Order AULOPIFORMES (Lizardfishes)

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v. 3.0 – 25 Feb. 2017  view/download PDF

16 families • 50 genera/subgenera • 282 species/subspecies                    

Family SYNODONTIDAE Lizardfishes              
4 genera • 81 species                           

Subfamily SYNODONTINAE Lizardfishes

Synodus Scopoli 1777    tautonymous with Esox synodus (see S. synodus for an explanation of this ancient and enigmatic name)

Synodus binotatus Schultz 1953    bi-, two; notatus, marked, referring to two black spots at tip of snout

Synodus bondi Fowler 1939    in honor of ornithologist James Bond (1900-1989), Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, who collected type (historical footnote: Bond’s name was appropriated by writer Ian Fleming for his fictional spy, 007 James Bond)

Synodus capricornis Cressey & Randall 1978    is, genitive singular of: Capricorn, referring to type locality near the Tropic of Capricorn

Synodus dermatogenys Fowler 1912    dermatos, skin; genys, cheek, referring to scaleless lower cheek

Synodus doaki Russell & Cressey 1979    in honor of Wade Doak, “pioneer” New Zealand diver and underwater naturalist, who discovered this species at Poor Knights Islands, off eastern Northland, New Zealand

Synodus evermanni Jordan & Bollman 1890    in honor of ichthyologist Barton Warren Evermann (1853-1932), United States Fish Commission, which sponsored expedition that collected type

Synodus falcatus Waples & Randall 1989    curved or sickle-shaped, referring to curved shape of flap over anterior nares

Synodus fasciapelvicus Randall 2009    fascia, band; pelvicus, of the pelvis, referring to broad cross bands on pelvic fins in fresh specimens, with pigment on membranes as well as rays

Synodus foetens (Linnaeus 1766)    odorous, allusion not explained (Linnaeus examined specimens sent from South Carolina, USA, preserved in rum; perhaps they were in a bad state when he received them)

Synodus fuscus Tanaka 1917    dark or dusky, referring to dark pectoral fin, dark margin of tail, and/or nine indistinct blotches on sides

Synodus gibbsi Cressey 1981    in honor of ichthyologist Robert H. Gibbs, Jr. (1929-1988), U.S. National Museum, “good friend and colleague and one of the early workers to show the value of peritoneal spots in identifying postlarval lizardfishes”

Synodus hoshinonis Tanaka 1917    is, genitive singular of: Isaburo Hoshino (no other information available), who “procured” (translation) type

Synodus houlti McCulloch 1921    in honor of Captain (forename not given) Hoult of the Queensland Government trawler Bar-ea-mul, who secured type

Synodus indicus (Day 1873)    Indian, referring to type locality off Madras (new Chennai), India, in the Indian Ocean

Synodus intermedius (Spix & Agassiz 1829)    intermediate, allusion not explained, presumably intermediate in characters between Saurus longirostris (species inquirenda) and Saurus truncatus (=Trachinocephalus myops)

Synodus isolatus Randall 2009    isolated, referring to Easter Island, type locality, “the most isolated island of the Indo-Pacific region”

Synodus jaculum Russell & Cressey 1979    Latin for javelin, referring to peculiar behavior of lauching itself off the bottom and swimming in midwater for prolonged periods

Synodus kaianus (Günther 1880)    anus, belonging to: Kai Islands, Molucca Islands, Indonesia, type locality

Synodus lacertinus Gilbert 1890    lizard-like, presumably referring to its lizard-like head and mouth (which give lizardfishes their vernacular name)

Synodus lobeli Waples & Randall 1989    in honor of ichthyologist Phillip S. Lobel, Boston University, who discovered this species and suspected it was new

Synodus lucioceps (Ayres 1855)    lucius, pike; ceps, head, referring to “the very close resemblance which the head bears in form to that of a small Pike” (Esox)

Synodus macrocephalus Cressey 1981    macro-, long or large; cephalus, allusion not explained, but this species has one of the larger heads (measured in percentage of SL) among Indo-West Pacific lizardfishes covered in Cressey’s monograph

Synodus macrops Tanaka 1917    macro-, long; ops, eye, referring to eye as long as snout

Synodus macrostigmus Frable, Luther & Baldwin 2013    macro-, large; stigmus, mark, referring to its large, black scapular blotch

Synodus marchenae Hildebrand 1946    of Marchena Island, Galápagos, type locality

Synodus mascarensis Prokofiev 2008    ensis, Mascarene Ridge, Western Indian Ocean, type locality

Synodus mundyi Randall 2009    in honor of fishery biologist Bruce C. Mundy (National Marine Fisheries Service, Honolulu Laboratory), for his extensive systematic research on the Hawaiian fish fauna

Synodus oculeus Cressey 1981    full of eyes, referring to its relatively large eyes

Synodus orientalis Randall & Pyle 2008    eastern, referring to its occurrence in Taiwan and Japan

Synodus pacificus Ho, Chen & Shao 2016    –icus, belonging to: the western Pacific Ocean, collected off northern and southwestern Taiwan, the Philippines and New Caledonia

Synodus poeyi Jordan 1887    in honor of Cuban zoologist Felipe Poey (1799-1891), who discovered this lizardfish but identified it as S. intermedius in 1875

Synodus pylei Randall 2009    in honor of ichthyologist Richard L. Pyle, Bishop Museum (Honolulu), who collected type specimens and provided a color photograph of the holotype

Synodus randalli Cressey 1981    in honor of ichthyologist John E. Randall, Bishop Museum (Honolulu), who collected type and enthusiastically supported Cressey’s revision of the genus

Synodus rubromarmoratus Russell & Cressey 1979    ruber, red; marmoratus, marbled, referring to its red-marbled coloration in life

Synodus sageneus Waite 1905    net-like, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to scales “broadly margined with reddish brown,” which can be said to form a net-like pattern

Synodus sanguineus Randall 2009    blood red, referring to its predominantly deep-red color

Synodus saurus (Linnaeus 1758)    lizard, presumably referring to its lizard-like head and mouth (which give lizardfishes their vernacular name)

Synodus scituliceps Jordan & Gilbert 1882    scitulus, slender; ceps, head, referring to its “very short and slender” head

Synodus sechurae Hildebrand 1946    of Sechura Bay, Peru, type locality

Synodus similis McCulloch 1921    like or resembling, described as “apparently very similar” to S. indicus

Synodus synodus (Linnaeus 1758)    a name for an unknown fish dating to Pliny the Elder’s Naturalis historia (77-79 AD), presumably a combination syn, together, and odous, tooth, possibly referring to how the teeth meet evenly, those of one jaw interlocking with those of the other; the name was first applied to lizardfishes by Gronow in 1756, who later (1763) described the teeth of S. synodus as “crowded together in the jaws, palate, tongue and throat” (translation, emphasis added)

Synodus taiwanensis Chen, Ho & Shao 2007    ensis, suffix denoting place: Taiwan, type locality

Synodus tectus Cressey 1981    disguised, referring to external similarity to S. hoshinonis

Synodus ulae Schultz 1953    Hawaiian common name for this species, meaning red, presumably referring to red-color phase in life

Synodus usitatus Cressey 1981    ordinary, referring to its lack of any outstanding markings

Synodus variegatus (Lacepède 1803)    variable, referring to its “very varied” (translation) coloration: “Shades of light brown on the back are highlighted by red spots, and match well the red, yellow, and black of two longitudinal stripes symmetrically found on each side of the [fish], and also match the black and red colors of the fins” (translation)

Synodus vityazi Ho, Prokofiev & Shao 2010    in honor of the Russian research vessel Vityaz II, for its “great contribution to deep-sea fish research” and for collecting type

Trachinocephalus Gill 1861    etymology not explained, probably referring to its Trachinus-like cephalus, head, Trachinus being the genus of weever-fishes (Perciformes: Trachinidae), an explanation corroborated by Gill’s 1862 comment that Synodus brevirostris (=T. myops) has an “abbreviated trachinoid muzzle” (emphasis added)

Trachinocephalus gauguini Polanco Fernandez, Acero P. & Betancur-R. 2016    in honor of the French painter Paul Gauguin (1848-1903), who died in the Marquesas Islands (where this species is probably endemic) on 8 May 1903

Trachinocephalus myops (Forster 1801)    short-sighted or blinking, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to its anterior eyes, placed near tip of snout

Trachinocephalus trachinus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846)    named for its resemblance to the weever-fishes, Trachinus (Perciformes: Trachinidae)

Subfamily HARPADONTINAE Bombay Ducks

Harpadon Lesueur 1825    harpe, sickle or hook; odon, tooth, presumably referring to “long, hooked” teeth of Salmo microps (=H. nehereus), “armed with one or two barbs at their extremities”

Harpadon erythraeus Klausewitz 1983    eus, having the quality of: erythros, red, referring to the Red Sea, where it is endemic

Harpadon microchir Günther 1878    micro-, small; cheiros, hand, referring to “very short” pectoral fin compared to H. nehereus

Harpadon mortenseni Hardenberg 1933    in honor of echinoderm biologist Ole Theodor J. Mortensen (1868-1952), University of Copenhagen, who collected type

Harpadon nehereus (Hamilton 1822)    latinization of Nehare, its local name at the mouth of the Ganges River in India

Harpadon nudus Ganga, Thomas & Sukumaran 2016    bare or naked, referring to absence of scales on body

Harpadon squamosus Alcock 1891    scaly, referring to deciduous cycloid scales covering body, posterior part of head, and cheeks, becoming less deciduous on posterior half of tail

Harpadon translucens Saville-Kent 1889    translucent, described as “remarkably transparent” in life

Saurida Valenciennes 1850    diminutive of Saurus (now a junior synonym of Synodus), referring to its similarity to that genus

Saurida argentea Macleay 1881    silvery, referring to silvery center on most of the scales

Saurida brasiliensis Norman 1935    ensis, suffix denoting place: Cape Frio, Brazil, type locality

Saurida caribbaea Breder 1927    named for the Caribbean Sea, presumably referring to its type locality, north of Glovers Reef, Belize

Saurida elongata (Temminck & Schlegel 1846)    elongate, referring to its much more slender body compared to Aulopus filamentosus (Aulopidae), its presumed congener at the time

Saurida filamentosa Ogilby 1910    filamentous, referring to “more or less filamentous” third and fourth dorsal-fin rays, and produced second dorsal-fin ray, which reaches (when depressed) to or beyond base of adipose fin in male, and midway between adipose fin and tip of third dorsal-fin ray in females

Saurida flamma Waples 1982    fire, referring to the “striking” reddish-orange coloration on mouth and body

Saurida golanii Russell 2011    in honor of Daniel Golani, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, for his “very significant” contribution to Red Sea ichthyology

Saurida gracilis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824)    slender, referring to its slender body (“corpore gracili”) compared to the conical body (“corpore conico”) of Synodus variegatus, its presumed congener at the time

Saurida grandisquamis Günther 1864    grandis, large; squamis, scale, possibly referring to larger lateral-line scales compared to S. undosquamis

Saurida isarankurai Shindo & Yamada 1972    in honor of fisheries biologist Andhi Isarankura, Marine Fisheries Laboratory (Bangkok)

Saurida lessepsianus Russell, Golani & Tikochinski 2015    Lessepsian, referring to its distribution in both the Red Sea and eastern Mediterranean Sea, having migrated from the former to the latter via the Suez Canal, a phenomenon known as “Lessepsian migration” (after the French diplomat Ferdinand de Lesseps, who supervised the construction of the canal)

Saurida longimanus Norman 1939    longus, long; manus, hand, referring to longer pectoral fin compared to S. undosquamis

Saurida macrolepis Tanaka 1917    macro-, large; lepis, scale, referring to larger scales compared to the similar S. argyrophanes (=tumbil)

Saurida microlepis Wu & Wang 1931    micro-, small; lepis, scale, referring to smaller, more numerous lateral-line scales compared to Chinese, Japanese and Indo-Australian congeners known at the time

Saurida micropectoralis Shindo & Yamada 1972    micro-, small; pectoralis, pectoral, referring to its “very short” pectoral fin, the shortest of all Indo-Pacific congeners known at the time

Saurida nebulosa Valenciennes 1850    cloudy or dark, presumably referring to blackish spots or blotches on back and sides

Saurida normani Longley 1935    in honor of J. R. (John Roxborough) Norman (1898-1944), British Museum (Natural History), for his contributions to ichthyology in general and to the knowledge of Synodontidae in particular

Saurida pseudotumbil Dutt & Sagar 1981    pseudo-, false, referring to its previous misidentification as and close relationship to S. tumbil

Saurida suspicio Breder 1927    suspicious, referring to its “curious upward glancing eyes”

Saurida tumbil (Bloch 1795)    based on Tombili, its Tamil name in India, which Bloch decided to use since it is “easy to express in several European languages” (translation)

Saurida tweddlei Russell 2015    in honor of Denis Tweddle, Honorary Research Associate at South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity, who collected this species during an exploratory fishing survey of the Mascarene Plateau by the RV Dr Fridtjof Nansen and brought it to Russell’s attention

Saurida umeyoshii Inoue & Nakabo 2006    in honor of Umeyoshi Yamada, formerly of the Fisheries Agency of Seikai National Fisheries Research Institute, who first recognized this species as new

Saurida undosquamis (Richardson 1848)    undo-, presumably a variant or misspelling of undu-, undulate; squamis, scale, possibly referring to its lateral-line scales, “irregularly semicircular or semioval, the chord or base being divided by three furrows into four lobes, and the free margins, with the adjoining parts of the disk, being undulated”

Saurida wanieso Shindo & Yamada 1972    Japanese name for this species


Family AULOPIDAE Flagfins
4 genera • 15 species   

Aulopus Cloquet 1816    according to Cloquet (who published Cuvier’s manuscript name), a Greek word for an unknown fish; perhaps derived from aulos, pipe or flute, referring to slender, cylindrical body of A. filamentosus

Aulopus bajacali Parin & Kotlyar 1984    of Baja Cali, short for Baja California Sur, México, referring to type locality off Alijos Rocks

Aulopus cadenati Poll 1953    patronym not identified but probably in honor of ichthyologist Jean Cadenat (1908-1992), Director, Marine Biological Section of the Institute Français d’Afrique Noire (Gorée, Senegal)

Aulopus filamentosus (Bloch 1792)with filaments, referring to extended first two rays of dorsal fin in males

Hime Starks 1924    Japanese name for H. japonica, which, according to Starks, means “Ladyfish”

Hime capitonis Gomon & Struthers 2015    one with a large head, referring to large head relative to congeners

Hime caudizoma Gomon & Struthers 2015    cauda, tail; zoma, that which is girded, referring to numerous red bands on each lobe of tail in both sexes

Hime curtirostris (Thomson 1967)    curtus, short; rostris, snout, referring to short snout, shorther than eye

Hime diactithrix (Prokofiev 2008)    di-, two; actis, ray; thrix, filament, referring to highly elongated second ray of dorsal fin in males

Hime formosanus (Lee & Chao 1994)    anus, belonging to: Formosa (Taiwan), type locality (but occurs throughout western Pacific)

Hime japonica (Günther 1877)    Japanese, referring to type locality, a market in Yokohama, Japan

Hime microps Parin & Kotlyar 1989    micro-, small; ops, eye, referring to its “comparatively small” eyes, smaller than those of the related H. japonicus and H. curtirostris

Hime pyrhistion Gomon, Struthers & Stewart 2013    pyro-, fire; histion, sail, referring to red-and-yellow patterned dorsal fin

Hime surrubea Gomon & Struthers 2015    reddish, referring to its reddish hue

Latropiscis Whitley 1931    etymology not explained, perhaps latro, hireling, robber or brigand, allusion not evident; piscis, fish

Latropiscis purpurissatus (Richardson 1843)    clothed in purple, referring to several series of purple spots on dorsal and anal fins

Leptaulopus Gomon, Struthers & Stewart 2013    leptos, slender, Aulopus, type genus of family, referring to the slender form of its species

Leptaulopus damasi (Tanaka 1915)    presumably derived from its Japanese name, Eso-damashi

Leptaulopus erythrozonatus Gomon, Struthers & Stewart 2013    erythros, red; zonatus, banded, referring to distinctive red bands on dorsal and caudal fins


Family PSEUDOTRICHONOTIDAE Sand-diving Lizardfishes

Pseudotrichonotus Yoshino & Araga 1975    pseudo-, false, referring to superficial resemblance to Trichonotus (Perciformes: Trichonotidae)                     

Pseudotrichonotus altivelis Yoshino & Araga 1975    altus, high; velum, sail, referring to shape of dorsal fin, the first four rays much higher than the following rays     

Pseudotrichonotus belos Gill & Pogonoski 2016    Greek for arrow or dart, referring to its dart-like appearance

Pseudotrichonotus caeruleoflavus Allen, Erdmann, Suharti & Sianipar 2017    caeruleus, blue; flavus, yellow, referring to blue-margined, yellow mid-lateral stripe

Pseudotrichonotus xanthotaenia Parin 1992    xanthos, yellow; taenia, band, referring to yellow band running along entire body from snout, through eyes and along lateral line


Family PARAULOPIDAE Cucumberfishes
1 genus • 14 species   

Paraulopus Sato & Nakabo 2001    para-, near, referring to its relationship with Aulopus

Paraulopus atripes Sato & Nakabo 2003    atri-, black; pes, foot, referring to uniformly black pelvic fin in males

Paraulopus balteatus Gomon 2010    belted or banded, referring to distinctive broad brown bands on sides

Paraulopus brevirostris (Fourmanoir 1981)    brevis, short; rostris, snout, referring to its blunt snout

Paraulopus filamentosus (Okamura 1982)    with filaments, referring to its greatly prolonged dorsal-fin rays

Paraulopus japonicus (Kamohara 1956)    Japanese, referring to type locality off Okitsu, Kochi Prefecture, Japan

Paraulopus legandi (Fourmanoir & Rivaton 1979)    in honor of Michel Legand, director, ORSTOM (Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique d’Outre-Mer), who studied for many years the meso-bathypelagic and deep-benthic fishes of New Caledonia

Paraulopus longianalis Sato, Gomon & Nakabo 2010    longus, long; analis, anal, referring to enlarged anal fin in males

Paraulopus maculatus (Kotthaus 1967)    spotted, referring to black spot behind isthmus

Paraulopus melanogrammus Gomon & Sato 2004    melanos, black; gramme, line, referring to distinctive black leading edge of dorsal fin

Paraulopus melanostomus Sato, Gomon & Nakabo 2010    melanos, black; stomus, mouth, referring to its black buccal cavity

Paraulopus nigripinnis (Günther 1878    )niger, black; pinnis, fin, referring to top of dorsal fin and extremity of each caudal lobe a deep black

Paraulopus novaeseelandiae Sato & Nakabo 2002    of New Zealand, where almost all of the type material was collected

Paraulopus oblongus (Kamohara 1953)    oblong, presumably referring its “elongate, subcylindrical” body

Paraulopus okamurai Sato & Nakabo 2002    in honor of Osamu Okamura (Kochi University), who described P. filamentosus in 1982 and was the first to recognize this species as unique


Family IPNOPIDAE Deepsea Tripod Fishes
8 genera/subgenera • 34 species/subspecies   

Subfamily IPNOPINAE

Bathymicrops Hjort & Koefoed 1912    bathys, deep, presumably referring to habitat of B. regis, collected at 5000 m; micro-, small and ops, eye, probably referring to its “vestigeal” [sic] and “inconsiderable” eyes (per Koefoed 1927)

Bathymicrops belyaninae Nielsen & Merrett 1992    in honor of Dr. Tania Belyanina, colleague and former shipmate, for kindly providing her illustrations of larval Bathymicrops

Bathymicrops brevianalis Nielsen 1966    brevis, short; analis, anal, referring to 9-10 anal-fin rays, compared to 12-15 on B. regis

Bathymicrops multispinis Nielsen & Merrett 1992    multi-, many; spinus, spine, referring to more numerous gill rakers compared to congeners

Bathymicrops regis Hjort & Koefoed 1912    genitive of rex, king, allusion not explained nor evident

Bathypterois Günther 1878    bathys, deep, referring to their deep-sea habitat; pteron, fin, perhaps specifically referring to Pterois (Scorpaenidae), the lionfishes, another genus with long pectoral filaments, i.e., a deep-sea Pterois

Subgenus Bathypterois

Bathypterois atricolor Alcock 1896    ater, black, referring to uniform black coloration (except for pectoral-fin filaments)

Bathypterois dubius Vaillant 1888    doubtful, reflecting Vaillant’s provisional belief that this species is distinct from B. longipes

Bathypterois longifilis Günther 1878    longus, long; filum, thread, referring to uppermost pectoral-fin ray, longer than the fish itself

Bathypterois mediterraneus mediterraneus Bauchot 1962    referring to the Mediterranean Sea, where it is endemic

Bathypterois mediterraneus algeriensis Bauchot 1962    ensis, suffix denoting place: Chenoua Point, Algeria, type locality

Bathypterois parini Shcherbachev & Sulak 1988    in honor of ichthyologist Nikolai Vasil’evich Parin (1932-2012), Russian Academy of Sciences

Bathypterois pectinatus Mead 1959    raked or combed, referring to “strongly pectinate” scales beneath proximal part of pectoral fin

Bathypterois perceptor Sulak 1977    one who perceives, referring to sensory function of “elaborate” pectoral fins of the genus, which are “undoubtedly employed as sensory devices to detect the presence of its planktonic prey”

Bathypterois phenax Parr 1928    imposter or cheat, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to its proposal as a “possible” subspecies of B. atricolor, in which differences between the forms could be regarded as “individual variations only”

Bathypterois quadrifilis Günther 1878    quadri-, four; filum, thread, presumably referring to prolonged or filiform rays, one each on pelvic and caudal fins and two on pectoral fin

Bathypterois ventralis Garman 1899    presumably referring to how individuals “vary much in the length of the ventrals; on some they reach but little if any behind the anal, on others considerably behind the base of the caudal”

Subgenus Bathycygnus Sulak 1977    bathys, deep, referring to their deep-sea habitat; cygnus, swan, referring to manner in which some tripodfishes hold their sensory pectoral fins (erect, spread, curved and aimed forward toward the head), similar to wing posture of a displaying male swan (Ken Sulak, pers. comm.)

Bathypterois andriashevi Sulak & Shcherbachev 1988    in honor of Soviet ichthyologist Anatoly Petrovich Andriashev (1910-2009), for his “significant” contributions to the knowledge of marine fishes, including deep-sea species

Bathypterois bigelowi Mead 1958    patronym not identified but almost certainly in honor of marine biologist Henry B. Bigelow (1879-1967), Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

Bathypterois filiferus Gilchrist 1906    filum, thread; fero, to bear, referring to long upper ray of pectoral fin, nearly twice length of the body

Bathypterois insularum Alcock 1892    of an island, referring to Laccadive Sea near the Laccadive Islands, Indian Ocean, type locality

Bathypterois longicauda Günther 1878    longus, long; cauda, tail, referring to “prolonged” lobes of “deeply forked” caudal fin

Bathypterois longipes Günther 1878    longus, long; pes, foot, referring to “much prolonged” outer ventral-fin ray

Bathypterois oddi Sulak 1977    in honor of the legendary Icelandic hero of Bandamanna Saga, Odd, symbol of good fortune and of the Scandinavian seafaring spirit; Sulak selected this name for two reasons: 1) since many taxa are named after Greek and Roman gods and classical heros, he thought it was time for an Icelandic tradition to receive some recognition, and 2) he liked the play on words because tripodfishes are indeed rather “odd” fishes (Ken Sulak, pers. comm.)

Subgenus Benthosaurus Goode & Bean 1886    benthos, of the deep; saurus, lizard, i.e., a deep-sea lizardfish, then a member of the family Synodontidae

Bathypterois grallator (Goode & Bean 1886)    one who walks on stilts, referring to how it appears to stand on the sea floor using its pelvic fins and elongated rays in the tail (the “tripod” of the family’s vernacular name)

Bathypterois guentheri Alcock 1889    in honor of ichthyologist-herpetologist Albert Günther (1830-1914), “to whose monumental works all students of ichthyology must ever remain grateful debtors”

Bathypterois viridensis (Roule 1916)    ensis, suffix denoting place: referring to type locality, southwest of Isla de Sal, Cape Verde Islands

Bathytyphlops Nybelin 1957    bathy, deep, referring to deep-sea habitat of B. sewelli (collected at 3840-3872 m); typhlos, blind and ops, eye, referring to its lack of eyes                               

Bathytyphlops marionae Mead 1958    in honor of Marion Grey (1911-1964), Chicago Natural History Museum, for her contributions to the ichthyology of the deep sea                      

Bathytyphlops sewelli (Norman 1939)   in honor of Lieut.-Col. R. B. Seymour Sewell (1880-1964), British military physician and amateur naturalist (and later Director, Zoological Survey of India), leader of the John Murray Expedition to the Indian Ocean, which collected type

Discoverichthys Merrett & Nielsen 1987    Discovery, Royal Research Ship from which type was caught; ichthys, fish

Discoverichthys praecox Merrett & Nielsen 1987    premature, referring to progenetic features evident in the sexually mature holotype

Ipnops Günther 1878    ipnos, lantern; ops, eye, referring to their extremely modified eyes, described as flat, cornea-like organs that cover most of upper surface of head

Ipnops agassizii Garman 1899    in honor of Alexander Agassiz (1835-1910), Curator, Museum of Comparative Zoology (Harvard), and supervisor of the dredging and trawling expedition that collected type

Ipnops meadi Nielsen 1966    in honor of Giles W. Mead (1928-2003), Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, who described several ipnopids in the 1950s

Ipnops murrayi Günther 1878    in honor of John Murray (1841-1914, later the founder of modern oceanography), of the HMS Challenger, which secured type

Ipnops pristibrachium (Fowler 1943)    pristis, saw; brachium, arm, referring to its “dentated or irregularly serrated” upper edge of pectoral-fin ray

Subfamily BATHYSAUROPSINAE

Bathysauropsis Regan 1911    –opsis, appearance, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to superficial resemblance of B. gracilis with Bathysaurus (Bathysauridae)  

Bathysauropsis gracilis (Günther 1878)    slender, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to thinner body compared to Paraulopus nigripinnis (Paraulopidae), its presumed congener at the time

Bathysauropsis malayanus (Fowler 1938)    anus, belonging to: Malaya, presumably referring to type locality (Gulf of Boni, Sulawesi, Indonesia) and general area where it occurs


Family GIGANTURIDAE Telescopefishes

Gigantura Brauer 1901   giganteus, giant; urus, tail, referring to greatly elongated, ribbon-like lower half of caudal fin, comprising half or more of body length

Gigantura chuni Brauer 1901    in honor of German marine biologist Carl Chun (1852-1914), who led the deep-sea Valdivia expedition that collected type

Gigantura indica Brauer 1901    Indian, referring to the Indian Ocean, type locality (but circumglobal in tropical and subtropical seas)


Family BATHYSAUROIDIDAE Largescale Deepsea Lizardfish

Bathysauroides Baldwin & Johnson 1996    bathys, deep, referring to deep-sea habitat; –oides, having the form of: saurus, lizard, referring to superficial resemblance to lizardfishes

Bathysauroides gigas (Kamohara 1952)    large, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to its “very large” eye, “large teeth on tongue,” “large” ventral fin, and/or its larger size (285 mm) compared to Bathysauropsis malayanus (Ipnopidae, 244 mm), its presumed congener at the time


Family BATHYSAURIDAE Deepsea Lizardfishes

Bathysaurus Günther 1878    bathys, deep, referring to deep-sea habitat of both species (up to 2385 fathoms in B. mollis); saurus, lizard, but here likely referring to its similar body shape to Saurus (=Saurida)

Bathysaurus ferox Günther 1878    fierce, probably referring to its enormous mouth, filled with multiple series of long, needle-like teeth

Bathysaurus mollis Günther 1878    soft, probably referring to adipose fin, which B. ferox lacks


Family CHLOROPHTHALMIDAE Greeneyes                
2 genera • 20 species

Chlorophthalmus Bonaparte 1840    chloros, green; ophthalmus, eye, referring to green eyes of C. agassizi

Chlorophthalmus acutifrons Hiyama 1940    acutus, sharp or pointed; frons, face, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to more pointed head compared to the similar C. albatrossis

Chlorophthalmus agassizi Bonaparte 1840    in honor of zoologist-geologist Louis Agassiz (1807-1873), “whose antediluvian research will yield his a more lasting name for centuries” (translation)

Chlorophthalmus albatrossis Jordan & Starks 1904    is, genitive singular of: U.S. Fish Commission steamer Albatross, which dredged type off coast of Japan

Chlorophthalmus atlanticus Poll 1953    icus, belonging to: referring to distribution in the tropical Atlantic (now known to be cosmpolitan)

Chlorophthalmus borealis Kuronuma & Yamaguchi 1941    northern, referring to its northernly distribution compared to two congeners in Japanese waters, C. albatrossis and C. acutifrons

Chlorophthalmus brasiliensis Mead 1958    ensis, suffix denoting place: off northern Brazil at 200 fathoms, type locality

Chlorophthalmus chalybeius (Goode 1881)    steel-colored, described as “grayish mottled with brown, scales metallic silvery”

Chlorophthalmus corniger Alcock 1894    cornis, horn; fero, to bear, referring to “pair of strong flat spines on either side of the salient mandibular symphysis”

Chlorophthalmus ichthyandri Kotlyar & Parin 1986    in honor of the fishery research vessel Ichthyandr (also spelled Ikhtiandr), which collected the first specimens

Chlorophthalmus mascarensis Kobyliansky 2013    ensis, suffix denoting place: submarine rises of the Mascarene Ridge, Western Indian Ocean, type locality

Chlorophthalmus mento Garman 1899    mentum, chin, referring to how produced chin forms an angle at its extremity

Chlorophthalmus nigromarginatus Kamohara 1953    nigro-, black; marginatus, margined, referring to dorsal and caudal fins edged with black

Chlorophthalmus pectoralis Okamura & Doi 1984    named for its long pectoral fins, nearly equal to length of head

Chlorophthalmus productus Günther 1887    produced, referring to longer snout compared to C. agassizi

Chlorophthalmus proridens Gilbert & Cramer 1897    prora, prow; dens, tooth, presumably referring to anterior series of symphyseal teeth, “directed horizontally forward”

Chlorophthalmus punctatus Gilchrist 1904    spotted, referring to minute black spots that cover head, body and fins, and cause the scale rows “to stand out very markedly”

Chlorophthalmus vityazi Kobyliansky 2013    in honor of the research vessel Vityaz (also spelled Vitiaz), from which type was collected

Chlorophthalmus zvezdae Kotlyar & Parin 1986    in honor of the fishing trawler Zvezda (meaning “star”), from which type was collected

Parasudis Regan 1911    para-, near, presumably referring to close relationship to and/or similarity with Sudis (Sudidae), which were placed in the same family at the time

Parasudis fraserbrunneri (Poll 1953)    in honor of ichthyologist Alec Fraser-Brunner (1906-1986), British Museum (Natural History), who compared this species to P. truculenta and determined they are distinct

Parasudis truculenta (Goode & Bean 1896)    truculent, allusion not explained nor evident


Family NOTOSUDIDAE Paperbones or Waryfishes
3 genera • 17 species
named for the genus Notosudis Waite 1916, a junior synonym of Scopelosaurus, but its use as a family name is retained due to prevailing usage: notos, south, referring to subantarctic type locality (Macquarie Island) of S. hamiltoni; sudis, pike or spear, ancient name for the Barracuda (Perciformes: Sphyraenidae) and common suffix for several aulopiform fishes (referring to their Barracuda-like shape), but in this case probably referring to original placement of Notosudis in Sudidae

Ahliesaurus Bertelsen, Krefft & Marshall 1976    Ahl, in honor of Elbert H. Ahlstrom, Southwest Fisheries Center, National Marine Fisheries Service; saurus, lizard, a common suffix for aulopiform fishes

Ahliesaurus berryi Bertelsen, Krefft & Marshall 1976    patronym not identified but almost certainly in honor of marine biologist Frederick H. Berry (1927-2001), U. S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, whose 1964 work on upper-jaw development in teleosts is cited by the authors

Ahliesaurus brevis Bertelsen, Krefft & Marshall 1976    short, referring to its shorter length compared to A. berryi

Luciosudis Fraser-Brunner 1931    lucius, pike, presumably referring to long pike-like snout; sudis, presumed to be closely related to Sudis (Sudidae) at the time

Luciosudis normani Fraser-Brunner 1931    in honor of ichthyologist J. R. (John Roxborough) Norman (1898-1944), British Museum (Natural History), for his “many kindnesses” towards Fraser-Brunner

Scopelosaurus Bleeker 1860    a combination of Scopelus (=Myctophum, Myctophiformes) and Saurus (=Synodus, Synodontidae), having the dentition of the former and the shape of the latter

Scopelosaurus adleri (Fedorov 1967)    in honor of the Adler, fishery research trawler that collected type

Scopelosaurus ahlstromi Bertelsen, Krefft & Marshall 1976    patronym not identified but almost certainly in honor of Elbert H. Ahlstrom, Southwest Fisheries Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, whose 1972 work on fish larvae of the eastern tropical Pacific is cited by the authors

Scopelosaurus argenteus (Maul 1954)    silvery, referring to “very bright silvery” body of paratype; however, according to Bertelsen et al. (1976), Maul’s paratype actually represents S. smithii, while holotype of S. argenteus did not show any trace of silvery coloration (and is now completely bleached)

Scopelosaurus craddocki Bertelsen, Krefft & Marshall 1976    patronym not identified but almost certainly in honor of oceanographer James E. Craddock (1937-2009), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, whose 1970 work on midwater fishes of the South Pacific is cited by the authors

Scopelosaurus gibbsi Bertelsen, Krefft & Marshall 1976    patronym not identified but almost certainly in honor of ichthyologist Robert H. Gibbs, Jr. (1929-1988), U.S. National Museum

Scopelosaurus hamiltoni (Waite 1916)    in honor of Harold Hamilton (1885-1937), zoologist for the Macquarie Island expedition during which type (a mutilated specimen, presumably partially digested and ejected by a seal, found on the beach) was collected; he was the son of Waite’s “old friend,” the late Augustus Hamilton, Director of the Dominion Museum (Wellington, New Zealand), and by a lengthened stay on the island carried into effect his father’s wish to study there after a “disastrous” and abbreviated trip in 1894 

Scopelosaurus harryi (Mead 1953)    in honor of Robert R. Harry, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, for his work on the fishes of the order Iniomi (an obsolete name that historically encompassed Aulopiformes and Myctophiformes)

Scopelosaurus herwigi Bertelsen, Krefft & Marshall 1976    patronym not identified but probably in honor of the Walther Herwig, German research vessel that collected type (ship is named for a Prussian lawyer and pioneer of German fisheries science who lived 1838-1912)

Scopelosaurus hoedti Bleeker 1860    in honor of Dirk Samuel Hoedt (1815-1893), Secretary of the Governement of the Moluccans, who provided type and to whom “ichthyology owes the knowledge of many of the rarest fishes of the Moluccan archipelago” (translation)

Scopelosaurus hubbsi Bertelsen, Krefft & Marshall 1976    patronym not identified but probably in honor of ichthyologist Carl L. Hubbs (1894-1979)

Scopelosaurus lepidus (Krefft & Maul 1955)    pleasant, elegant or fine, referring to its extremely slender shape

Scopelosaurus mauli Bertelsen, Krefft & Marshall 1976    patronym not identified but almost certainly in honor of ichthyologist-taxidermist Günther Edmund Maul (1909-1997), Museu Municipal do Funchal (Portugal)

Scopelosaurus meadi Bertelsen, Krefft & Marshall 1976    patronym not identified but almost certainly in honor of ichthyologist Giles W. Mead (1928-2003), whose 1953 work on oceanic fishes from off northeastern Japan is cited by the authors, and who described S. argenteus in 1954

Scopelosaurus smithii Bean 1925    in honor of ichthyologist Hugh M. Smith (1865-1941), who procured type while returning to the USA from Argentina via steamer; he was handed a “Rare Fish” that had been brought on board by a large suction hose


Family SCOPELARCHIDAE Pearleyes
5 genera • 18 species

Benthalbella Zugmayer 1911    etymology not explained, presumably benthos, of the deep, referring to deep-sea habitat of larvae (usually 300-600 m), and albella, a diminutive of albus, white, perhaps referring to yellowish-white color in alcohol of B. infans                             

Benthalbella dentata (Chapman 1939)    toothed, the bones of the mouth bearing a “surprising array of teeth”

Benthalbella elongata (Norman 1937)    elongate, referring to its longer body compared to Scopelarchus guentheri, its presumed congener at the time

Benthalbella infans Zugmayer 1911    immature, described from a very young or larval specimen

Benthalbella linguidens (Mead & Böhlke 1953)   lingua, tongue; dens, tooth, referring to 6-8 “distinctive” teeth on tongue, with sharp tips “hooked strongly” backwards

Lagiacrusichthys Davis 2015    Lagiacrus, name of a wyvern, a dragon-like creature from mythology known for its fierceness and inhabiting the deep; ichthys, fish                                  

Lagiacrusichthys macropinna (Bussing & Bussing 1966)    macro-, long or large; pinna, fin, presumably referring to higher anal-fin ray count compared to congeners in Benthalbella (genus at time of description)

Rosenblattichthys Johnson 1974    named for Richard H. Rosenblatt (1930-2014), Scripps Institution of Oceanography, for his numerous contributions to both ichthyology and ichthyologists; ichthys, fish

Rosenblattichthys alatus (Fourmanoir 1970)    winged, referring to its very long pectoral and ventral fins

Rosenblattichthys hubbsi Johnson 1974    in honor of ichthyologist Carl L. Hubbs (1894-1979), for his numerous contributions to the science

Rosenblattichthys nemotoi Okiyama & Johnson 1986    in honor of Takahisa Nemoto (1930-1990), Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, for great contributions to Antarctic biology, including direction of the cruise during which type was collected

Rosenblattichthys volucris (Rofen 1966)    swift (the bird), allusion not explained, perhaps referring to long (and therefore wing-like) pectoral fins, extending almost to or beyond anus

Scopelarchoides Parr 1929    oides, having the form of: “obviously very recently derived or at least only little differentiated” from Scopelarchus

Scopelarchoides climax Johnson 1974    named for the Climax Expeditions to the central Pacific Ocean (during which type was collected), and for John McGowan, their leader, and for the participating scientists and crews

Scopelarchoides danae Johnson 1974    in honor of the Danish fishery research vessel Dana (which collected some of the paratypes), “used during the major expeditions of the Carlsberg Foundation, her scientific parties and crews, and the continuing work of the Carlsberg Foundation that has so greatly enhanced our knowledge of the deepsea fauna”

Scopelarchoides kreffti Johnson 1972    in honor of Gerhard Krefft (1912-1993), Institute für Seefischerei (Hamburg), whose efforts upon the research vessel Walther Herwig have contributed greatly to our knowledge of the midwater fauna of the Atlantic Ocean

Scopelarchoides nicholsi Parr 1929    in honor of John Treadwell Nichols (1883-1958), curator of fishes at the American Museum of Natural History

Scopelarchoides signifer Johnson 1974    signum, mark; fero, to bear, referring to distinctive flag-like pattern of pigment on dorsal lobe of caudal fin

Scopelarchus Alcock 1896    Scopelus (=Myctophum), a genus of lanternfishes (Myctophiformes), referring to casual resemblance between them and S. guentheri; archos, anal, referring to long anal fin, “occupying the greater part of the tail”

Scopelarchus analis (Brauer 1902)    referring to long anal fin, length of body, nearly reaching tail

Scopelarchus guentheri Alcock 1896    patronym not identified but clearly in honor of ichthyologist-herpetologist Albert Günther (1830-1914)

Scopelarchus michaelsarsi Koefoed 1955    in honor of the Michael Sars, Norwegian research vessel from which type was collected (named after Norwegian theologian and biologist Michael Sars [1805-1869])

Scopelarchus stephensi Johnson 1974    in honor of environmental biologist John S. Stephens, Jr., for his numerous contributions to the biology of fishes and to the education of scientists


Family EVERMANNELLIDAE Sabertooth Fishes
3 genera • 8 species

Coccorella Roule 1929    ella, diminutive connoting endearment: named for Italian naturalist-pharmacist Anastasio Cocco (1799-1854), who proposed the genus Odontostomus (preoccupied in Mollusca, replaced by Evermannella) in 1838

Coccorella atlantica (Parr 1928)    ica, belonging to: the Atlantic, described as an Atlantic subspecies of the Pacific C. atrata (but now known to occur in subtropical and temperate seas worldwide)

Coccorella atrata (Alcock 1894)    dressed in black, referring to its “jet black” color in spirits

Evermannella Fowler 1901    ella, diminutive connoting endearment: in honor of “distinguished” ichthyologist Barton Warren Evermann (1853-1932), United States Fish Commission, and joint author of the “monumental” four-volume Fishes of North and Middle America (1896-1990) [replacement name for Odontostomus Cocco 1838, preoccupied in Mollusca]

Evermannella ahlstromi Johnson & Glodek 1975    in honor of Elbert H. Ahlstrom, Southwest Fisheries Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, for many contributions to the study of pelagic fishes and pelagic fish larvae, particularly from the eastern Pacific area

Evermannella balbo (Risso 1820)    etymology not explained but, based on numerous mentions of the man in the same volume, almost certainly named in honor of Prospero Balbo (1762-1837), Italian intellectual, politician and president of the Turin Academy of Sciences

Evermannella indica Brauer 1906    Indian, referring to its occurrence in the Indian Ocean, North of Cocos Islands, Seychelles, type locality (but likely occurs throughout Indo-West Pacific)

Evermannella megalops Johnson & Glodek 1975    mega-, large; ops, eye, referring to its extremely large tubular eyes, unique among known evermannellids                      

Evermannella melanoderma Parr 1928    melanos, black; derma, skin, proposed as a dark-skinned subspecies of the light-skinned E. indica

Odontostomops Fowler 1934    Odontostomus (odonto, tooth; stomus, mouth, referring to enlarged teeth at front of mouth), original name of Evermannella (see above); ops, eye, referring to “normal” eye of O. normalops compared to elliptical and semi-telescopic eyes of presumed congeners in Evermannella

Odontostomops normalops (Parr 1928)    normalis, according to rule; ops, eye, referring to having “perfectly normal, lateral eyes” compared to elliptical and semi-telescopic eyes of other species in Evermannella, its presumed genus at the time


Family SUDIDAE

Sudis Rafinesque 1810    pike, stake or arrow, presumably referring to elongate body (“Corpo allungato”) of S. hyalina

Sudis atrox Rofen 1963    cruel, harsh or horrible, referring to its “formidable appearance”

Sudis hyalina Rafinesque 1810    glassy or transparent, described as “Hyaline with various hues” (translation)


Family PARALEPIDIDAE Barracudinas
7 genera • 26 species/subspecies

Arctozenus Gill 1864    arcto-, north; xenos, strange or foreign, proposed as a subgenus of Paralepis, referring to “remarkable distribution” of the genus, with P. coregonoides borealis from Greenland and the rest of the genus then known only from the Mediterranean                       

Arctozenus risso (Bonaparte 1840)    in honor of French naturalist Antoine Risso (1777-1845), who described Paralepis coregonoides (its presumed congener at the time) in 1820 [note: Risso named a spiny eel, Notacanthus bonaparte, in honor of Bonaparte the same year]                   

Dolichosudis Post 1969    dolichos, long, referring to elongate, slender and strongly compressed body; sudis, pike or spear, ancient name for Barracuda (Perciformes: Sphyraenidae) and common suffix for family, referring to superficial resemblance between the two families 

Dolichosudis fuliginosa Post 1969    sooty, referring to its “shiny black” (translation) coloration

Maculisudis Kotthaus 1967    maculatus, spotted, referring to “peculiar” mottling and spotting of M. longipinnis; sudis, pike or spear, ancient name for the Barracuda (Perciformes: Sphyraenidae) and common suffix for family, in this case possibly alluding to presumed close relationship with Stemonosudis

Maculisudis longipinnis Kotthaus 1967    longus, long; pinnis, fin, referring to its “unusually long” pectoral- and dorsal-fin rays

Notolepis Dollo 1908    etymology not explained, perahaps notos, south, referring to distribution of N. coatsorum in Southern Ocean and lepis, a suffix representing Paralepis, i.e., a southern Paralepis; name could translate as notos, back and lepis, scale, but dorsal scales are not mentioned in description and do not appear to be a differentiating character in this genus

Notolepis annulata Post 1978    ringed, referring to long dorsal and ventral extensions of lateral-line scales, which create the appearance that its body is divided into light and dark rings

Notolepis coatsorum Dollo 1908    in honor James Coats, Jr., a thread manufacturer, and his son Major Andrew Coats, who together donated £30,000 towards the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition, which collected type [originally spelled coatsi, but since name honors more than one person, emendment is necessary]

Paralepis Cuvier 1816    para-, side; lepis, scale, referring to body covered with deciduous scales, those of the lateral line being the largest

Paralepis brevirostris (Parr 1928)    brevis, short; rostris, snout, referring to shorter snout compared to P. speciosa

Paralepis coregonoides coregonoides Risso 1820    oides, having the form of: Coregonus (whitefishes, Salmonidae); according to Cuvier (1829), he had sent a specimen to Risso under the name Coregonus paralepis, mistaking his specimen’s frail (“frêle”) second dorsal fin for an adipose fin and thereby believing it was a whitefish

Paralepis coregonoides borealis Reinhardt 1837    northern, referring to its occurrence off the coast of Julianehåb, Greenland, type locality

Paralepis elongata (Brauer 1906)    elongate, presumably referring to its more elongate body compared to Omosudis lowii (Alepisauridae), its presumed congener at the time

Paralepis speciosa Bellotti 1878    beautiful or showy, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to its milky white body in life with seven large black spots on sides

Stemonosudis Harry 1951    etymology not explained, perhaps stemonos, thread, referring to “eel-like, very elongate and thin” body of S. intermedius; sudis, pike or spear, ancient name for the Barracuda (Perciformes: Sphyraenidae) and common suffix for family, referring to superficial resemblance between the two families

Stemonosudis bullisi Rofen 1963    in honor of marine biologist Harvey R. Bullis, Jr., to whom many American ichthyologists, Rofen included, are “greatly indebted” for supplying valuable marine collections from the cruises of the Oregon and other vessels of the U. S. Fish and Wildlife service, including type of this species

Stemonosudis distans (Ege 1957)    distant or standing apart, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to the fact that Ege did not compare this species to its congeners since only young postlarval specimens were available

Stemonosudis elegans (Ege 1933)    fine, choice or select, allusion not explained nor evident (perhaps Ege, who measured body proportions in great detail, considered it to be well-proportioned)

Stemonosudis elongata (Ege 1933)    allusion not explained, but it is an elongate fish, its maximum body height (of an adolescent specimen) ~3% of SL 

Stemonosudis gracilis (Ege 1933)    slender, allusion not explained, but it is a slender fish, its maximum height (of an adolescent specimen) ~4% of SL                                  

Stemonosudis intermedia (Ege 1933)    allusion not explained nor evident, perhaps intermediate in one or more characters among its congeners

Stemonosudis macrura (Ege 1933)    macro-, long; oura, tail; according to Ege (1957): “the preanal length takes in only a little more than half of standard length, a relationship which has led to the choice of the species name” (in other words, longer postanal length compared to congeners then placed in Macroparalepis)

Stemonosudis miscella (Ege 1933)    mixed, allusion not explained nor evident, perhaps reflecting a “mix” or combination of characters found among its congeners

Stemonosudis molesta (Marshall 1955)    troublesome or irksome, allusion not explained, probably referring to its “awkwardly intermediate” position between Stemonosudis and Macroparalepis (its original genus)

Stemonosudis rothschildi Richards 1967    in honor of Brian J. Rothschild (b. 1934), Bureau of Commercial Fisheries (Honolulu, Hawaii), who supplied type (which was taken from the stomach of a lancetfish, presumably Alepisaurus ferox)

Stemonosudis siliquiventer Post 1970    siliqua, pod or husk; venter, belly, referring to striking pattern of peritoneal septum (or abdominal membrane), which resembles the infructescence (fruiting head) of numerous legumes or cruciferous vegetables

Stemonosudis similis (Ege 1957)    like or resembling, allusion not explained, a curious choice for its name since Ege did not compare this species to its congeners because only young postlarval specimens were available

Uncisudis Maul 1956    uncus, hook, referring to “sturdy, hook-shaped teeth of the lower jaw and palatines” of U. longirostra; sudis, pike or spear, ancient name for the Barracuda (Perciformes: Sphyraenidae) and common suffix for family, referring to the superficial resemblance between the two families

Uncisudis advena (Rofen 1963)    a stranger, allusion not explained, possibly referring to its color pattern (solid black spot on back before adipose fin) and prolonged dorsal and ventral fins, described as “unique and approaching nothing else in the family”

Uncisudis longirostra Maul 1956    longus, long; rostra, snout, referring to its “very long” snout its length 1.7 in head

Uncisudis posteropelvis Fukui & Ozawa 2004    postero-, posterior; pelvis, pelvic, referring to its posteriorly located pelvic fins

Uncisudis quadrimaculata (Post 1969)    quadri-, four; maculata, spotted, referring to four blackish spots on dorsal surface


Family ALEPISAURIDAE Lancetfishes
4 genera • 9 species

Alepisaurus Lowe 1833    a-, without and lepis, scale, referring to their scaleless bodies; saurus, lizard, perhaps referring to lizard-like shape of A. ferox

Alepisaurus brevirostris Gibbs 1960    brevis, short; rostris, snout, referring to shorter snout compared to A. ferox

Alepisaurus ferox Lowe 1833    fierce or ferocious, referring to its “wide gape, and long formidable teeth”

Anotopterus Zugmayer 1911    a-, without; notos, back; pterus, fin, referring to absence of dorsal fin

Anotopterus nikparini Kukuev 1998    in honor of ichthyologist Nikolai Vasil’evich Parin (1932-2012), Russian Academy of Sciences, “who invested much into the study of the World Ocean ichthyofauna” (translation)          

Anotopterus pharao Zugmayer 1911    pharaoh, referring to how lower jaw exceeds upper jaw and ends in a tip, recalling the beard of Egyptian pharaohs 

Anotopterus vorax (Regan 1913)    voracious or gluttonous, referring to “much produced” snout and lower jaw and/or pointed teeth

Magnisudis Harry 1953    magnus, large, referring to size of M. barysoma (=atlantica), at 30-50 cm, the largest barracudinas known at the time; sudis, pike or spear, ancient name for the Barracuda (Perciformes: Sphyraenidae) and common suffix for family, referring to superficial resemblance between the two families

Magnisudis atlantica (Krøyer 1868)    ica, belonging to: presumably referring to its occurrence in the northeastern Atlantic, near type locality at Skagen, Denmark (but occurs circumglobally in warm to cold temperate seas, including the Hawaiian Islands)    

Magnisudis indica (Ege 1953)    Indian, referring to its distribution in the Indian Ocean and the Indo-Malayan Archipelago

Magnisudis prionosa (Rofen 1963)    saw-like, referring to its teeth

Omosudis Günther 1887    omo-, shoulder, presumably referring to supraclavicle and postclavicle, which “form a long rod extending from the occiput on each side downwards to the abdomen, and partly free, not covered by skin”; sudis, pike or spear, ancient name for the Barracuda (Perciformes: Sphyraenidae) and common suffix for several aulopiform fishes (referring to their Barracuda-like shape), but in this case probably referring to to its presumed relationship with sudid fishes

Omosudis lowii Günther 1887    in honor of British clergyman Richard Thomas Lowe (1802-1874), an expert on the flora and fauna of the Madeira Islands, who sent a specimen of this species to Günther in 1868 (but it was “so much distorted and injured” that it could not be used as the type)


Family LESTIDIIDAE Naked Barracudinas
4 genera • 29 species

Lestidiops Hubbs 1916    ops, appearance, referring to close relationship with (and presumed similarity to) Lestidium

Lestidiops affinis (Ege 1930)    related, referring to close relationship with L. sphyrenoides and L. pseudosphyraenoides, so close “that only a more thorough comparative investigation can establish the actual differences” between them

Lestidiops bathyopteryx (Fowler 1944)    bathy, deep; pteryx, fin, referring to deep anal fin, “greatly higher than body depth”

Lestidiops cadenati (Maul 1962)    in honor of ichthyologist Jean Cadenat (1908-1992), Director, Marine Biological Section of the Institute Français d’Afrique Noire (Gorée, Senegal)                      

Lestidiops extrema (Ege 1953)    outermost, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to how the oldest postlarval specimen examined “shows some proportional values that differ so much from the corresponding values” of L. mirabili

Lestidiops gracilis (Ege 1953)    slender, described as “much more slender” (among younger post-larvae) than L. sphyrenoides

Lestidiops indopacifica (Ege 1953)    referring to its distribution limited to the Indo-Pacific area

Lestidiops jayakari (Boulenger 1889)    in honor of Surgeon-Major (and entomologist) A.S.G. Jayakar (1873-1900), who presented type to British Museum (Natural History)            

Lestidiops mirabilis (Ege 1933)    wonderful, strange, striking or remarkable, allusion not explained nor evident

Lestidiops neles (Harry 1953)    ruthless, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to its well-armed mouth and/or predatory behavior

Lestidiops pacificus (Parr 1931)    icus, belonging to: the Pacific Ocean, where it occurs

Lestidiops pseudosphyraenoides (Ege 1918)    pseudo-, false, named “in order to suggest that it is closely related” to L. sphyrenoides

Lestidiops ringens (Jordan & Gilbert 1880)    gaping, referring to its large, horizontal mouth, “the gape extending more than half the length of the head”   

Lestidiops similis (Ege 1933)    like or resembling, “rather closely related” to L. pseudosphyraenoides

Lestidiops sphyraenopsis Hubbs 1916    etymology not explained, probably –opsis, appearance, perhaps referring to similarity and/or close relationship to L. sphyrenoides

Lestidiops sphyrenoides (Risso 1820)    oides, having the form of: allusion not explained but probably referring to its superficial resemblance to the Barracuda (Perciformes: Sphyraenidae, genus Sphyraena)

Lestidium Gilbert 1905    thief- or pirate-like, allusion not explained, possibly referring to fang-like teeth and/or predatory behavior

Lestidium atlanticum Borodin 1928    icum, belonging to: only known species of genus that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean

Lestidium bigelowi Graae 1967    in honor of Henry B. Bigelow (1879-1967), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, for his “kindness and generosity”

Lestidium nudum Gilbert 1905    naked or bare, “skin wholly naked, except for a series of small scales along course of lateral line, which are wholly embedded and concealed beneath the skin”

Lestidium prolixum Harry 1953    stretched out or attenuate, referring to its elongate form

Lestrolepis Harry 195    lestro, pirate (according to Harry), but probably referring to its relationship and/or similarity to Lestidium; lepis, scale (which it lacks), allusion not explained nor evident

Lestrolepis intermedia (Poey 1868)    intermediate, allusion not explained, perhaps intermediate in form among its presumed congeners in Paralepis at time of description

Lestrolepis japonica (Tanaka 1908)    Japanese, referring to type locality at Sagami Sea, Japan (but occurs elsewhere in Indo-West Pacific)

Lestrolepis luetkeni (Ege 1933)    in honor of the late Danish zoologist Christian Frederik Lütken (1827-1901)

Macroparalepis Harry 1953    macro-, long, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to longer, more elongate body compared to Paralepis (name proposed by Ege in 1933 but unavailable since he included multiple species without designating which one was the type; many sources credit authorship to Burton 1934 (an entry in the Zoological Record for 1933, published 1934), but Burton merely repeated Ege’s list of species without designating type; Harry was the first to designate a type and hence becomes the author of the genus)

Macroparalepis affinis Ege 1933    related, presumably referring to similarity to M. brevis

Macroparalepis brevis Ege 1933    short, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to shorter anal fin compared to the similar M. affinis

Macroparalepis danae Ege 1933    in honor of the Danish fishery research vessel Dana, which procured “a very comprehensive material of fishes” belonging to the family, including type of this species and several others

Macroparalepis johnfitchi (Rofen 1960)    in honor of John E. Fitch (1918-1982), marine and fisheries biologist, California Department of Fish and Game, “indefatigable researcher” of the California marine fauna, who provided type and helped Rofen in his investigations of iniomous fishes

Macroparalepis longilateralis Post 1973    longus, long; lateralis, of the side, referring to lateral line extending to base of caudal-fin rays

Macroparalepis macrogeneion Post 1973    macro-, long; geneion, cheek or goatee, referring to long, unossified process at tip of lower jaw

Macroparalepis nigra (Maul 1965)    black, referring to “uniform deep black” coloration of body, head and more basal pats of all fins