Order ANGUILLIFORMES: Families MURAENESOCIDAE, NETTASTOMATIDAE, CONGRIDAE, MORINGUIDAE, CYEMATIDAE, MONOGNATHIDAE, SACCOPHARYNGIDAE, EURYPHARYNGIDAE, NEMICHTHYIDAE, SERRIVOMERIDAE and ANGUILLIDAE

COMMENTS
v. 7.0 – 5 Dec. 2016  view/download PDF

Family MURAENESOCIDAE Pike Congers
6 genera • 15 species

Congresox Gill 1890    esox, pike, being a conger-like eel with a pike-like form (see Muraenesox)

Congresox talabon (Cuvier 1829)    Tala Bon, Telugu (an Indo-Aryan language) vernacular for this eel (name dates to a plate by Russell [1803] and was apparently misspelled talabou by Cuvier)

Congresox talabonoides (Bleeker 1852)    oides, having the form of: referring to similarity to C. talabon

Cynoponticus Costa 1845    cyno-, dog; pontus, open sea, literally “sea dog,” probably referring to ferocious appearance of C. ferox, e.g., a “large mouth armed … with feral teeth” (translation)

Cynoponticus coniceps (Jordan & Gilbert 1882)    conus, cone; ceps, head, referring to slender, conical snout

Cynoponticus ferox Costa 1846    fierce, probably referring to ferocious appearance (as for genus)

Cynoponticus savanna (Bancroft 1831)    savanne, vernacular for this eel in Martinique (Cuvier coined the name in 1829, citing a specimen from Martinique, but his description did not sufficiently distinguish this eel from others)

Gavialiceps Alcock 1889    gavial, crocodile-like reptile (also from India); ceps, head, likely referring to gavial-like snout in the “form of a stout spathulate beak”

Gavialiceps arabicus (D’Ancona 1928)   Arabian, referring to distribution in Gulf of Aden and Arabian Sea

Gavialiceps bertelseni Karmovskaya 1993    in memory of Erik Bertelsen (1912–1993), a “leading ichthyologist and outstanding person”

Gavialiceps javanicus Karmovskaya 1993    Javanese, referring to slope of Java at depths of 560-600 m, type locality

Gavialiceps taeniola Alcock 1889    diminutive of taenia, ribbon, probably referring to “long lash-like tail”

Gavialiceps taiwanensis (Chen & Weng 1967)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Tungkong, Taiwan, type locality

Muraenesox McClelland 1844    muraena, Latin for moray but likely used here as a general term for eel; esox, pike, “of both which the proposed genus partakes in form,” presumably referring to long, narrow jaws with prominent teeth

Muraenesox bagio (Hamilton 1822)    Bengali vernacular for this species

Muraenesox cinereus (Forsskål 1775)    ash-colored, referring to gray coloration

Muraenesox yamaguchiensis Katayama & Takai 1954    ensis, suffix denoting place: Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan, type locality

Oxyconger Bleeker 1864    oxys, sharp, being a conger-like eel with a very sharp, much-produced snout

Oxyconger leptognathus (Bleeker 1858)    leptos, thin; gnathos, jaw, referring to thin jaws that form much-produced snout

Sauromuraenesox Alcock 1889    sauros, lizard, being a Muraenesox with a general body form “much like that of a chameleon,” i.e., with a high-arched back tapering to a low tail

Sauromuraenesox vorax Alcock 1889    gluttonous, allusion not explained, possibly referring to sharp and enlarged teeth


Family NETTASTOMATIDAE Duckbill Eels
6 genera • 46 species

Facciolella Whitley 1938    ella, diminutive connoting endearment: named for Italian ichthyologist Luigi Facciolà, who recognized and described the genus in 1911 but used a preoccupied name (Nettastomella)

Facciolella castlei Parin & Karmovskaya 1985    in honor of Peter H. J. Castle (1934-1999), Victoria University (Wellington, New Zealand), “famous” (translation) specialist in eel systematics

Facciolella equatorialis (Gilbert 1891)    of the equator, referring to type locality off coast of Ecuador

Facciolella gilbertii (Garman 1899)    in honor of ichthyologist and fisheries biologist Charles H. Gilbert (1859-1928), who first noted occurrence of genus (as Chlopsis) in American waters

Facciolella karrerae Klausewitz 1995    in honor of German ichthyologist Christine Karrer, for her contributions to the knowledge of eels of the western Indian Ocean and her studies on deep-sea fishes of the Red Sea at the Senckenberg Museum (Frankfurt)

Facciolella oxyrhyncha (Bellotti 1883)    oxy, sharp; rhynchus, snout, referring to slender, elongate snout of leptocephalus

Facciolella saurencheloides (D’Ancona 1928)    oides, having the form of: Saurenchelys cancrivora, referring to considerable resemblance between leptocephali

Hoplunnis Kaup 1860    hoplon, armor; hynis, vomer, presumably referring to large vomerine teeth

Hoplunnis diomediana Goode & Bean 1896    ana, belonging to: Diomedia, genus name of the albatross, referring to U.S. Fish Commission steamer Albatross, from which type was collected

Hoplunnis macrura Ginsburg 1951    makros, long; oura, tail, referring to “notably long (for an eel)” caudal fin

Hoplunnis megista Smith & Kanazawa 1989    megistos, largest, i.e., the largest species of Hoplunnis

Hoplunnis pacifica Lane & Stewart 1968    ica, belonging to: the Pacific (specifically, eastern Pacific near Mazatlán, México), the only known species of Hoplunnis from the Pacific Ocean

Hoplunnis punctata Regan 1915    spotted, referring to numerous small dark spots forming irregular longitudinal series on upper half of body

Hoplunnis schmidti Kaup 1860    in honor of “Dr. Schmidt” (forename not given), one of the directors of the Hamburg Museum, who provided specimens to Kaup

Hoplunnis sicarius (Garman 1899)    dagger-man or assassin, possibly referring to dagger-like shape of larval form

Hoplunnis similis Smith 1989    like or resembling, referring to resemblance to H. diomediana

Hoplunnis tenuis Ginsburg 1951    thin, referring to slender body and tail

Nettastoma Rafinesque 1810    netta, duck; stoma, mouth, referring to elongate and slightly depressed snout

Nettastoma falcinaris Parin & Karmovskaya 1985    falci-, sickle-shaped; nares, nostril, referring to falcate nostrils

Nettastoma melanurum Rafinesque 1810    melan, dark or black; oura, tail, presumably referring to darkened posterior portions of dorsal and anal fins

Nettastoma parviceps Günther 1877    parvus, small; ceps, head, its length 2/5 the distance between gill-opening and vent (compared to more than ½ in N. melanurum)

Nettastoma solitarium Castle & Smith 1981    solitary or alone, referring to isolated and widely scattered distribution in the Indo-Pacific

Nettastoma syntresis Smith & Böhlke 1981    channel, passage of strait, referring to occurrence in Santaren, Nicholas and Northwest Providence Channels (Bahamas)

Nettenchelys Alcock 1898    netta, duck, referring to somewhat elongate and depressed snout; enchelys, ancient Greek for eel

Nettenchelys bellottii (D’Ancona 1928)    described from a leptocephalus, in honor of biologist-paleontologist Cristoforo Bellotti (1823-1919), who published the first review of Mediterranean leptocephali in 1883

Nettenchelys dionisi Brito 1989    in honor of Gustavo Perez-Dionis, for his contributions to the study of the marine fauna of Canary Island (type locality)

Nettenchelys erroriensis Karmovskaya 1994    ensis, suffix denoting place: Error Seamount, northeastern Indian Ocean, type locality

Nettenchelys exoria Böhlke & Smith 1981    beyond the frontier, referring to position of posterior nostrils, which have migrated beyond occiput to behind head

Nettenchelys gephyra Castle & Smith 1981    a bridge, referring to the link this species provides between N. pygmaea and N. inion (in terms of intermediate nostril position)

Nettenchelys inion Smith & Böhlke 1981    back of head or occiput, referring to position of posterior nostril

Nettenchelys paxtoni Karmovskaya 1999    in honor of John R. Paxton (Australian Museum, Sydney), “renowned Australian ichthyologist”

Nettenchelys proxima Smith, Lin & Chen 2015    near, referring to position of posterior nostril, close to the eye; also referring to its close resemblance to N. gephyra and N. pygmaea

Nettenchelys pygmaea Smith & Böhlke 1981    small or dwarf, referring to small size (up to 201 mm TL)

Nettenchelys taylori Alcock 1898    in honor of Commander Alfred Dundas Taylor (1825-1898), fomerly of the Indian Navy, who was “chiefly responsible” for reviving the Marine Survey of India in 1874

Saurenchelys Peters 1864    sauros, lizard or reptile, allusion not evident, perhaps referring to overall snake-like shape; enchelys, ancient Greek for eel

Saurenchelys cancrivora Peters 1864    cancer, crab; voratus, eat, referring to type specimen, which had a crab in its stomach (and, apparently, also a prawn)

Saurenchelys cognita Smith 1989    known or proven, only species of genus “identified and defined as a biological entity” (i.e., other putative species do not possess a “single obvious [adult] character to divide them into different species” but are presumed to be distinct based on differences in leptocephali)

Saurenchelys elongata (Kotthaus 1968)    elongate, referring to very long, strongly tapering body

Saurenchelys fierasfer (Jordan & Snyder 1901)    Fierasfer (=Carapus, Carapidae), a fish of similar color, derived from a Greek word meaning “sleek and shining,” presumably referring to silvery sheen on sides of head

Saurenchelys finitima (Whitley 1935)    adjoining, bordering or neighboring, presumably referring to close relationship to S. fierasfer

Saurenchelys gigas Lin, Smith & Shao 2015    giant, referring to its large size (up to 1155 mm TL)

Saurenchelys halimyon Van Utrecht 1983    halis, in abundance; myos, muscle, referring to numerous myomeres of leptocephalus

Saurenchelys lateromaculatus (D’Ancona 1928)    lateralis, of the side; maculatus, spotted, referring to eight large black spots on side of leptocephalus, alternating with 11 smaller spots

Saurenchelys meteori Klausewitz & Zajonz 2000    in honor of the German research vessel Meteor, from which type was collected

Saurenchelys stylura (Lea 1913)    stylus, pen; oura, tail, presumably referring to pointed tail of leptocephalus

Saurenchelys taiwanensis Karmovskaya 2004    ensis, suffix denoting place: Taiwan, “named after the occurrence of holotype” (which appears to be a misnomer since location of holotype is elsewhere given as near Luzon Island, Philippines)

Venefica Jordan & Davis 1891    sorceress, from sorcière, vernacular in Nice (France) for Nettastoma melanurum

Venefica multiporosa Karrer 1982    multi-, many; porosus, pores, referring to numerous small, round pores on head

Venefica ocella Garman 1899    diminutive of oculus, eye, referring to small eye, 1/13 length of snout and 1/23 length of head

Venefica proboscidea (Vaillant 1888)    referring to nasal proboscis, a flat triangular projection half length of snout, resembling snout of the snake Langaha ensifera (=madagascariensis)

Venefica procera (Goode & Bean 1883)    procerus, elongate, referring to very elongate body

Venefica tentaculata Garman 1899    tentacled, referring to “tentacular proboscis”


Family CONGRIDAE Conger Eels
29 genera • 198 species

Subfamily CONGRINAE Conger Eels

Acromycter Smith & Kanazawa 1977    akron, summit, top or peak; mykter, nose, referring to position of posterior nostril on top of head

Acromycter alcocki (Gilbert & Cramer 1897)    patronym not identified but almost certainly in honor of Alfred William Alcock (1859-1933), who collected and described many deep-sea fishes, including several eels

Acromycter atlanticus Smith 1989    icus, belonging to: Atlantic Ocean, occurring off the coasts of Florida, Puerto Rico, Lesser Antilles and Nicaragua

Acromycter longipectoralis Karmovskaya 2004    longus, long, referring to long pectoral fins, more than 30% of head length

Acromycter nezumi (Asano 1958)    Japanese for gray, presumably referring to grayish-brown color (in formalin) of top of head and upper half of body

Acromycter perturbator (Parr 1932)    one that confuses, referring to trouble it caused Parr in trying to determine its systematic position

Bassanago Whitley 1948    Bass, referring to Bass Strait, Victoria, Australia, type locality of B. bulbiceps; anago, Japanese for conger eel

Bassanago albescens (Barnard 1923)    becoming white, referring to yellow-white coloration

Bassanago bulbiceps Whitley 1948    bulbus, a swelling; ceps, head, referring to “swollen, bulbous, spongy” head, “inflated at gills”

Bassanago hirsutus (Castle 1960)    hairy, referring to minute, hair-like, fleshy epidermal processes thickly and almost completely covering body, giving appearance of a dark, hairy coating

Bassanago nielseni (Karmovskaya 1990)    in honor of Jørgen G. Nielsen (b. 1932), Zoological Museum of Copenaghen, “famous specialist on deep-sea fishes”

Bathycongrus Ogilby 1898    bathys, deep, “for the most part inhabiting considerable depths”; congrus, conger eel

Bathycongrus aequoreus (Gilbert & Cramer 1897)    belonging to the sea, presumably referring to deepwater habitat (375 fathoms)

Bathycongrus bertini (Poll 1953)    in honor of ichthyologist Léon Bertin (1896-1954), Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (Paris)

Bathycongrus bleekeri Fowler 1934    in honor of Pieter Bleeker (1819-1878), “who studied Philippine fishes, if only incidental to his exhaustive work on those of the East Indies”

Bathycongrus bullisi (Smith & Kanazawa 1977)    in honor of marine biologist Harvey R. Bullis, National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS vessels collected some of the species described in this paper)

Bathycongrus dubius (Breder 1927)    doubtful, referring to its “doubtful relationships” (originally described in Muraenesocidae with features similar to both Muraenesox and Xenomystax)

Bathycongrus guttulatus (Günther 1887)    diminutive of guttata, dotted, referring to “extremely minute black dots above and another below the lateral line”

Bathycongrus longicavis Karmovskaya 2009    longus, long; cavus, cavity, referring to long abdominal cavity

Bathycongrus macrocercus (Alcock 1894)    macro-, long; cercus, tail, “neary twice as long as the head and trunk combined”

Bathycongrus macrurus (Gilbert 1891)    macro-, long; oura, tail, which is much longer than body

Bathycongrus nasicus (Alcock 1894)    nasal, presumably referring to snout, which projects beyond mouth and is ¼ length of head

Bathycongrus odontostomus (Fowler 1934)    odontos, tooth; stomus, mouth, probably referring to dentition covered by large, fleshy lips

Bathycongrus parapolyporus Karmovskaya 2009    para-, near, referring to similarity to B. polyporus

Bathycongrus parviporus Karmovskaya 2011    parvus, small; porus, pore, referring to small infraorbital pores compared to enlarged pores of all known congeners

Bathycongrus polyporus (Smith & Kanazawa 1977)    poly, many; porus, pore, referring to multiple pores on head and lateral line

Bathycongrus retrotinctus (Jordan & Snyder 1901)    retro-, behind; tinctus, dyed, referring to black tail tip on otherwise pale-brown, somewhat silvery, body

Bathycongrus thysanochilus (Reid 1934)    thysanos, fringe; cheilos, lip, referring to fringed inner lip

Bathycongrus trilineatus (Castle 1964)    tri-, three; lineatus, lined, referring to three longitudinal lateral rows of chromatophores, which distinguishes it from all other congrid leptocephali

Bathycongrus trimaculatus Karmovskaya & Smith 2008    tri-, three; maculatus, spot, referring to number of spots on dorsal and anal fins

Bathycongrus unimaculatus Karmovskaya 2009    uni-, one; maculatus, spot, referring to dark, long spot on posterior part of anal fin

Bathycongrus varidens (Garman 1899)    varius, different; dens, teeth, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to outer teeth being larger than inner teeth

Bathycongrus vicinalis (Garman 1899)    alis, having the nature of: vicinus, near, close to Uroconger (=Bathyuroconger) vicinus, with which it had been misidentified

Bathycongrus wallacei (Castle 1968)    in honor of J. H. Wallace, Oceanographic Research Institute (Durban), whose efforts were primarily responsible in forwarding valuable specimens of this species for study

Bathyuroconger Fowler 1934    bathys, deep; described as a subgenus of Uroconger, referring to “bassalian” (deep sea) habitat

Bathyuroconger parvibranchialis (Fowler 1934)    parvus, small; branchialis, gill opening, referring to “very small gill opening, with the appearance of a large pore with a slightly elevated cutaneous rim”

Bathyuroconger vicinus (Vaillant 1888)    near, presumably referring to perceived relationship to Uroconger lepturus

Blachea Karrer & Smith 1980    ea-, adjectival suffix: named for ichthyologist Jacques Blache (1922-1994), for his many contributions to our knowledge of anguilliform adults and larvae

Blachea longicaudalis Karmovskaya 2004    longus, long; caudalis, of the tail, referring to highly elongated caudal section

Blachea xenobranchialis Karrer & Smith 1980    xenos, strange; branchos, gill, referring to uniqueness of three branchiostegal rays, which protrude freely from membrane in front of gill opening

Castleichthys Smith 2004    in honor of the late Peter H. J. Castle (1934-1999), Victoria University (Wellington, New Zealand), who located type and recognized its novelty but was unable to complete the description himself, for his many contributions to our knowledge of eels and eel larvae; ichthys, fish

Castleichthys auritus Smith 2004    eared, referring to large, conspicuous pectoral fins, which resemble ears of a rabbit or mule

Conger Bosc 1817    tautonymous with Muraena conger; derived from gongros, ancient Greek name of the conger eel

Conger cinereus Rüppell 1830    gray, referring to greenish-gray coloration

Conger conger (Linnaeus 1758)    derived from gongros, ancient Greek name of the conger eel

Conger erebennus (Jordan & Snyder 1901)    very black, after Erebus, a place of darkness in the nether world, referring to “almost black” coloration

Conger esculentus Poey 1861    edible, apparently used as food in Cuba (type locality)

Conger japonicus Bleeker 1879    Japanese, referring to type locality (but occurs throughout western north Pacific from Japan to Taiwan)

Conger macrocephalus Kanazawa 1958    macro-, long; cephalus, head, referring to long head, nearly 20% of total length

Conger marginatus Valenciennes 1850    bordered or edged, probably referring to black border on whitish dorsal and anal fins

Conger myriaster (Brevoort 1856)    myrio-, numberless; aster, star, referring to numerous stellate pores on snout and opercle

Conger oceanicus (Mitchill 1818)    oceanic, referring to marine habitat, apparently intended by Mitchill to distinguish it from the freshwater Anguilla rostrata (Anguillidae)

Conger oligoporus Kanazawa 1958    oligo-, few; porus, pore, referring to few lateral line pores (35-36, compared to 37+ in most of the congeners Kanazawa studied)

Conger orbignianus Valenciennes 1837    anus, belonging to: naturalist Alcide d’Orbigny (1802-1857), who discovered this species while collecting in South America for the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (Paris) from 1827-1833

Conger philippinus Kanazawa 1958    inus, pertaining to: the Philippines, were type was found at a fish market in Cebu

Conger triporiceps Kanazawa 1958    tri-, three; porus, pore; ceps, head, referring to three pores in the supratemporal commissure

Conger verreauxi Kaup 1856    in honor of Kaup’s “honorable friend” (translation) Julius (or Jules) Verreaux (1807-1873), botanist, ornithologist and trader in natural history specimens, who collected type in Australia

Conger wilsoni (Bloch & Schneider 1801)    patronym not identified; name coined by Banning (identity unknown) from a specimen collected in Australia

Congrhynchus Fowler 1934    a Conger with a long rhynchus, snout, “pointed, protruded well beyond end of mandible”

Congrhynchus talabonoides Fowler 1934    oides, having the form of: referring to superficial resemblance to Muraenesox (=Congresox) talabon (Muraenesocidae)

Congriscus Jordan & Hubbs 1925    diminutive of Conger, presumably referring to how it “seems to stand directly between Anago [=Ariosoma] and Conger in its technical characters”

Congriscus maldivensis (Norman 1939)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Maldive Islands, type locality

Congriscus marquesaensis Karmovskaya 2004    ensis, suffix denoting place: Marquesas Islands, only known distribution

Congriscus megastomus (Günther 1877)    mega-, large; stomus, mouth, referring to “mouth extending far behind the middle of the eye”

Congrosoma Garman 1899    etymology not explained, possibly referring to similarity of soma, body, to Congermuraena (=Ariosoma, in Bathymyrinae)

Congrosoma evermanni Garman 1899    in honor of ichthyologist Barton Warren Evermann (1853-1932), United States Fish Commission

Diploconger Kotthaus 1968    diplo-, twofold, referring to double row of lateral line pores; conger, standard suffix for family

Diploconger polystigmatus Kotthaus 1968    poly, many; stigmatus, mark or spot, referring to numerous pores on head

Gnathophis Kaup 1860    etymology not explained; gnathos, jaw, possibly referring to protruding upper lip (i.e., overhanging snout); ophis, probably referring to similarity or affinity to ophichthid genera Myrus (=Echelus) and/or Myrophis, which also have overhanging snouts

Gnathophis andriashevi Karmovskaya 1990    in honor of the 80th birthday of Anatoly Petrovich Andriyashev (1910-2009), “founder of Soviet oceanic ichthyology”

Gnathophis asanoi Karmovskaya 2004    in honor of Hirotoshi Asano, for significant contributions to the study of congrid eels of the Japanese Archipelago

Gnathophis bathytopos Smith & Kanazawa 1977    bathys, deep; topos, place, referring to relatively deepwater habitat (90-366 m)

Gnathophis bracheatopos Smith & Kanazawa 1977    brachos, shallow; topos, place, referring to relatively shallow-water habitat (55-110 m)

Gnathophis capensis (Kaup 1856)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Cape of Good Hope, type locality

Gnathophis castlei Karmovskaya & Paxton 2000    in memory of Peter H. J. Castle (Victoria University, Wellington, New Zealand), who greatly contributed to the knowledge of south Pacific eels, as well as provided New Zealand specimens for the authors’ study

Gnathophis cinctus (Garman 1899)    belt or girdle, allusion not evident, perhaps referring to two groups of three small, black dots at each side of throat below operculum, and/or a series of black dots on each flank between muscles and intestine

Gnathophis codoniphorus Maul 1972    codono-, bell; phorus, carrying, referring to bell-shaped tube on anterior nostril opening

Gnathophis grahami Karmovskaya & Paxton 2000    in honor of Kenneth Graham, New South Wales Fisheries, who provided type of this species and other east coast specimens to the Australian Museum, as well as information about the biology and distribution of eastern species and suggestions for the manuscript

Gnathophis habenatus (Richardson 1848)    strapped or reined, referring to “mesial fold of loose skin, uniting with the upper lip, [which] gives a bridled appearance to the snout”

Gnathophis heterognathos (Bleeker 1858)    heteros, different; gnathos, jaw, referring to upper jaw being much longer than lower jaw

Gnathophis heterolinea (Kotthaus 1968)    heteros, different; linea, line, referring to irregular arrangement of lateral line pores

Gnathophis leptosomatus Karrer 1982    leptos, thin; soma, body, referring to slender and graceful (“élancé et gracile”) body

Gnathophis longicauda (Ramsay & Ogilby 1888)    longus, long; cauda, tail, referring to longer tail compared to G. habenatus

Gnathophis macroporis Karmovskaya & Paxton 2000    macros, large; porus, pore, referring to relatively large sensory pores

Gnathophis melanocoelus Karmovskaya & Paxton 2000    melano-, black; coelus, intestine, referring to black color of intestine

Gnathophis microps Karmovskaya & Paxton 2000    micro-, small; ops, eye, referring to relatively small eye

Gnathophis musteliceps (Alcock 1894)    mustela, weasel; ceps, head, presumably referring to weasel-like snout (“narrow, and tapering to a very sharp point”)

Gnathophis mystax (Delaroche 1809)    upper lip, referring to swollen and thickened upper lip

Gnathophis nasutus Karmovskaya & Paxton 2000    big-nosed, referring to snout projecting well beyond lower jaw

Gnathophis neocaledoniensis Karmovskaya 2004    ensis, suffix denoting place: northwest of New Caledonia, only known distribution

Gnathophis parini Karmovskaya 1990    in honor of ichthyologist Nikolai Vasil’evich Parin (1932-2012), Russian Academy of Sciences, “specialist in the study of fish[es] occurring on submarine ridges in the southeastern Pacific”

Gnathophis smithi Karmovskaya 1990    in honor of David G. Smith, Smithsonian Institution, “the well-known specialist on eels”

Gnathophis tritos Smith & Kanazawa 1977    third, being the third species of Gnathophis discovered in the western Atlantic

Gnathophis umbrellabius (Whitley 1948)    umbrella, perhaps referring to skinny filaments that protrude from snout and over eyes and/or to a scalloped flap of skin lying over labia, lips, supported by well-developed labial bones

Gnathophis xenica (Matsubara & Ochiai 1951)    strange (i.e., aberrant), allusion not explained; described as subspecies of Ariosoma nystromi (=Gnathophis heterognathus), possibly referring to more vertebrae (152-154 vs. 114-132) and/or smaller size (264 mm vs. 300 mm) at maturity

Japonoconger Asano 1958    a conger eel from Japan, where type species, J. sivicolus, occurs

Japonoconger africanus (Poll 1953)    African, referring to distribution off coast of Angola in the southeastern Atlantic

Japonoconger caribbeus Smith & Kanazawa 1977    named for the Caribbean Sea, only place where species has been collected

Japonoconger sivicolus (Matsubara & Ochiai 1951)    sivi-, presumed latinization of Shiwo from Kuro Shiwo, Black Current; colo-, to inhabit, referring to occurrence in major Pacific Ocean current that washes the southeastern shores of Asia

Lumiconger Castle & Paxton 1984    lumen, light, referring to luminescent diverticulum at anteriormost portion of intestine; conger, standard suffix for family

Lumiconger arafura Castle & Paxton 1984    referring to Arafura Sea, northern Australia, where most of the specimens were trawled

Macrocephenchelys Fowler 1934    macro-, long; cephalus, head, referring to long, obtuse and compressed head; enchelys, ancient Greek for eel

Macrocephenchelys brachialis Fowler 1934    -alis, pertaining to: brachium, arm, referring to long pectoral fins

Macrocephenchelys brevirostris (Chen & Weng 1967)    brevis, short; rostris, snout, referring to “blunt, stout and short” snout

Macrocephenchelys soela Castle 1990    named for the CSIRO (Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) fisheries research vessel Soela, from which type was collected and which has contributed substantially to collections of fishes around Australia

Promyllantor Alcock 1890    etymology not explained, possibly pro-, forward or front; myllon, lip; –tor, a signifying agent, referring to how jaws are “completely hidden by the very thick inflated lips”

Promyllantor adenensis (Klausewitz 1991)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Gulf of Aden, type locality

Promyllantor atlanticus Karmovskaya 2006    referring to type locality in the southeastern Atlantic off Congo

Promyllantor purpureus Alcock 1890    purple, referring to uniform purple-black coloration of body and fins

Pseudophichthys Roule 1915    pseudo-, false; ophichthys, referring to resemblance to snake eel family Ophichthidae

Pseudophichthys macroporis Kotthaus 1968    macro-, long; porus, pore, referring to “unusually large” (translation) mucus pores on head

Pseudophichthys splendens (Lea 1913)    splendid, referring to its distinctively colored leptocephalus

Rhynchoconger Jordan & Hubbs 1925    rhynchos, snout, allusion not explained, probably referring to strongly projecting snout; conger, standard suffix for family

Rhynchoconger ectenurus (Jordan & Richardson 1909)    ecteno-, stretched; oura, tail, referring to tail “tapering rapidly, becoming very slender toward tip”

Rhynchoconger flavus (Goode & Bean 1896)    tawny hued, referring to its yellowish coloration

Rhynchoconger gracilior (Ginsburg 1951)    comparative of gracilis, slender, being more slender-bodied than R. flavus

Rhynchoconger guppyi (Norman 1925)    in honor of P. Lechmere Guppy (father of the clergyman who later discovered the Guppy, Poecilia reticulata), who collected type and sent it to the British Museum (Natural History)

Rhynchoconger nitens (Jordan & Bollman 1890)    shining, probably referring to “silvery shade across opercles and below lateral line” and/or “bright silvery” peritoneum

Rhynchoconger squaliceps (Alcock 1894)    etymology not explained, presumably squalus, shark; ceps, head, possibly referring to snout projecting “far beyond” mouth, similar to that of many sharks

Rhynchoconger trewavasae Ben-Tuvia 1993 in honor of the late Ethelwynn Trewavas (1900-1993), British Museum (Natural History), “in appreciation of her kindness and outstanding contribution to systematics of fishes”

Scalanago Whitley 1935    scala, ladder, referring to lateral line branches, “giving a somewhat ladder-like appearance”; anago, Japanese for conger eel

Scalanago lateralis Whitley 1935    of the side, referring to distinctive ladder-like lateral line (see genus)

Uroconger Kaup 1856    oura, tail, probably referring to long, slender tail; conger, standard suffix for family

Uroconger drachi (Blache & Bauchot 1976)    in honor of marine biologist Pierre Drach

Uroconger erythraeus Castle 1982    eus, having the quality of: erythros, red, referring not to its color (light brown above and creamy white below, in alcohol), but presumably to its being a Red Sea endemic

Uroconger lepturus (Richardson 1845)    leptos, thin; oura, tail, referring to “tapering and whip-like” tail

Uroconger syringinus Ginsburg 1954    inus, having the nature of: syrinx, pipe or tube, allusion not explained, possibly referring to tubular anterior nostril

Xenomystax Gilbert 1891    xeno-, strange; mystax, upper lip, probably referring to exposed teeth along upper jaw

Xenomystax atrarius Gilbert 1891    blackish, referring to dark brown coloration and/or black fins

Xenomystax austrinus Smith & Kanazawa 1989    southern, referring to predominant distribution in southern Caribbean Sea

Xenomystax bidentatus (Reid 1940)    bi-, two; dentatus, toothed, referring to arrangement of teeth on maxilla and mandible, with inner row separated from outer rows by an edentulous groove

Xenomystax congroides Smith & Kanazawa 1989    oides, having the appearance of: referring to its being the most congrid-like eel in genus

Xenomystax trucidans Alcock 1894    trucido, cut to pieces, presumably referring to enlarged premaxillary and mandibular teeth, and/or vomerine teeth, which form a short row of fangs

Subfamily BATHYMYRINAE                       

Ariosoma Swainson 1838    presumably aris, auger; soma, body, allusion not evident

Ariosoma anago (Temminck & Schlegel 1846)    Japanese for conger eel (type specimen from Nagasaki, Japan)

Ariosoma anagoides (Bleeker 1853)    oides, having the appearance of: referring to similarity to A. anago, which Bleeker initially thought this species might be

Ariosoma anale (Poey 1860)    anal, probably referring to comparatively posterior position of anus compared to congeners, at or slightly behind midlength

Ariosoma balearicum (Delaroche 1809)    icum, belonging to: Balearic Islands, Spain, Mediterranean Sea, type locality

Ariosoma bauchotae Karrer 1982    in honor of Marie-Louise Bauchot (b. 1928), ichthyologist and assistant manager, Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (Paris), for her many years of assistance

Ariosoma coquettei Smith & Kanazawa 1977    in honor of the U.S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries research vessel Coquette, from which type was collected

Ariosoma coquettei Smith & Kanazawa 1977    in honor of the U.S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries research vessel Coquette, from which type was collected

Ariosoma dolichopterum Karmovskaya 2015    dolichos, long; pterum, fin, referring to long pectoral fins (39-48% of HL), longer than the related A. anago

Ariosoma gilberti (Ogilby 1898)    in honor of ichthyologist and fisheries biologist Charles H. Gilbert (1859-1928), who identified this species as A. balearicum in 1891 but noted variations in his specimens

Ariosoma gnanadossi Talwar & Mukherjee 1977    in honor of Shri D.A.S. Gnanadoss, Deputy Director, Central Institute of Fisheries Operatives, Madras Unit, whose fishing trawler collected type

Ariosoma hemiaspidus (Wade 1946)    hemi-, partial; aspidus, shielded, referring to inferior edge of labial canal expanded into a broad shield or winglike plate

Ariosoma howensis (McCulloch & Waite 1916)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Lord Howe Island, southwest Pacific, type locality

Ariosoma kapala (Castle 1990)    named for the New South Wales fisheries research vessel Kapala, from which type was collected

Ariosoma major (Asano 1958)    greater, presumably referring to its being larger than A. shiroconger, both described as subspecies in same paper

Ariosoma marginatum (Vaillant & Sauvage 1875)    bordered or edged, referring to very thin black border along dorsal and upper lobe of caudal fin

Ariosoma mauritianum (Pappenheim 1914)    anum, belonging to: Mauritius (Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean), type locality

Ariosoma meeki (Jordan & Snyder 1900)    in honor of ichthyologist Seth Eugene Meek (1859-1914), who first recognized the distinctiveness of this species

Ariosoma megalops Fowler 1938    mega-, big; ops, eye, referring to large eye, which “greatly exceeds snout or interorbital”

Ariosoma mellissii (Günther 1870)    in honor of John Charles Melliss (1835-1911), amateur naturalist and government surveyor on St. Helena (island in the South Atlantic), who presented type to the British Museum (Natural History)

Ariosoma multivertebratum Karmovskaya 2004    multi-, many; vertebratum, vertebrae, having the most vertebrae (183-189) among known species in genus

Ariosoma nigrimanum Norman 1939    niger, black; manus, hand, referring to “wholly dusky or blackish” pectoral fins

Ariosoma obud Herre 1923    Visayan (referring to several ethnolinguistic groups in the Philippines) name for conger eels

Ariosoma ophidiophthalmus Karmovskaya 1991    ophis, snake; ophthalmus, eye, referring to oval (and presumably snake-like) shape of vertical pupil

Ariosoma opistophthalmum (Ranzani 1839)    opistho-, behind; ophthalmus, eye, referring to eye positioned behind mouth

Ariosoma prorigerum Gilbert 1891    prora, prow; gero, to bear, referring to long, sharp snout, “the acute soft tip protruding beyond the mandible”

Ariosoma sanzoi (D’Ancona 1928)    in honor of zoologist Luigi Sanzo, who collected type and the other Red Sea leptocephali featured in D’Ancona’s monograph

Ariosoma sazonovi Karmovskaya 2004    in honor of Yuri I. Sazonov, curator of ichthyology, Zoological Museum, Moscow State University, “an outstanding Russian ichthyologist and fine person, our friend and colleague, who died in 2002”

Ariosoma scheelei (Strömman 1896)    in honor of the late Capt. G. von Schéele, who collected type

Ariosoma selenops Reid 1934    selene, moon; ops, eye, referring to large eye, around same size as snout, with conspicuous adipose membrane partly concealing orbital rim

Ariosoma sereti Karmovskaya 2004     in honor of Bernard Séret, for his “significant” contributions to the study and collection of deepwater fishes, and for giving Karmovskaya the opportunity to study his material on eels

Ariosoma shiroanago (Asano 1958)     shiro and anago, Japanese for white and conger eel, respectively (although Asano described color in formalin as “pale brown above, paler below” with “pale” fins)

Ariosoma sokotranum Karmovskaya 1991    anum, belonging to: Sokotra Island, western Indian Ocean, type locality

Bathymyrus Alcock 1889    bathys, deep, referring to capture of B. echinorhynchus at 68 fathoms; myrus, with a “Myrine” (i.e., moray-like) tail

Bathymyrus echinorhynchus Alcock 1889    echino-, spiny or prickly; rhynchus, snout, referring to “boss of bone” at tip of snout, “formed apparently by an expansion of the premaxillaries, covered with teeth”

Bathymyrus simus Smith 1965    blunt-nosed, referring to shape of snout

Bathymyrus smithi Castle 1968    in honor of the late J. L. B. Smith (1897-1968), for his “monumental works” on the fishes of Mozambique area and “valuable study” of the genus Bathymyrus

Chiloconger Myers & Wade 1941   cheilos, lip, referring to flange of upper lip developed into a short, broadly rounded flap; conger, standard suffix for genus

Chiloconger dentatus (Garman 1899)    toothed, referring to pair of large hooked canines on upper jaw and similar pair on front of lower jaw of leptocephalus

Chiloconger philippinensis Smith & Karmovskaya 2003    ensis, suffix denoting place: the Philippines (southwest of Luzon Island), type locality

Kenyaconger Smith & Karmovskaya 2003    a conger eel from Kenya, off whose coast type was collected

Kenyaconger heemstrai Smith & Karmovskaya 2003    in honor of Philip C. Heemstra, Rhodes University (Grahamstown), who collected type, for his many contributions to the knowledge of fishes of the western Indian Ocean

Parabathymyrus Kamohara 1938    para, near, presumably referring to close similarity to Bathymyrus

Parabathymyrus brachyrhynchus (Fowler 1934)    brachys, short; rhynchus, snout, referring to much shorter and more obtuse muzzle compared to Ariosoma obud

Parabathymyrus fijiensis Karmovskaya 2004    ensis, suffix denoting place: Fiji Archipelago, only known locality

Parabathymyrus karrerae Karmovskaya 1991    in honor of German ichthyologist Christine Karrer, for her contribution to the study of anguilliform fishes

Parabathymyrus macrophthalmus Kamohara 1938    macro-, long; ophthalmos, eye, referring to very large eye

Parabathymyrus oregoni Smith & Kanazawa 1977    in honor of the National Marine Fisheres Service research vessel Oregon, from which type was collected

Parabathymyrus philippinensis Ho, Smith & Shao 2015    ensis, suffix denoting place, the Philippines, type locality

Paraconger Kanazawa 1961    para, near, referring to similar appearance to Conger

Paraconger californiensis Kanazawa 1961    ensis, suffix denoting place: Gulf of California (25 miles southeast of Bahia Topolobampo, México), type locality

Paraconger caudilimbatus (Poey 1867)    cauda, tail; limbatus, bordered, presumably referring to dark borders of dorsal and anal fins

Paraconger guianensis Kanazawa 1961    ensis, suffix denoting place: French Guiana, type locality

Paraconger macrops (Günther 1870)    macro-, long; ops, eye, referring to “very large” eye, equal in length to snout and 2/11 length of head

Paraconger notialis Kanazawa 1961    southern, presumably referring to its being the most southern Paraconger in the eastern Atlantic (off coast of Africa from Senegal to Angola)

Paraconger ophichthys (Garman 1899)    ophis, snake; ichthys, fish, allusion not evident (described from a leptocephalus)

Paraconger similis (Wade 1946)    like, referring to similarity to Chiloconger labiatus (=dentatus)

Subfamily HETEROCONGRINAE  Garden Eels                              

Gorgasia Meek & Hildebrand 1923    in honor of the late Gen. William Crawford Gorgas (1854-1920), chief sanitary officer in the Panama Canal Zone when the authors collected there, and through whose department the authors received invaluable aid

Gorgasia barnesi Robison & Lancraft 1984    in honor of Anthony T. Barnes, colleague and shipmate aboard research vessel Alpha Helix, from which type was collected

Gorgasia cotroneii (D’Ancona 1928)    in honor of Giulio Cotronei (1885-1962), Director, Institute of Comparative Anatomy, R. Università di Roma, where D’Ancona was based

Gorgasia galzini Castle & Randall 1999    in honor of fish ecologist René Galzin, who provided many specimens for study and valuable information on its biology

Gorgasia hawaiiensis Randall & Chess 1980    ensis, suffix denoting place: Hawai‘i, referring to apparent restriction to the Hawaiian Islands

Gorgasia inferomaculata (Blache 1977)    inferus, low; maculatus, spotted, referring to melanophores on lower half of body of leptocephalus

Gorgasia japonica Abe, Miki & Asai 1977    Japanese, referring to type locality near Hachijo-Kojima

Gorgasia klausewitzi Quéro & Saldanha 1995    in honor of friend, colleague and garden eel expert Wolfgang Klausewitz (b. 1922), who encouraged the authors to describe this species

Gorgasia maculata Klausewitz & Eibl-Eibesfeldt 1959    spotted, referring to off-white spotting on head and along lateral line

Gorgasia naeocepaea (Böhlke 1951)    etymology not explained; presumably neo-, a variant of naeo-, new; cepaeo-, of a garden, i.e., a new garden eel

Gorgasia preclara Böhlke & Randall 1981    very beautiful or splendid, referring to distinctive color pattern consisting of 9-11 narrow pale bands separated by wider brownish bands

Gorgasia punctata Meek & Hildebrand 1923    spotted, referring to “dark punctulations” everywhere on body except chin, “forming small spots on head and anterior part of body”

Gorgasia sillneri Klausewitz 1962    in honor of underwater photographer Ludwig Sillner, who collected type and made important field observations on ecology and life coloration

Gorgasia taiwanensis Shao 1990    ensis, suffix denoting place: southern Taiwan (Wan-li-tung, Hengchun), type locality

Gorgasia thamani Greenfield & Niesz 2004 in honor of Randolph R. Thaman, professor of Pacific Islands biogeography, University of the South Pacific in Fiji, for “unending assistance” to the authors in arranging their field work and for promoting the conservation of Fiji’s marine and terrestrial fauna

Heteroconger Bleeker 1868    heteros, different, i.e., a genus that differs from four genera Bleeker believed comprised the conger eels: Conger, Ophiosoma (=Ariosoma), Uroconger and Neoconger (now in Moringuidae)

Heteroconger balteatus Castle & Randall 1999    belted, referring to distinctive white oblique band on trunk

Heteroconger camelopardalis (Lubbock 1980)    camelus, camel; pardus, leopard, together forming ancient name of giraffe, referring to giraffe-like spots

Heteroconger canabus (Cowan & Rosenblatt 1974)    kanabinos, slender or thin as a rod, referring to “excessively elongate” body

Heteroconger chapmani (Herre 1923)    in honor of James Wittenmyer Chapman (1880-1964), professor of zoology, Silliman Institute, Dumaguete, Oriental Negros, Philippines

Heteroconger cobra Böhlke & Randall 1981    referring to distinct cobra-like markings on head and trunk, and cobra-like (i.e., reared-up) posture

Heteroconger congroides (D’Ancona 1928)    oides, having the form of: conger eel (described from a leptocephalus believed to belong to Conger or some other congrid genus)

Heteroconger digueti (Pellegrin 1923)    in honor of Léon Diguet (1859-1926), French chemist, naturalist and explorer, who collected specimens in México (including the type of this one) for the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (Paris)

Heteroconger enigmaticus Castle & Randall 1999    referring to “puzzling position” this species occupies between H. obscurus and H. perissodon, which are externally similar and perhaps more closely related than any other groups in the subfamily

Heteroconger hassi (Klausewitz & Eibl-Eibesfeldt 1959)    in honor of underwater filmmaker Hans Haas (1919-2013), who discovered species and led expedition that collected type

Heteroconger klausewitzi (Eibl-Eibesfeldt & Köster 1983)    in honor of ichthyologist (and garden eel specialist) Wolfgang Klausewitz (b. 1922), who visited the Galápagos (where eel occurs) with senior author in the 1950s

Heteroconger lentiginosus Böhlke & Randall 1981    freckled, referring to brown freckles on pale background (in alcohol) and small black spots (in life)

Heteroconger longissimus Günther 1870    longest, referring to tail being twice as long as body

Heteroconger luteolus Smith 1989    luteus, yellow; –olus, a diminutive, referring to bright-yellow dorsal coloration

Heteroconger mercyae Allen & Erdmann 2009    in honor of Mercy Payne, who discovered the eel colony and helped authors collect type specimens during a diving cruise with her family

Heteroconger obscurus (Klausewitz & Eibl-Eibesfeldt 1959)    dark, probably referring to brownish head and body dotted with countless tiny dark brown spots

Heteroconger pellegrini Castle 1999    in honor of Jacques Pellegrin [misspelled Jaques] (1873-1944), who described first garden eel collected in Gulf of California (H. digueti), for his contribution to knowledge of the Heterocongrinae

Heteroconger perissodon Böhlke & Randall 1981    perisso-, extraordinary (in numbers); odon, tooth, referring to well-developed pterygoid tooth patches (i.e., “extra teeth”) between maxillary and vomerine patches

Heteroconger polyzona Bleeker 1868    poly, many; zona, belt, referring to numerous, close-set, narrow black bars on head and trunk, progressing less distinctly on tail, and altering posteriorly to faint dark spots

Heteroconger taylori Castle & Randall 1995    in honor of underwater photographer Ron Taylor (1934-2012), for his “superb” films and videos, and whose video of this eel prompted the second author to collect it

Heteroconger tomberua Castle & Randall 1999    named for the Tomberua Passage, Viti Levu, Fiji, type locality

Heteroconger tricia Castle & Randall 1999    in honor of Patricia J. Kailola, who, with her colleague Thomas Gloerfeldt-Tarp, reported on extensive collections of fishes, including this one, in the southern Indonesian area and on the Northwest Shelf of Australia


Family MORINGUIDAE Spaghetti Eels
 2 genera • 15 species

Moringua Gray 1831    presumably a vernacular (perhaps Portuguese) corruption of Muraena, Latin for moray

Moringua abbreviata (Bleeker 1863)    shorter, referring to smaller size compared to M. javanicus

Moringua bicolor Kaup 1856    bi-, two, referring to dark coloration above and silvery below

Moringua edwardsi (Jordan & Bollman 1889)    in honor of Charles Lincoln Edwards, Johns Hopkins Biological Laboratory, who collected type

Moringua ferruginea Bliss 1883    rust-colored, referring to “ochrous brown” dorsal color and/or reddish brown spot at vent and pectoral fin

Moringua guthriana (McClelland 1844)    ana, belonging to: Capt. C. S. Guthrie, Bengal Engineers, for “service rendered by him to natural history,” including discovery of Cervus frontalis (misspelled frontalus, synonym of C. eldi), a deer described by McClelland in 1843

Moringua hawaiiensis Snyder 1904    ensis, suffix denoting place: Hawaiian Islands, type locality (also occurs on reefs at Johnston Island and probably other Polynesian islands)

Moringua javanica (Kaup 1856)    ica, belonging to: Java (Indonesia, Eastern Indian Ocean), type locality

Moringua macrocephalus (Bleeker 1863)    macro-, large; cephalus, head, referring to considerably larger head compared to M. abbreviata

Moringua macrochir Bleeker 1855     macro-, long; cheiros, hand, referring to long pectoral fins, at least twice as long as they are wide across base

Moringua microchir Bleeker 1853     micro-, small; cheiros, hand, referring to short, rudimentary pectoral fins

Moringua penni Schultz 1953    in honor of Lt. G. H. Penn, United States Navy, who collected type

Moringua raitaborua (Hamilton 1822)    presumably variant spelling of rata boura, Bengali vernacular for this eel

Neoconger Girard 1858    neo-, new; conger, Latin for a marine eel, i.e., a new genus of marine eels

Neoconger mucronatus Girard 1858    atus, provided with: mucro-, sharp point, referring to small, slender, narrow and pointed head

Neoconger tuberculatus (Castle 1965)    bump or swelling, referring to single swelling of intestine near vent in leptocephalus

Neoconger vermiformis Gilbert 1890    vermis, worm; forma, shape, referring to slender body


Family CYEMATIDAE Bobtail Snipe Eels

Cyema Günther 1878     kyema, embryo or fetus, possibly referring to its having the “soft short body of a Leptocephalus

 Cyema atrum Günther 1878    ater, black, referring to uniform black coloration

Neocyema Castle 1978    neo-, new, i.e., a new genus of Cyema

Neocyema erythrosoma Castle 1978    erythros, red; soma, body, referring to bright-red coloration


Family MONOGNATHIDAE Onejaw Gulpers
1 genus • 15 species

Monognathus Bertin 1936    monos, one; gnathos, jaw, referring to lack of upper jaw

Monognathus ahlstromi Raju 1974    in honor of Elbert H. Ahlstrom, Southwest Fisheries Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, who critically reviewed Raju’s manuscript

Monognathus berteli Nielsen & Hartel 1996    in honor of the late Erik (“Bertel”) Bertelsen (1912–1993), for his contribution to our knowledge of the Monognathidae and many other groups of deep-sea fishes

Monognathus bertini Bertelsen & Nielsen 1987    in honor of ichthyologist Léon Bertin (1896-1954), Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (Paris), for his “pioneer contributions” to the systematics of the family

Monognathus boehlkei Bertelsen & Nielsen 1987    in honor of the late James E. Böhlke (1930-1982), Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, for his valuable contribution to the study of apodal fishes

Monognathus bruuni Bertin 1936    in honor of oceanographer and ichthyologist Anton Frederick Bruun (1901-1961), who took part in the Dana fishery research cruises, during which type was collected

Monognathus herringi Bertelsen & Nielsen 1987    in honor of Peter J. Herring, Institute of Oceanographic Sciences (Wormley, England), who collected and preserved Monognathus material aboard Discovery cruises in the North Atlantic

Monognathus isaacsi Raju 1974    in honor of John D. Isaacs (1913-1980), Scripps Institution of Oceanography, “for his encouragement and for the award of a postdoctoral fellowship from his research funds during the tenure of this work”

Monognathus jesperseni Bertin 1936    in honor of oceanographer P. Jespersen, who took part in the Dana fishery research cruises, during which type was collected

Monognathus jesse Raju 1974    in honor of Raju’s wife, Jesse

Monognathus nigeli Bertelsen & Nielsen 1987    in honor of Nigel R. Merrett, Institute of Oceanographic Sciences (Wormley, England), who provided several specimens of Monognathus and was “very helpful” during the authors’ revision of the family

Monognathus ozawai Bertelsen & Nielsen 1987    in honor of Takakazu Ozawa (Faculty of Fisheries, Kagoshima University), who “kindly” let the authors describe the only Japanese specimen of this “rare” genus

Monognathus rajui Bertelsen & Nielsen 1987    in honor of Solomon N. Raju, for his contributions to the systematics of this “rare family” of fishes

Monognathus rosenblatti Bertelsen & Nielsen 1987    in honor of Richard H. Rosenblatt (1930-2014), Scripps Institution of Oceanography, who “kindly” put monognathid material from Scripps at the authors’ disposal

Monognathus smithi Bertelsen & Nielsen 1987    in honor of Kenneth Smith, chief scientist during the cruise from which type was caught in the Central North Pacific

Monognathus taningi Bertin 1936    in honor of Danish ichthyologist Åge Vedel Tåning (1890-1958), who took part in the Dana fishery research cruises, during which type was collected


Family SACCOPHARYNGIDAE Swallowers
1 genus • 10 species

Saccopharynx Mitchill 1824    sakkos, bag; pharynx, throat, referring to wide (“like a bag”) throat

Saccopharynx ampullaceus (Harwood 1827)    bottle-shaped, its body capable of being inflated like a sac or leathern bottle

Saccopharynx berteli Tighe & Nielsen 2000    in honor of the authors’ colleague, the late Erik (“Bertel”) Bertelsen (1912–1993), for his many contributions to the knowledge of deep-sea fishes

Saccopharynx harrisoni Beebe 1932    in honor of American philanthropist Harrison Williams (1873–1953), who supported some of Beebe’s oceanographic expeditions, including the one from which type was collected

Saccopharynx hjorti Bertin 1938    in honor of Norwegian oceanographer Johan Hjort (1869-1948), who, with oceanographer John Murray, led the Michael Sars Expedition (1910) that collected type, and whose 1912 book The Depth of the Ocean (written with Murray) is cited several times by Bertin

Saccopharynx lavenbergi Nielsen & Bertelsen 1985    in honor of Robert J. Lavenberg, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, for his contributions to oceanic ichthyology and for making material from his museum available to the authors

Saccopharynx paucovertebratis Nielsen & Bertelsen 1985    paucus, few, referring to smaller number of vertebrae (155) compared to congeners

Saccopharynx ramosus Nielsen & Bertelsen 1985    branched, referring to branched filaments on posterior third of body

Saccopharynx schmidti Bertin 1934    in memory of biologist Johannes Schmidt (1877-1933), who led the Dana fishery research cruises and director of the Carlsberg Laboratory

Saccopharynx thalassa Nielsen & Bertelsen 1985    named for French research vessel Thalassa, from which type was collected

Saccopharynx trilobatus Nielsen & Bertelsen 1985    tri-, three; lobatus, lobed, referring to triple-lobed luminous organ at end of tail


Family EURYPHARYNGIDAE Gulper or Pelican Eel

Eurypharynx Vaillant 1882    eury, broad or wide; pharynx, referring to large pelican-like mouth and throat

Eurypharynx pelecanoides Vaillant 1882    oides, having the form of: pelekan, pelican, referring to large mouth and throat, similar to that of the bird


Family NEMICHTHYIDAE Snipe Eels
3 genera • 9 species          

Avocettina Jordan & Davis 1891    ina: having the nature of: the avocet, a bird with a long, curved bill, referring to eels’ similarly long, curved jaws

Avocettina acuticeps (Regan 1916)    acutus, sharp; ceps, head, referring to “rather produced and acute” snout of leptocephalus

Avocettina bowersii (Garman 1899)    in honor of politician George M. Bowers (1863-1925), head of the United States Fish Commission, whose steamer Albatross collected type

Avocettina infans (Günther 1878)    immature, allusion not explained (perhaps Günther believed the eel had a larval or undeveloped appearance?)

Avocettina paucipora Nielsen & Smith 1978    paucus, few; pora, pore, referring to relatively few lateral-line pores compared to A. infans

Labichthys Gill & Ryder 1883    labis, forceps, referring to long, slender jaws; ichthys, fish

Labichthys carinatus Gill & Ryder 1883    keeled, referring to ridge or keel on rostrum of holotype (of no morphological or taxonomic importance; caused by skin shrinking and pulling tight around posterolateral edges of ethmovomer)

Labichthys yanoi (Mead & Rubinoff 1966)    in honor of Shigeru Yano, “friend and fellow fisherman,” whose maintenance and operation of nets and associated equipment contributed greatly to the success of the authors’ trawling expedition

Nemichthys Richardson 1848    nema, thread, referring to thread-like caudal region; ichthys, fish

Nemichthys curvirostris (Strömman 1896)    curvis, curved; rostrum, snout, referring to slightly curved snout of leptocephalus

Nemichthys larseni Nielsen & Smith 1978    in honor of Verner Larsen, who began revising the family while a student at the University of Copenhagen, and who “generously handed over his material” to the authors “when he was unable to finish it”

Nemichthys scolopaceus Richardson 1848    eus, having the nature of: Scolopax, genus of long-billed birds, referring to similarly long jaws


Family SERRIVOMERIDAE Sawtooth Eels
2 genera • 10 species

Serrivomer Gill & Ryder 1883    serra, saw, referring to serrate vomerine dentition

Serrivomer beanii Gill & Ryder 1883    patronym not identified but probably in honor of Tarleton H. Bean (1846-1916), Gill’s ichthyological colleague at the U.S. National Museum (name likely does not honor Tarleton’s brother Barton, also an ichthyologist and colleague of Gill, based on fact that Tarleton’s frequent collaborator, George Browne Goode, is honored in the same paper)

Serrivomer bertini Bauchot 1959    in honor of the “l’ichthyologiste éminent” Léon Bertin (1896-1954), Muséum national d’histoire naturelle (Paris), for whom Bauchot served as an assistant in 1952

Serrivomer garmani Bertin 1944    in memory of Harvard ichthyologist-herpetologist Samuel Garman (1843-1927), who had described only other member of genus (S. sector) known from the Indo-Pacific

Serrivomer jesperseni Bauchot-Boutin 1953    patronym not identified but almost certainly in honor of P. Jespersen, oceanographer aboard Dana, the Danish fishery research vessel from which type was collected

Serrivomer lanceolatoides (Schmidt 1916)    oides, having the form of: lanceolatus, spear-like, referring to resemblance to Leptocephalus lanceolatus (larval form of S. beanii)

Serrivomer neocaledoniensis Bauchot 1959    ensis, suffix denoting place: New Caledonia, only known distribution

Serrivomer samoensis Bauchot 1959    ensis, suffix denoting place: Samoa, type locality

Serrivomer schmidti Bauchot-Boutin 1953    patronym not identified, probably in honor of biologist Johannes Schmidt (1877-1933), who led the Dana fishery research cruises (during which type was collected) and director of the Carlsberg Laboratory

Serrivomer sector Garman 1899    a cutter, from secare, to cut, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to “blade-like” vomerine teeth and/or to how platelike vomer divides roof of mouth into equal parts

Stemonidium Gilbert 1905    stemon, thread, presumably referring to long, thin body; idium, a diminutive

Stemonidium hypomelas Gilbert 1905    hypo-, under; melas, black, referring to dark ventral coloration


Family ANGUILLIDAE Freshwater Eels
1 genus • 20 species/subspecies

Anguilla Schrank 1798    tautonymous with Muraena anguilla; Latin for eel

Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus 1758)    Latin for eel

Anguilla australis australis Richardson 1841    southern, described from the “Australian seas,” specifically Port Arthur, Tasmania (but occurs throughout the western Pacific)

Anguilla australis schmidtii Phillipps 1925    in honor of Danish biologist Johannes Schmidt (1877-1933), for his “great work” in investigating the life history of A. anguilla

Anguilla bengalensis bengalensis (Gray 1831)    ensis, suffix denoting place: Bengal (India), type locality, but occurs throughout Indian Ocean

Anguilla bengalensis labiata (Peters 1852)    lipped, referring to broad, thick lips (“labiis crassis latis”), an anguillid characteristic

Anguilla bicolor bicolor McClelland 1844    bi-, two, referring to dark olive-green or brown coloration above and white below

Anguilla bicolor pacifica Schmidt 1928    referring to distribution in the tropical Southern Pacific, at and just north of equator

Anguilla borneensis Popta 1924    ensis, suffix denoting place: eastern Borneo, where it is endemic to the Bo River

Anguilla celebesensis Kaup 1856    ensis, suffix denoting place: Lake Tondano, Celebes (now Sulawesi), Indonesia, type locality

Anguilla dieffenbachii Gray 1842    in honor of surgeon-naturalist Ernst Dieffenbach (1811-1855), who collected specimens in New Zealand for the British Museum

Anguilla interioris Whitley 1938    inner, referring to distribution in upper Purari River, central New Guinea, elevation 5700 feet, with no apparent connection to the sea

Anguilla japonica Temminck & Schlegel 1846    Japanese, referring to type locality (but occurs throughout East Asia)

Anguilla luzonensis Watanabe, Ayoama & Tsukamoto 2009    ensis, suffix denoting place: northern Luzon Island, Philippines, type locality

Anguilla marmorata Quoy & Gaimard 1824    marbled, referring to greenish-brown to black marbling on dorsal surface

Anguilla megastoma Kaup 1856    mega-, large; stoma, mouth, presumably referring to “[d]ental surfaces of the mouth very broad”

Anguilla mossambica (Peters 1852)    ica, belonging to: Mozambique, type locality (but occurs throughout Western Indian Ocean in South and East African watersheds including Madagascar and western Mascarenes)

Anguilla nebulosa McClelland 1844     dark or cloudy, referring to adult coloration: “green above variegated with darker shades”

Anguilla obscura Günther 1872    dark, referring to uniform dark coloration of upper half of body

Anguilla reinhardtii Steindachner 1867    patronym not explained but probably in honor of Johannes Theodor Reinhardt (1816-1882), Danish zoologist

Anguilla rostrata (Lesueur 1817)    beaked, possibly referring to the “elongated, pointed and strait” snout on the specimen Lesueur examined