, Japan, type locality

Iago Compagno & Springer 1971    name of villian in Shakespeare’s Othello, “a troublemaker for systematists and hence a kind of villian”

Iago garricki Fourmanoir & Rivaton 1979    patronym not identified but clearly in honor of J. A. F. (Jack) Garrick (b. 1953), shark and ray biologist from New Zealand

Iago mangalorensis (Cubelio, Remya R & Kurup 2011)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Mangalore, South India, type locality

Iago omanensis (Norman 1939)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Gulf of Oman, type locality


Family HEMIGALEIDAE Weasel Sharks
4 genera • 8 species

Chaenogaleus Gill 1862    chaeno-, gape, referring to “rictus as long as wide”; galeus, Greek for weasel, an ancient name for sharks, perhaps alluding to what some may have perceived as a weasel-like body or pointed snout

Chaenogaleus macrostoma (Bleeker 1852)    macro-, long; stoma, mouth, referring to long, greatly arched mouth compared to Hemigaleus microstoma

Hemigaleus Bleeker 1852    hemi-, partial, referring to similarity and/or close affinity to Galeus

Hemigaleus australiensis White, Last & Compagno 2005    ensis, suffix denoting place: Australia, referring to known geographic range off of tropical Australia

Hemigaleus microstoma Bleeker 1852    micro-, small; stoma, mouth, referring to very short arched mouth compared to Chaenogaleus macrostoma

Hemipristis Agassiz 1843    hemi-, partial; pristis, saw, possibly referring to how marginal serrations of teeth of H. serra (a fossil species) do not extend over the entire length of each tooth

Hemipristis elongata (Klunzinger 1871)    prolonged, referring to long and slim body

Paragaleus Budker 1935    para, near, referring to how dentition is intermediate between Hemigaleus and the triakid Eugaleus (=Galeorhinus)

Paragaleus leucolomatus Compagno & Smale 1985    leuco-, white; lomatus, border, referring to prominent white tips and margins of most fins

Paragaleus pectoralis (Garman 1906)    etymology not explained, probably referring to characteristic falciform pectoral fins

Paragaleus randalli Compagno, Krupp & Carpenter 1996    in honor of ichthyologist John E. Randall, Bishop Museum (Honolulu), who collected this shark from the Arabian (Persian) Gulf (but who misidentified it as Hypogaleus hyugaensis in his 1986 book Sharks of Arabia)

Paragaleus tengi Chen 1963    in honor of Teng Huo-Tu (1911-1978), Director, Taiwan Fisheries Research Institute and authority on Taiwanese elasmobranch fishes


Family CARCHARHINIDAE Requiem Sharks
12 genera • 56 species

Carcharhinus Blainville 1816    karcharos, sharp or jagged; rhine, rasp, an ancient name for shark derived from the Greek word for rasp, both words alluding to a shark’s jagged, rasp-like skin

Carcharhinus acronotus (Poey 1860)    acre, pointed; notus, back, referring to what Poey perceived as a “raised or humped” back

Carcharhinus albimarginatus (Rüppell 1837)    albus, white; marginatus, bordered, referring to white fin tips

Carcharhinus altimus (Springer 1950)    altus, deep, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to occurrence in deeper waters off continental shelf

Carcharhinus amblyrhynchoides (Whitley 1934)    oides, having the form of, referring to similarity to C. amblyrhynchos, to which it had previously been identified

Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos (Bleeker 1856)    amblys, blunt; rhynchos, snout, referring to long, broadly rounded snout

Carcharhinus amboinensis (Müller & Henle 1839)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Ambon Island, Moluccas Islands, Indonesia, type locality

Carcharhinus borneensis (Bleeker 1858)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Borneo, referring to type locality in Singkawang

Carcharhinus brachyurus (Günther 1870)    brachys, short; oura, tail, a probable misnomer since caudal fin is not short (¼ total length) and type specimens were described from mounted skins and embryos (some sources indicate name means “short-bodied”)

Carcharhinus brevipinna (Müller & Henle 1839)    brevis, short; pinna, fin, referring to small pectoral and first dorsal fins

Carcharhinus coatesi (Whitley 1939)    in honor of angler George Coates, who captured many elasmobranchs in North Queensland, Australia, including type of this one

Carcharhinus cautus (Whitley 1945)    nervous or wary; shark is reportedly skittish and timid when accosted by people

Carcharhinus cerdale Gilbert 1898    wary, crafty or fox-like, allusion not explained (but see etymology for C. cautus and Alopias [Alopiidae])

Carcharhinus dussumieri (Valenciennes)    in honor of Jean-Jacques Dussumier (1792-1883), French voyager and merchant, who collected some of the type material in Bombay  (authorship often attributed to Müller & Henle, who published Valenciennes’ description)

Carcharhinus falciformis (Bibron 1839)    falx, scythe or sickle; forma, form, referring to sickle-like shape of pectoral fins (authorship often attributed to Müller & Henle, who published Bibron’s description)

Carcharhinus fitzroyensis (Whitley 1943)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Fitzroy River, Queensland, type locality

Carcharhinus galapagensis (Snodgrass & Heller 1905)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Galapagos Islands, type locality

Carcharhinus hemiodon (Müller & Henle 1839)    hemi-, half or partial; odon, tooth, possibly referring to how teeth on upper jaw are serrated basally and smooth distally

Carcharhinus humani White & Weigmann 2014    in honor of the late Brett Human, for “important contributions to shark taxonomy in South Africa and Oman in the western Indian Ocean region, and who is sorely missed by his colleagues”

Carcharhinus isodon (Valenciennes 1839)    iso-, equal; odon, tooth, presumably referring to teeth being similar in shape and size in both jaws (authorship often attributed to Müller & Henle, who published Valenciennes’ description)

Carcharhinus leiodon Garrick 1985    leios, smooth; odon, tooth, referring to smooth-edged upper teeth

Carcharhinus leucas (Valenciennes 1839)    white, referring to body color, usually grayish with white underside (authorship often attributed to Müller & Henle, who published Valenciennes’ description)

Carcharhinus limbatus (Valenciennes 1839)    edged or bordered, referring to black-edged fins (authorship often attributed to Müller & Henle, who published Valenciennes’ description)

Carcharhinus longimanus (Poey 1861)    longus, long; manus, hand, referring to long paddle-like pectoral fins

Carcharhinus macloti (Müller & Henle 1839)    in honor of German naturalist Heinrich Christian Macklot (1799–1832, Latinized as Maclot), who collected type in New Guinea

Carcharhinus melanopterus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824)    melanos, black; pteron, fin, referring to black-tipped fins

Carcharhinus obscurus (Lesueur 1818)    dark, likely referring to darkish blue-gray body coloration

Carcharhinus perezii (Poey 1876)    in honor of Poey’s companion and friend Laureano Perez Arcas (1824-1894), University of Madrid, whose textbook Elementos de Zoología Poey used at the University of Havana

Carcharhinus plumbeus (Nardo 1827)    lead-colored, referring to gray-brown coloration above

Carcharhinus porosus (Ranzani 1839)    pore or passage, probably referring to large and conspicuous pores behind eye

Carcharhinus sealei (Pietschmann 1913)    in honor of ichthyologist Alvin Seale (1871-1958), Stanford University, who described this shark in 1910 but used a preoccupied name (C. borneensis)

Carcharhinus signatus (Poey 1868)    marked, probably referring to indentation on outer margins of upper teeth (species was described from jaws only)

Carcharhinus sorrah (Valenciennes 1839)    Tamil (Indian subcontinent) word for shark (authorship often attributed to Müller & Henle, who published Valenciennes’ description)

Carcharhinus tilstoni (Whitley 1950)    in honor of Richard Tilston, naturalist-surgeon at Port Essignton, Northern Territory, near where type was collected in the 1840s

Carcharhinus tjutjot (Bleeker 1852)    Indonesian word for shark (pronounced choo-choot)

Galeocerdo Müller & Henle 1837    galeus, Greek for weasel, an ancient name for sharks, perhaps alluding to what some may have perceived as a weasel-like body or pointed snout; kerdos, fox, thief or wily one, allusion unknown but perhaps referring to an ability to steal bait from the line (see Alopias [Alopiidae])

Galeocerdo cuvier (Péron & Lesueur 1822)    in honor of Georges Cuvier (1769-1832), now considered the father of comparative anatomy and vertebrate paleontology

Glyphis Agassiz 1843    tautonymous with Carcharias glyphis; knife, alluding to how anterior lower teeth are serrated and flare outward, arrowhead-like, before coming to a sharp point

Glyphis gangeticus (Müller & Henle 1839)    icus, belonging to: Ganges River of India, where Müller and Henle mistakenly thought it occurred

Glyphis garricki Compagno, White & Last 2008    in honor of J.A.F. (Jack) Garrick (1928-1999), for his revisions of the requiem shark family, and “who discovered this species in the form of two newborn males from Papua New Guinea and supplied radiographs, morphometrics, drawings and other details of these specimens (since lost) to the senior author”

Glyphis glyphis (Müller & Henle 1839)    knife, alluding to how anterior lower teeth are serrated and flare outward, arrowhead-like, before coming to a sharp point

Isogomphodon Gill 1862    iso-, equal; gomphos, wedge-shaped nail; odon, tooth, referring to how teeth are equally fastened, i.e., claviform and straight in both jaws

Isogomphodon oxyrhynchus (Müller & Henle 1839)    oxys, sharp; rhynchus, snout, referring to elongated, pointed and narrow snout

Lamiopsis Gill 1862    etymology not explained nor evident; perhaps Gill thought L. temminckii resembled (-opsis, appearance) those in the family Lamnidae (Lamia=Lamna)

Lamiopsis temminckii (Müller & Henle 1839)    in honor of Coenraad Jacob Temminck (1778-1858), director of the National Natural History Museum at Leiden, who shared the museum’s treasures with Henle and Müller during an 1837 visit

Lamiopsis tephrodes (Fowler 1905)    tephritis, an ash-colored precious stone; –odes, like, referring to “more or less uniform gray” coloration in alcohol

Loxodon Müller & Henle 1838    loxos, slanting; odon, tooth, probably referring to oblique teeth cusps

Loxodon macrorhinus Müller & Henle 1839    macro-, long; rhinos, nose, probably referring to long, narrow snout

Nasolamia Compagno & Garrick 1983    nasus, nose, referring to large, traverse nostrils and narrow conical snout; lamia, Greek for shark-like fish, from Lamia (see Lamna [Lamnidae])

Nasolamia velox (Gilbert 1898)    swift, referring to its slender form

Negaprion Whitley 1940    negatus, deny; prion, saw, referring to lack of saw-like serrations on teeth cusps

Negaprion acutidens (Rüppell 1837)    acutus, sharp or pointed; dens, tooth, probably referring to pyramid-like teeth (“dünnen spitzen Pyramiden”)

Negaprion brevirostris (Poey 1868)    brevis, short; rostrum, snout, referring to short, flat and broadly rounded snout

Prionace Cantor 1849    prion, saw; akis, point, referring to serrated (saw-like) cusps on teeth of upper jaw

Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758)    grayish blue, referring to its color (blue above, whitish below)

Rhizoprionodon Whitley 1929    rhiza, root; prion, saw; odon, tooth, referring to teeth with serrated (saw-like) bases, or roots [replacement name for Rhizoprion Ogilby 1915, preoccupied by Rhizoprion Jourdan 1861 in mammals]

Rhizoprionodon acutus (Rüppell 1837)    sharp or pointed, probably referring to narrow, pointed snout

Rhizoprionodon lalandii (Valenciennes 1839)    in honor of naturalist and explorer Pierre Antoine Delalande (1787-1823), who collected type (authorship often attributed to Müller & Henle, who published Valenciennes’ description)

Rhizoprionodon longurio (Jordan & Gilbert 1882)    a slender youth or stripling, presumably referring to “rather slender and elongate” body

Rhizoprionodon oligolinx Springer 1964    oligo-, short; linx, furrow, referring to short upper labial furrow

Rhizoprionodon porosus (Poey 1861)    full or pores, referring to enlarged hyomandibular pores on both sides of head

Rhizoprionodon taylori (Ogilby 1915)    in honor of entomologist Frank Henry Taylor (1886-1945), Institute of Tropical Medicine, Townsville, N.Q., who collected type

Rhizoprionodon terraenovae (Richardson 1836)    terra, land; novus, new, i.e., Newfoundland, where Richardson erroneously thought it occurred

Scoliodon Müller & Henle 1837    scolio-, oblique; odon, tooth, referring to oblique teeth pointing towards sides of mouth

Scoliodon laticaudus Müller & Henle 1838    latus, broad; cauda, tail (although tail does not seem especially broad compared to other carcharhinids)

Scoliodon macrorhynchos (Bleeker 1852)    macro, long; rhynchos, snout, referring to long and extremely flattened snout

Triaenodon Müller & Henle 1837    triaeno, trident (having three points); odon, tooth, referring to each having a cusp and two cusplets

Triaenodon obesus (Rüppell 1837)    fat or stout, its blunt head giving the shark a plump appearance


Family SPHYRNIDAE Hammerhead Sharks
4 genera/subgenera • 9 species

Eusphyra Gill 1862    eu-, very; sphyra, hammer, referring to immense hammer-shaped head

Eusphyra blochii (Cuvier 1816)    in honor of Marcus Elieser Bloch, author of a 12-volume encyclopedia of fishes, Allgemeine Naturgeschichte der Fische (1782-1795)

Sphyrna Rafinesque 1810    probable misspelling of sphyra, hammer, referring to their hammer-shaped heads

Subgenus Sphyrna

Sphyrna gilberti Quattro, Driggers, Grady, Ulrich & Roberts 2013    in honor of ichthyologist Carter R. Gilbert (b. 1930), Florida State Museum of Natural History, who first reported (1967) an anomalous specimen of S. lewini that is likely the first recorded individual of this species

Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith 1834)    patronym not identified, perhaps in honor of John Lewin (1770-1819), who illustrated early volumes of Australian natural history (shark was described from Australia) and may be the “Mr. Lewin” who illustrated the plates in Griffith and Smith’s book [José I. Castro in The Sharks of North America (2011) suggests shark was named after Danish military surgeon and anatomist Ludwig Lewin Jacobson (1783-1843), but cites no supporting evidence]

Sphyrna mokarran (Rüppell 1837)    Arabian vernacular for this shark, described from the Red Sea, possibly from mogharn, horned, referring to head shape

Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus 1758)    zygaina, ancient Greek name for hammerhead sharks, derived from zygon, yoke, alluding to yoke-like shape of cephalofoil

Subgenus Mesozygaena Compagno 1988    mesos, middle; zygaina, ancient Greek name for hammerhead sharks (see entry for S. zygaena), referring to intermediate position between subgenera Platysqualus and Sphyrna

Sphyrna corona Springer 1940    crown or halo, probably referring to irregularly oval oculonarial expanse

Sphyrna media Springer 1940    middle, probably referring to its oculonarial expanse being roughly intermediate in shape between that of hammerheads and shovelheads

Sphyrna tudes (Valenciennes 1822)    Latin for hammer, an obvious reference to the hammer-shaped head

Subgenus Platysqualus Swainson 1839    platy, flat or broad, referring to flattened and laterally extended hammer-shaped head; squalus, Latin for shark

Sphyrna tiburo (Linnaeus 1758)    tiburon, Spanish for shark, a name given by 16th- and 17th-century navigators to one or more large species of shark