Order ARGENTINIFORMES (Marine Smelts)

v. 4.0 – 29 Dec. 2016  view/download PDF

4 families · 23 genera/subgenera · 96 species                            

Family ARGENTINIDAE Argentines or Herring Smelts          
3 genera/subgenera · 28 species                                                                         

Argentina Linnaeus 1758    Spanish for silvery, referring to bright silver peritoneum and scales of A. sphyraena, which were used to make artificial pearls

Argentina aliceae Cohen & Atsaides 1969    in honor of Alice Holland, former Secretary, Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Systematics Laboratory, U.S. National Museum, for her “devoted” services to ichthyology

Argentina australiae Cohen 1958    of Australia, proposed as an Australian subspecies of A. elongata

Argentina brasiliensis Kobyliansky 2004    ensis, suffix denoting place: coastal waters of Brazil, where it occurs

Argentina brucei Cohen & Atsaides 1969    in honor of ichthyologist Bruce B. Collette, who helped collect many of the type specimens

Argentina elongata Hutton 1879    referring to its elongate body

Argentina euchus Cohen 1961    Greek for “the thing prayed for,” referring to fact that this species is the “answer to a longstanding puzzle,” i.e., the true identity of specimens of A. sphyraena recorded from the western Indian Ocean but subsequently lost

Argentina georgei Cohen & Atsaides 1969    in honor of George Clipper, Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Systematics Laboratory, U.S. National Museum, where the authors are “indebted for [his] efficient assistance”

Argentina kagoshimae Jordan & Snyder 1902    of Kagoshima, a city on the island of Kyushu, Japan, type locality (also occurs off coasts of Korea and Taiwan)

Argentina sialis Gilbert 1890    Greek for plump, allusion not explained, possibly referring to “much deeper body” compared to the similar A. elongata

Argentina silus (Ascanius 1775)    presumably a latinization of Vas-Sil, its vernacular name in Bergen, Norway, where Ascanius ate several and enjoyed its excellent flesh

Argentina sphyraena Linnaeus 1758    ancient word recalling the idea of a javelin, a pointed stake, or prow of a ship, historically used for slender, sharp-headed fishes (which this one certainly is)

Argentina stewarti Cohen & Atsaides 1969    in honor of shark expert Stewart Springer (1906-1991), for numerous contributions to the ichthyology of the tropical western Atlantic

Argentina striata Goode & Bean 1896    striated, referring to “obliquely striate” scales in lateral line

Glossanodon Guichenot 1867    glossum, tongue; an-, without; odonto-, tooth, referring to perceived absence of tongue dentition on G. leioglossus (small teeth are present on many specimens)

Subgenus Glossanodon

Glossanodon australis Kobyliansky 1998    southern, referring to occurrence in near-shore waters off eastern Australia in the Tasman Sea

Glossanodon danieli Parin & Shcherbachev 1982    in honor of ichthyologist Daniel M. Cohen, California Academy of Sciences, for contributions to the knowledge of the family Argentinidae

Glossanodon elongatus Kobyliansky 1998    elongate, referring to body shape

Glossanodon kotakamaru Endo & Nashida 2010    named for the R/V Kotaka-maru, National Research Institute of Fisheries Science (Kochi, Japan), from which paratypes and many other scientific specimens from Tosa Bay, Japan, were collected

Glossanodon leioglossus (Valenciennes 1848)    leios, smooth; glossum, tongue, referring to perceived absence of tongue dentition (small teeth are present on many specimens)

Glossanodon lineatus (Matsubara 1943)    lined, allusion not explained, possibly referring to “definite dark brown longitudinal band” immediately above lateral line and/or silvery band below it (figure accompanying description illustrates both of these features but also shows a prominent lateral line)

Glossanodon melanomanus Kobyliansky 1998    melano-, black; –oma, suffix denoting tumors and other abnormal growths, referring to black spot on pectoral fin

Glossanodon microcephalus Endo & Nishida 2012    micro-, small; cephalus, head, referring to smaller head compared to most congeners

Glossanodon mildredae Cohen & Atsaides 1969    in honor of Mildred H. Carrington, “whose tasteful and accurate drawings have contributed greatly to the progress of ichthyology”

Glossanodon nazca Parin & Shcherbachev 1982    named for the Nazca Ridge, eastern South Pacific, type locality

Glossanodon polli Cohen 1958    in honor of Belgian ichthyologist Max Poll (1908-1991), who first reported and illustrated this species (as Argentina sphyraena) in 1953

Glossanodon pseudolineatus Kobyliansky 1998    pseudo-, false, referring to superficial similarity to G. lineatus

Glossanodon semifasciatus (Kishinouye 1904)    semi-, half; fasciatus, banded, referring to 7-10 dusky blotches or saddle marks of adults, which are confined to dorsal half of body

Glossanodon struhsakeri Cohen 1970    in honor of Paul Struhsaker (b. 1935), University of Hawaii, who collected type during his investigations on the biology of Hawaiian demersal fish and shrimp populations

Subgenus Prosoarchus Cohen 1958    proso, forward; archus, anus, referring to forwardly positioned anus of G. pygmaeus

Glossanodon pygmaeus Cohen 1958    dwarf, referring to its small size (up to 86.6 mm SL)

Family OPISTHOPROCTIDAE Barreleyes or Spookfishes
9 genera · 21 species

Bathylychnops Cohen 1958    bathys, deep, referring to bathypelagic habitat; lychnos, lamp and ops, eye, referring to photophore and two other patches of “luminous tissue” projecting from a black sac on eyes

Bathylychnops brachyrhynchus (Parr 1937)    brachys, short; rhynchus, snout, referring to “broad and short” snout

Bathylychnops chilensis Parin, Belyanina & Evseenko 2009    ensis, suffix denoting place: near the coast of Chile in the southeastern Pacific, type locality

Bathylychnops exilis Cohen 1958    slender, referring to its elongate, laterally compressed body

Dolichopteroides Parin, Belyanina & Evseenko 2009    oides, having the form of: referring to previous placement of D. binocularis in Dolichopteryx

Dolichopteroides binocularis (Beebe 1932)    binocular, referring to its “telescope” eyes, which “rest in a great depression on the head, the upper part being covered with perfectly transparent tissue”

Dolichopteryx Brauer 1901    dolicho-, long; pteryx, fins, referring to very long pectoral and ventral fins

Dolichopteryx anascopa Brauer 1901    ana-, up; scopa, watcher, referring to its tubular eyes, which protrude upwards and forwards

Dolichopteryx andriashevi Parin, Belyanina & Evseenko 2009    in memory of the recently deceased “outstanding” Russian ichthyologist Anatolii Petrovich Andriashev (1910-2009), who made a “large” contribution to the study of fishes of the world’s oceans

Dolichopteryx longipes (Vaillant 1888)    longus, long; pes, foot, referring to long ventral fins

Dolichopteryx minuscula Fukui & Kitagawa 2006    rather small, referring to body size compared to congeners

Dolichopteryx parini Kobyliansky & Fedorov 2001    in honor of ichthyologist Nikolai Vasil’evich Parin (1932-2012), Russian Academy of Sciences

Dolichopteryx pseudolongipes Fukui, Kitagawa & Parin 2008    pseudo-, false, referring to similarity to D. longipes

Dolichopteryx rostrata Fukui & Kitagawa 2006    beaked, referring to its elongate snout

Dolichopteryx trunovi Parin 2005    in honor of ichthyologist Ivan Andreevich Trunov (1936-2005), Atlantic Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography, who identified this species, based on insufficient material, as D. anascopa in 1997

Dolichopteryx vityazi Parin, Belyanina & Evseenko 2009    in honor of the “famous motor ship” R/V Vityaz (also spelled Vitiaz), from which the first author caught type on the ship’s 26th cruise 50 years ago

Ioichthys Parin 2004    io-, named for the Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences (abbreviated IO), where Parin worked; ichthys, fish

Ioichthys kashkini Parin 2004    in honor of Nikita Ivanovich Kashkin, who took part in many expeditions on vessels of the Acoustics Institute of Oceanography in the 1960s through 1980s, significantly contributing to the ecological study of mesopelagic species, and who collected type of this species

Macropinna Chapman 1939    macro-, long or large; pinna, fin, referring to large pectoral fins, with fine and long rays that reach middle of anal fin

Macropinna microstoma Chapman 1939    micro-, small; stoma, mouth, referring to its “extremely small gape, not reaching more than a third of the way to the eye”

Monacoa Whitley 1943    etymology not explained but almost certainly referring to the Principality of Monaco, where the research expedition that collected M. grimaldii had originated

Monacoa grimaldii (Zugmayer 1911)    in honor of Albert Honoré Charles Grimaldi (1848-1922), Albert I, Prince of Monaco, who founded his principality’s Institut Océanographique, which published this fish’s description

Monacoa griseus Poulsen, Sado, Hahn, Byrkjedal, Moku & Miya 2016    gray, referring to uniform grayish anterior part of sole (reflecting organ), lacking distinct patterns of pigmentation

Monacoa niger Poulsen, Sado, Hahn, Byrkjedal, Moku & Miya 2016    black, referring to black streak of pigmentation on sole (reflecting organ)

Opisthoproctus Vaillant 1888    opistho-, behind; proctus, anus, referring to posterior placement of anal fin, directly under caudal fin

Opisthoproctus soleatus Vaillant 1888    atus, provided with: solea, sole (i.e., sole reflecting organ), referring to elongate, forward-projecting flattening on underside of abdomen that may act as a reflector for light organ inside body near anus

Rhynchohyalus Barnard 1925    rhynchos, snout; hyalinus, transparent, referring to long, rounded and transparent snout (replacement for Hyalorhynchus Gilchrist & von Bonde 1924, preoccupied by Hyalorhynchus Ogilby 1910 in fishes)

Rhynchohyalus natalensis (Gilchrist & von Bonde 1924)    ensis, suffix denoting place: type locality erroneously given as Natal, South Africa (correct type locality is off Table Bay, South Africa)

Winteria Brauer 1901    ia, belonging to: Fritz Winter (1878-1917), scientific illustrator on the Valdivia Expedition (1888-1899) to subantarctic seas, who illustrated this species and many others

Winteria telescopa Brauer 1901    far seeing, referring to its massive, egg-shaped, forwardly directed eyes

Family MICROSTOMATIDAE Pencilsmelts
3 generaa · 22 species                         

Microstoma Cuvier 1816    tautonymous with Gasteropelecus microstoma; micro-, small; stoma, mouth, referring to small, oval mouth

Microstoma australis Gon & Stewart 2014    southern, referring to distribution in southwestern Pacific Ocean off New Zealand and Australia

Microstoma microstoma (Risso 1810)    micro-, small; stoma, mouth, referring to small, oval mouth

Nansenia Jordan & Evermann 1896    ia, belonging to: “our friend” Fridtjof Nansen (1861-1930), author of a study of the development of hagfishes, and “since noted as an intrepid arctic explorer” (and later Nobel Peace Prize laureate)

Nansenia ahlstromi Kawaguchi & Butler 1984    in honor of the late Elbert H. Ahlstrom (1910-1979), Southwest Fisheries Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, for contributions to the knowledge of pelagic fishes

Nansenia antarctica Kawaguchi & Butler 1984    ica, belonging to: southern part of subantarctic region between antarctic and subtropical convergences of the Pacific, where it occurs

Nansenia ardesiaca Jordan & Thompson 1914    slate-colored, presumably referring to its “brilliant silvery” coloration with scales of a “bright, silvery appearance”

Nansenia atlantica Blache & Rossignol 1962    referring to its distribution in the Eastern Atlantic

Nansenia boreacrassicauda Poulsen 2015    boreas, subarctic or northern, referring to distribution of type materials; crassus, fat or stout, and cauda, tail, referring to stubby caudal peduncle

Nansenia candida Cohen 1958    shining white, referring to its bright, silvery appearance

Nansenia crassa Lavenberg 1965    thick, fat or stout, referring to its “bulky, stout appearance”

Nansenia groenlandica (Reinhardt 1840)    ica, belong to: Greenland, type locality (but occurs in cold seas worldwide)

Nansenia iberica Matallanas 1985    ica, belonging to: the Iberian Peninsula of Spain, type locality

Nansenia indica Kobyliansky 1992    Indian, referring to Indian Ocean near coast of Mozambique, type locality

Nansenia longicauda Kawaguchi & Butler 1984    longus, long; cauda, tail, referring to long and slender caudal peduncle

Nansenia macrolepis (Gilchrist 1922)    macro-, large; lepis, scale, referring to “large, thin and deciduous” scales

Nansenia megalopa Kawaguchi & Butler 1984    mega-, large; ops, eye, referring to its “extraordinarily large” eye

Nansenia oblita (Facciolà 1887)    forgotten, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to how previous ichthyologists had overlooked this species, presuming its differences were due to “simple individual variation” among Microstoma argenteum (=M. microstoma) in the Mediterranean

Nansenia obscura Kobyliansky & Usachev 1992    dark, referring to dark body color of deep-black scale pockets

Nansenia pelagica Kawaguchi & Butler 1984    referring to its “pelagic life”

Nansenia schmitti (Fowler 1934)    in honor of carcinologist Waldo L. Schmitt (1887-1977), Curator of the Division of Marine Invertebrates, U.S. National Museum

Nansenia tenera Kawaguchi & Butler 1984    Latin for soft, referring to the “consistency” of its body

Nansenia tenuicauda Kawaguchi & Butler 1984    tenuis, slender; cauda, tail, referring to its slender caudal peduncle

Xenophthalmichthys Regan 1925    xeno-, different and ophthalmus, eye, related to Microstoma but distinguished by its telescopic eyes; ichthys, fish

Xenophthalmichthys danae Regan 1925    in honor of the Danish fishery research vessel Dana, from which type was collected

Family BATHYLAGIDAE Deepsea Smelts
8 genera · 25 species

Bathylagichthys Kobyliansky 1986    Bathylagus, referring to external similarity to that genus (also genus in which B. greyae and B. longipinnis had previously been placed); ichthys, fish

Bathylagichthys australis Kobyliansky 1990    southern, referring to its occurrence in the Southern Hemisphere

Bathylagichthys greyae (Cohen 1958)    in honor of Marion Grey (1911-1964), Chicago Natural History Museum, for her contributions to the study of deep-sea fishes

Bathylagichthys kobylianskyi Gon & Stewart 2014   in honor of Stanislav Kobyliansky, P. P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology (Moscow), for his contribution to the systematics of the family Bathylagidae

Bathylagichthys longipinnis (Kobyliansky 1985)    longus, long; pinnis, fin, referring to longer pectoral fins (extending beyond dorsal-fin origin) compared to B. greyae (not extending beyond dorsal-fin origin)

Bathylagichthys parini Kobyliansky 1990    in honor of Nikolai Vasil’evich Parin (1932-2012), Russian Academy of Sciences, for his contributions to ichthyology

Bathylagichthys problematicus (Lloris & Rucabado 1985)    named for the “difficulties that were encountered when studying the specimens” (these difficulties included unstable nomenclature, uncertain higher-level classification, scarce literature, unavailable type specimens of related taxa, and a year-long editor-driven delay in getting description to press; Domingo Lloris, pers. comm.)

Bathylagoides Whitley 1951    oides, having the form of: proposed subgenus of Bathylagus, distinguished by a deeper body and fewer anal-fin rays

Bathylagoides argyrogaster (Norman 1930)    argyros, silver; gaster, belly, described as “Brownish above, silvery below”

Bathylagoides nigrigenys (Parr 1931)    nigra-, black; genys, cheek, referring to jet-black peritoneum and inner lining of mouth and gill cavity, conspicuously visible through gill cover, “which therefore appears to be of a highly lustrous black hue”

Bathylagoides wesethi (Bolin 1938)    in honor of Lars Weseth, captain of the Albacore, from which type was collected, for “helpfulness and cooperation which he unfailingly extends to scientists working on board his vessel”

Bathylagus Günther 1878    bathys, deep, referring to deep-sea habitat; lagos, hare, allusion not explained, possibly referring to large rabbit-like eyes

Bathylagus andriashevi Kobyliansky 1986    in honor of Russian ichthyologist Anatoly Petrovich Andriashev (1910-2009), for his “great” (translation) contribution to the study of fishes from the Southern Ocean

Bathylagus antarcticus Günther 1878    icus, belonging to: Antarctic Ocean, type locality

Bathylagus atlanticus Günther 1878    icus, belonging to: South Atlantic, type locality

Bathylagus euryops Goode & Bean 1896    eurys, broad or wide; ops, eye, referring to diameter of eye ½ length of head

Bathylagus longiceps Parr 1931    longus, long; ceps, head, referring to “great length” of head compared to congeners known at the time

Bathylagus niger Kobyliansky 2006    black, referring to general dark coloration of body

Bathylagus pacificus Gilbert 1890    referring to its distribution in the Pacific Ocean

Bathylagus tenuis Kobyliansky 1986    thin or narrow, referring to its “strongly elongated” body (translation)

Dolicholagus Kobyliansky 1986    dolichos, long, referring to elongated body form of D. longirostris; lagus, hare, apparently used here as a suffix for the family, from the type genus Bathylagus

Dolicholagus longirostris (Maul 1948)    longus, long; rostris, snout, referring to “much longer” snout compared to its presumed closest congener at the time, Bathylagus microcephalus (=Melanolagus bericoides)

Leuroglossus Gilbert 1890    leuros, smooth; glossus, tongue, referring to toothless tongue compared to toothed tongue of Argentina (Argentinidae), its presumed relative at the time

Leuroglossus callorhini (Lucas 1899)    of Callorhinus ursinus, Northern Fur Seal, which “extensively” feeds on this species, from whose stomach type material was collected; “Owing to the tenderness and small size of this fish, it is so quickly acted on by the gastric juice that nothing but bones remained of the many hundred specimens that were seen and while evidently common, it can be described only from the skeleton”

Leuroglossus schmidti Rass 1955    in honor of Soviet ichthyologist Petr Yulievich Schmidt (1872-1949), “famous researcher of the far Eastern seas” (translation), who first noted how this species differed from L. stilbius in a posthumous publication (1950)

Leuroglossus stilbius Gilbert 1890    shining, presumably referring to “right silvery” body, abdomen and sides of head

Leuroglossus urotranus Bussing 1965    oura-, tail; tranos, clear, referring to unpigmented caudal-fin rays

Lipolagus Kobyliansky 1986    lipos, fat, referring to increased lipid content in body of L. ochotensis; lagus, hare, apparently used here as a suffix for the family, from the type genus Bathylagus

Lipolagus ochotensis (Schmidt 1938)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Okhotsk Sea, Kamchatka, Russia, type locality (also occurs in Western North Pacific and Bering Sea)

Melanolagus Kobyliansky 1986    melanos, black, referring to black pigmentation of M. bericoides; lagus, hare, apparently used here as a suffix for the family, from the type genus Bathylagus

Melanolagus bericoides (Borodin 1929)    oides, having the form of: combining characters of both “bericoid” (presumably Berycidae) and scopelid (Myctophidae) fishes, with large head, small mouth and short cleft of the former, and general form, scale shape and fins of the latter

Pseudobathylagus Kobyliansky 1986    pseudo-, false, referring to external similarity to Bathylagus

Pseudobathylagus milleri (Jordan & Gilbert 1898)    in honor of Walter Miller (1864-1949), linguist, classics scholar and archaeologist, Stanford University, for his “intelligent interest” in zoological nomenclature (Miller reviewed and verified name etymologies in Jordan and Evermann’s Fishes of North and Middle America [1896-1900])