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3 families · 33 genera · 142 species/subspecies                             

Family PLATYTROCTIDAE Tubeshoulders
13 genera · 40 species

Barbantus Parr 1951    etymology not explained, perhaps a variant of barbatus, bearded, referring to “bony horizontal spine [that] projects laterally on each side from the tip of the lower jaw”

Barbantus curvifrons (Roule & Angel 1931)    curvus, bent; frons, front, referring to curved upper side of head, which differs from other species of Bathytroctes (genus at time of description)

Barbantus elongatus Krefft 1970    referring to its “extremely elongated” shape compared to B. curvifrons

Holtbyrnia Parr 1937    ia, belonging to: ichthyologist Ernest William Lyons Holt (1864-1922) and his frequent collaborator L. W. Byrne, who authored several papers on the fishes of the Irish Atlantic Slope

Holtbyrnia anomala Krefft 1980    anomalous, referring to the “unusual” rudimentary development of its photophores   

Holtbyrnia conocephala Sazonov 1976    conus, cone; cephalus, head, referring to characteristic shape of head

Holtbyrnia cyanocephala (Krefft 1967)    cyano-, blue; cephalus, head, referring to intense, metallic-blue coloration of head

Holtbyrnia innesi (Fowler 1934)    in honor of American aquarist William T. Innes (1874-1969), editor of the “very successful” magazine The Aquarist

Holtbyrnia intermedia (Sazonov 1976)    intermediate, similar in form to both Holtbyrnia and Sagamichthys

Holtbyrnia laticauda Sazonov 1976    latus, wide; cauda, tail, referring to its deep caudal peduncle

Holtbyrnia latifrons Sazonov 1976    latus, wide; frons, forehead, referring to its wide interorbital space

Holtbyrnia macrops Maul 1957    macro-, long or large; ops, eye, referring to its large eyes, longer than high, three times in length of head

Holtbyrnia melanocephala (Vaillant 1888)    melano-, black; cephala, head, referring to its “deep blue black” head (translation)

Holtbyrnia ophiocephala Sazonov & Golovan 1976    ophio-, snake; cephalus, head, referring to characteristic snake-like appearance of head

Matsuichthys Sazonov 1992    in honor of Tetsuo Matsui, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, senior author of M. aequipinnis; ichthys, fish

Matsuichthys aequipinnis (Matsui & Rosenblatt 1987)    aequalis, uniform; pinna, fin, referring to opposed dorsal and anal fins

Maulisia Parr 1960    isia, adjectival suffix: in honor of ichthyologist-taxidermist Günther Edmund Maul (1909-1997), Museu Municipal do Funchal (Portugal), who described several deep-sea fishes, and who misidentified type species, M. mauli, as Holtbyrnia polycoeca (=innesi) in 1954

Maulisia acuticeps Sazonov 1976    acutus, sharp; ceps, head, referring to characteristic shape of head

Maulisia argipalla Matsui & Rosenblatt 1979    argos, white; palla, ball, referring to round THO photophore

Maulisia isaacsi Matsui & Rosenblatt 1987    in honor of the late John D. Isaacs (1913-1980), Scripps Institution of Oceanography, “oceanographer extraordinary, and good friend”

Maulisia mauli Parr 1960    in honor of ichthyologist-taxidermist Günther Edmund Maul (1909-1997), Museu Municipal do Funchal (Portugal), who described several deep-sea fishes, and who identified this species as Holtbyrnia polycaeca (=innesi) in 1954

Maulisia microlepis Sazonov & Golovan 1976    micro-, small; lepis, scale, referring to smaller scales compared to M. mauli

Mentodus Parr 1951    mentum, beard or chin; odus, teeth, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to short, comb-like series of strong, horizontal teeth on outer side of lower jaw of M. rostratus

Mentodus bythios (Matsui & Rosenblatt 1987)     of the deep, referring to habitat of all platytroctids

Mentodus crassus Parr 1960    fat or stout, probably referring to its “enormous” head

Mentodus eubranchus (Matsui & Rosenblatt 1987)    eu-, good; branchos, gill, referring to its relatively long gill filaments

Mentodus facilis (Parr 1951)    easy or facile, allusion not explained nor evident

Mentodus longirostris (Sazonov & Golovan 1976)    longus, long; rostris, snout, referring to relatively long snout, equal to or slightly shorter than eye

Mentodus mesalirus (Matsui & Rosenblatt 1987)    mesa, middle; lira, ridge, referring to ridging of lateral line by modified scales

Mentodus perforatus Sazonov & Trunov 1978    perforated, referring to numerous pores of cephalic sensory system compared to congeners (crassus, rostratus) known at time of description

Mentodus rostratus (Günther 1878)    beaked, referring to “intermaxillary terminating in front in a short projection”

Mirorictus Parr 1947    mirus, weird or wonderful; rictis, open mouth, referring to peculiar jaw morphology, which Parr was initially inclined to view with disbelief or with a strong suspicion that he was merely observing the traumatic or teratological condition of an aberrant specimen (upper jaws form part of interior roof of the mouth, with the single supramaxillary and the posterior and larger portion of the maxillary located inside ascending rami of bones of lower jaw)

Mirorictus taningi Parr 1947    in honor of Danish ichthyologist Åge Vedel Tåning (1890-1958), who took part in the Dana fishery research cruises from which type was collected, and invited Parr to study the collections

Normichthys Parr 1951    in honor of ichthyologist J. R. (John Roxborough) Norman (1898-1944), British Museum (Natural History), who identified type species, N. operosus, as Talismania homoptera (Alepocephalidae) in 1930; ichthys, fish

Normichthys herringi Sazonov & Merrett 2001    in honor of marine biologist Peter J. Herring, for his “impressive” contribution to the study of oceanic bioluminescence, and for making available to the authors the collection of fishes that contained type

Normichthys operosus Parr 1951    active, busy or industrious, allusion not explained nor evident

Normichthys yahganorum Lavenberg 1965    orum, commemorative suffix, plural: in honor of the Yahgan Indians, archipelagic shellfish gatherers of Tierra del Fuego, who practiced shellfish conservation and avoided exhausting their food supply; this species occurs in deep waters along the Chilean coastline where the Yahgan once flourished

Pectinantus Sazonov 1986    pectinate, referring to short row of pectinate teeth along outer row of anterior portion of lower jaw in adults (compared to teeth present only in juveniles of the closely related Barbantus)

Pectinantus parini (Sazonov 1976)    in honor of ichthyologist Nikolai Vasil’evich Parin (1932-2012), Russian Academy of Sciences, a leader of 57th R/V Vityaz (also spelled Vitiaz) cruise that collected type and who first noted some characters of this species

Persparsia Parr 1951    etymology not explained and meaning unknown, perhaps named for a person (like other platytroctid genera named by Parr, e.g., Maulisia, Searsia), or derived from the Latin per (very, continuously, throughout) and sparsus (few, rare, scattered), referring to rarity or scattered occurrence throughout its range

Persparsia kopua (Phillipps 1942)    New Zealand Maori word for “deep water,” referring to its bathypelagic habitat (type was secured from the stomach of a grouper by a land line at 100 fathoms, Cook Strait, New Zealand)

Platytroctes Günther 1878    platy, flat, allusion not explained nor evident, possibly referring to “much compressed” body; troktes, one that gnaws, possibly referring to mouth and jaws “armed with a single series of small teeth” (also ancient Greek for a sea-fish with sharp teeth)

Platytroctes apus Günther 1878    apous, without foot, referring to lack of pelvic fins

Platytroctes mirus (Lloyd 1909)    wonderful, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to its “most remarkable” resemblance to P. apus, but possessing the pelvic fins that the latter lacks

Sagamichthys Parr 1953    Sagami Bay, Japan, type locality of S. abei (but occurs throughout the Pacific); ichthys, fish

Sagamichthys abei Parr 1953    in honor of ichthyologist Tokiharu Abe (1911-1996), Zoological Institute of Tokyo University, who loaned type specimen to Parr

Sagamichthys gracilis Sazonov 1978    thin, referring to shallower body compared to congeners

Sagamichthys schnakenbecki (Krefft 1953)    in honor of Werner Schnakenbeck (1887-1971), longtime director of the Institute of Sea Fisheries (Hamburg), on the occasion of his dispensation of government service

Searsia Parr 1937    ia, belonging to: eponym not identified but probably in honor of naval commander and commodore Henry Sears (1913-1982), who funded the Sears Foundation for Marine Research in 1937, which Parr established

Searsia koefoedi Parr 1937    in honor of Norwegian marine biologist Einar Koefoed, who collected part of the type series in 1926 and authored several papers on deep-sea fishes

Searsioides Sazonov 1977    -oides, having the form of: referring to “some similarities” (translation) with Searsia, original genus of type species, S. calvala

Searsioides calvala (Matsui & Rosenblatt 1979)    calvus, bald; ala, upper part of arm, referring to unscaled pectoral base

Searsioides multispinus Sazonov 1977    multi-, many; spinus, spine, referring to its many gill-rakers, most in the family Searsiidae (=Platytroctidae)


Bathylaco Goode & Bean 1896    “a warrior of the ocean depths,” according to the authors, from bathys, deep, and Lakonia, a province in ancient Greece famous for its Laconians who, in addition to their laconic speech, were also notorious warriors; allusion not explained, perhaps referring to predatory habits as inferred by its very large mouth

Bathylaco macrophthalmus Nielsen & Larsen 1968    macro-, large; ophthalmus, eye, referring to its larger eyes compared to B. nigricans

Bathylaco nielseni Sazonov & Ivanov 1980    in honor of Jørgen G. Nielsen (b. 1932), Zoological Museum of Copenaghen, who recognized this form as separable from B. nigricans in a 1970 publication

Bathylaco nigricans Goode & Bean 1896    blackish, referring to its color

19 genera · 99 species/subspecies   

Alepocephalus Risso 1820    a-, without; lepis, scale; cephalus, head, referring to absence of scales on head (hence “slickhead” vernacular)

Alepocephalus agassizii Goode & Bean 1883    in honor of Alexander Agassiz (1835-1910), Curator, Museum of Comparative Zoology (Harvard), and supervisor of the dredging and trawling expedition that collected type [authors say name complements that of A. bairdii, the only other American species of Alepocephalus known at the time, named in honor of the Director of the U.S. National Museum]

Alepocephalus andersoni Fowler 1934    in honor of Charles Anderson, Director of the Australian Museum, who “contributed much to [Fowler’s] delightful stay in Sydney”

Alepocephalus antipodianus (Parrott 1948)    anus, belonging to: the Antipodes, i.e., the other side of the globe, referring to New Zealand distribution, figuratively the other side of the world from the British Isles

Alepocephalus asperifrons Garman 1899    asper, rough; frons, face or forehead, referring to ridges on frontal bone between eyes, which have a “very rough or serrated profile”

Alepocephalus australis australis Barnard 1923    southern, described from South African waters (a circumglobal species that occurs mostly in the Southern Hemisphere)

Alepocephalus australis barnardi Norman 1930    in honor of marine biologist Keppel Harcourt Barnard (1887-1964), South African Museum, who described the nominate subspecies in 1923

Alepocephalus bairdii Goode & Bean 1879    in honor of Spencer Fullerton Baird (1823-1887), Director, U.S. National Museum

Alepocephalus bicolor Alcock 1891    two-colored, head black and body a “uniform dull slate-blue”

Alepocephalus blanfordii Alcock 1892    patronym not identified, probably in honor of William Thomas Blanford (1832-1905), who studied the zoology and geology of India, near where type locality (Gulf of Mannar) is situated

Alepocephalus dentifer Sazonov & Ivanov 1979    dent, teeth; fero, to bear, referring to presence of teeth on maxillaries, rare in the genus

Alepocephalus fundulus Garman 1899    etymology not explained, perhaps fundulus, piston, or fundus, base or bottom; either way, allusion not evident

Alepocephalus longiceps Lloyd 1909    longus, long; ceps, head, referring to head length “considerably more than a third” of standard length

Alepocephalus longirostris Okamura & Kawanishi 1984    longus, long; rostris, snout, referring to snout longer than orbit diameter

Alepocephalus melas de Buen 1961    black, referring to uniform black coloration in formalin

Alepocephalus owstoni Tanaka 1908    in honor of Alan Owston (1853-1915), businessman, yachtsman, and collector of Asian wildlife, whose collection provided type

Alepocephalus planifrons Sazonov 1993    planus, smooth; frons, forehead, referring to wide and smooth upper surface of head

Alepocephalus productus Gill 1883    lengthened or prolonged, referring to longer snout compared to A. agassizii

Alepocephalus rostratus Risso 1820    beaked, referring to somewhat prolonged, rounded snout

Alepocephalus tenebrosus Gilbert 1892    dark or gloomy, probably referring to “uniform blue-black” coloration

Alepocephalus triangularis Okamura & Kawanishi 1984    referring to anterior portion of snout triangular in dorsal view

Alepocephalus umbriceps Jordan & Thompson 1914    umbra, shade; ceps, head, referring to “dense black” head

Asquamiceps Zugmayer 1911    a-, without; squamus, scale; ceps, head, referring to scaleless head of A. velaris (and common to all alepocephalids, hence the name “slickhead”)

Asquamiceps caeruleus Markle 1980    blue, referring to its “striking cobalt blue” head

Asquamiceps hjorti (Koefoed 1927)    in honor of Norwegian oceanographer Johan Hjort (1869-1948), who, with oceanographer John Murray, led the Michael Sars Expedition (1910) that collected type [see Conocara murrayi, below]

Asquamiceps longmani Fowler 1934    in honor of Heber A. Longman (1880-1954), Director of the Queensland Museum, “with remembrance of a pleasant stay in Brisbane”

Asquamiceps velaris Zugmayer 1911    like a sail or veil, referring to large, fan-like pectoral fins

Aulastomatomorpha Alcock 1890    aulos, flute; stomato, mouth; morpha, form, referring to “anterior bones of the head produced into a snout” formed like that of the trumpetfish genus Aulostomus (misspelled Aulastoma by Alcock)

Aulastomatomorpha phospherops Alcock 1890    phospherus, light-bringer; –ops, face or appearance, referring to head “completely invested by a thick spongy or fungus-like poriferous skin, of a brilliant snow-white reflexion, and probably luminous in function”

Bajacalifornia Townsend & Nichols 1925    named for the peninsula of Lower California, where type locality of type species, E. burragei, is situated

Bajacalifornia aequatoris Miya & Markle 1993    equatorial, referring to the central equatorial Pacific, only known area of occurrence

Bajacalifornia arcylepis Markle & Krefft 1985    arcy, net; lepis, scale, referring to net-like appearance of dark scale pockets against a light brown background

Bajacalifornia burragei Townsend & Nichols 1925    in honor of G. H. Burrage, United States Navy, Commander of the Albatross, from which type was collected

Bajacalifornia calcarata (Weber 1913)    armed with a spur, allusion not explained, perhaps referring to somewhat pointed scales

Bajacalifornia megalops (Lütken 1898)    mega-, large; ops, eye, captured with a “great number” of Cyclothone microdon (Stomiiformes: Gonostomatidae), “habitually looking much like the said species, but differing by the eyes not being particularly small”

Bajacalifornia microstoma Sazonov 1988    micro-, small; stoma, mouth, referring to its most characteristic feature

Bathyprion Marshall 1966    bathys, deep, referring to its deep-sea habitat; prion, saw, allusion not explained, possibly referring to its relatively long, pointed teeth on upper jaw, “more suited for gripping than stabbing”

Bathyprion danae Marshall 1966    in honor of the Danish fishery research vessel Dana, from which type was collected in 1929

Bathytroctes Günther 1878    bathys, deep, referring to habitat of B. microlepis, captured at 3932 m; troktes, one who gnaws, presumably referring to mouth and jaws “armed with a series of minute teeth” (also ancient Greek for a sea-fish with sharp teeth)

Bathytroctes breviceps Sazonov 1999    brevis, short; ceps, head, referring to lowest relative length of head among species previously included in Nomoctes (a junior synonym originally proposed as a subgenus)

Bathytroctes elegans Sazonov & Ivanov 1979    fine or well proportioned, referring to “small size bodies of adult fish and smaller values of some head and body proportions” compared to congeners

Bathytroctes inspector Garman 1899    Latin for observer, allusion not explained, possibly referring to its “very large” eyes

Bathytroctes macrognathus Sazonov 1999    macro-, long; gnathus, jaw, referring to longer jaw compared to species previously included in Nomoctes (a junior synonym originally proposed as a subgenus)

Bathytroctes macrolepis Günther 1887    macro-, large; lepis, scale, referring to larger scales (42 along lateral line) compared to B. microlepis (~70 along lateral line)

Bathytroctes michaelsarsi Koefoed 1927    in honor of the Michael Sars, Norwegian research vessel from which type was collected (named after Norwegian theologian and biologist Michael Sars [1805-1869])

Bathytroctes microlepis Günther 1878    micro-, small; lepis, scale, presumably referring to ~70 scales along lateral line

Bathytroctes oligolepis (Krefft 1970)    oligo-, few; lepis, scales, referring to lower number of scale rows compared to congeners known at the time and/or smaller number of lateral-line scales compared to B. zugmayeri, its presumed closest congener

Bathytroctes pappenheimi (Fowler 1934)    in honor of Paul Pappenheim (1878-1945), curator of fishes, Royal Museum of Berlin, and “investigator of the deep-sea fishes obtained by the German South Polar Expedition, 1914”

Bathytroctes squamosus Alcock 1890    scaly, referring to large deciduous scales, “except on the lateral line, where they are adherent and also perforated or bifid”

Bathytroctes zugmayeri Fowler 1934    in honor of ichthyologist Erich Zugmayer (1879-1938), for his “excellent work on the fishes obtained by the ‘Princesse-Alice’ 1901-1910”

Conocara Goode & Bean 1896    conus, cone; cara, head, referring to “obtuse point” of head of C. mcdonaldi (=macropterum)

Conocara bertelseni Sazonov 2002    in honor of Erik Bertelsen (1912-1993), an “outstanding” Danish ichthyologist who participated in expedition that collected type

Conocara fiolenti Sazonov & Ivanov 1979    in honor of the vessel Fiolent, from which type was collected

Conocara kreffti Sazonov 1997    in memory of Gerhard Krefft (1912-1993), Institute für Seefischerei (Hamburg), “distinguished” German ichthyologist, who contributed “significantly” to the study of alepocephalids of the Atlantic Ocean

Conocara macropterum (Vaillant 1888)    macro-, long; pterum, fin, referring to long anal fin, which begins near anus and ends behind dorsal fin

Conocara microlepis (Lloyd 1909)    micro-, small; lepis, scale, referring to “very small and nearly circular” scales

Conocara murrayi (Koefoed 1927)    in honor of John Murray (1841-1914, the founder of modern oceanography), who financed expedition that collected type [see Asquamiceps hjorti, above]

Conocara nigrum (Günther 1878)    black, referring to its color

Conocara paxtoni Sazonov, Williams & Kobyliansky 2009    in honor of John R. Paxton (Australian Museum, Sydney), for his “large” contribution to the study of deepwater fauna of the World Ocean

Conocara salmoneum (Gill & Townsend 1897)    salmon-like, allusion not explained nor evident

Conocara werneri Nybelin 1946    in honor of Directeur G. Werner, “donor of a projected Swedish Expedition to explore the ocean depth” (translation; no other information available)

Einara Parr 1951    etymology not explained, possibly named in honor of Norwegian marine biologist Einar Koefoed, who authored several papers on deep-sea fishes

Einara edentula (Alcock 1892)    toothless, although it is described as having minute teeth in the premaxillas and mandibles, and “a few inconspicuous and deciduous teeth on the prominent edges of the palatines only”

Einara macrolepis (Koefoed 1927)    macro-, large; lepis, scale, referring to large hexagonal scales on sides, 5-7 mm long and 4-5 mm high

Herwigia Nielsen 1972    ia, belonging to: Walther Herwig, German research vessel that collected type of H. kreffti (ship is named for a Prussian lawyer and pioneer of German fisheries science who lived 1838-1912)

Herwigia kreffti (Nielsen & Larsen 1970)    in honor of Gerhard Krefft (1912-1993), Institut für Seefischerei (Hamburg), who allowed the authors to borrow the type material

Leptochilichthys Garman 1899    lepto-, thin or slender and cheilos, lip, presumably referring to thin maxillary (“compressed and bladelike nearly its entire length”) and intermaxillary (“bladelike and sharp edged at the mouth”) of L. agassizii; ichthys, fish

Leptochilichthys agassizii Garman 1899    in honor of Alexander Agassiz (1835-1910), Curator, Museum of Comparative Zoology (Harvard), for his “particular interest in these fishes” (presumably alepocephalids, in whose family this genus was originally placed)

Leptochilichthys microlepis Machida & Shiogaki 1988    micro-, small; lepis, scale, referring to smaller, more numerous lateral-line scales compared to congeners

Leptochilichthys pinguis (Vaillant 1886)    fat, referring to adipose fold or cushion running along dorsal surface in front of posteriorly placed dorsal fin

Leptoderma Vaillant 1886    leptos, delicate; derma, skin, referring to oily, scaleless skin covering head and body

Leptoderma affine Alcock 1899    related, referring to close similarity to L. macrops, which Alcock suggested may be conspecific

Leptoderma lubricum Abe, Marumo & Kawaguchi 1965    slippery, presumably referring to oily, scaleless skin covering head and body

Leptoderma macrophthalmum Byrkjedal, Poulsen & Galbraith 2011    macro-, large; ophthalmos, eye, referring to larger eyes compared to L. lubricum

Leptoderma macrops Vaillant 1886    macro-, large; ops, eye, referring to large eyes on small head

Leptoderma ospesca Angulo, Baldwin & Robertson 2016    named for OSPESCA (Organización del Sector Pesquero y Acúicola de Centroamerica), for sponsoring research cruises that led to the discovery of deepwater marine fishes in Central America, including this one

Leptoderma retropinna Fowler 1943    retro-, backward; pinnatus, finned, referring to posterior placement of dorsal fin

Microphotolepis Sazonov & Parin 1977    micro-, small; photo-, light; lepis, scale, referring to numerous small photophores on every scale pocket on trunk of M. schmidti

Microphotolepis schmidti (Angel & Verrier 1931)    in honor of Danish biologist Johannes Schmidt (1877-1933), who led expedition that collected type and shared specimens with the authors

Mirognathus Parr 1951    mirus, weird or wonderful; gnathus, jaw, presumably referring to prominent lower jaw, which has a symphyseal knob that continues profile of snout downward and forward

Mirognathus normani Parr 1951    patronym not identified but clearly in honor of ichthyologist J. R. (John Roxborough) Norman (1898-1944), who studied argentiniform fishes, and whose British Museum (Natural History) housed type

Narcetes Alcock 1890    one who numbs, referring to how type specimens, when brought on board from 1353 m, were in a “cataleptoid state, the whole muscular system being quite rigid, and cutaneous excitation eliciting no responsive movement”

Narcetes erimelas Alcock 1890    eri-, very; melas, black, referring to “deep black” coloration

Narcetes garmani Fowler 1934    in honor of Harvard ichthyologist-herpetologist Samuel Garman (1843-1927), for his work on the bathypelagic fishes of the Gulf of Panama

Narcetes kamoharai Okamura 1984    in honor of the late Toshiji Kamohara (1901–1972), ichthyologist, Kochi University

Narcetes lloydi Fowler 1934    in honor of surgeon-naturalist Richard E. Lloyd, Marine Survey of India and “student of deep-sea fishes caught by the ‘Investigator,’ 1909”

Narcetes stomias (Gilbert 1890)    Greek for a large-mouthed animal, referring to its “very large” mouth, front of eye over middle of upper jaw

Narcetes wonderi Herre 1935    in honor of Frank Wonder, Field Museum of Natural History (Chicago), an “efficient collector of mammals and fishes”

Photostylus Beebe 1933    photo-, light; stylus, column or pillar, referring to irregular scattering of photophores on head and body, “elevated on stalks”

Photostylus pycnopterus Beebe 1933    pycnos, thick; pterus, fin, referring to “thick, fleshy, median fold or adipose fin” along the back

Rinoctes Parr 1952    derived from rhinos, snout, referring to hard, beak-like, pointed snout

Rinoctes nasutus (Koefoed 1927)    large-nosed, referring to hard, beak-like, pointed snout

Rouleina Jordan 1923    ina, belonging to: French zoologist Louis Roule (1861-1942), who redefined this genus as Aleposomus Gill 1884 in 1915 but excluded Gill’s type species, thereby creating a junior homonym

Rouleina attrita (Vaillant 1888)    bruised or worn away, presumably referring to mutilated and decomposed state of type specimens

Rouleina danae Parr 1951    in honor of the Danish fishery research vessel Dana, from which type was collected in 1929

Rouleina eucla Whitley 1940    referring to type locality, off Eucla, Western Australia

Rouleina euryops Sazonov 1999    eury, wide; ops, eye, referring to very big eyes, orbit diameter exceeding 30% of head length

Rouleina guentheri (Alcock 1892)    in honor of ichthyologist-herpetologist Albert Günther (1830-1914), who proposed Xenodermichthys, genus at time of description, in 1878

Rouleina livida (Brauer 1906)    black and blue, referring to blue-black and violet-hued coloration

Rouleina maderensis Maul 1948    ensis, suffix denoting place: off Madeira in the eastern Atlantic, type locality

Rouleina nuda (Brauer 1906)    bare or naked, referring to scaleless body and inconspicuous lateral line without scales (compared to underlying scales in R. livida)

Rouleina squamilatera (Alcock 1898)    squamis, scale; latera, side, referring to the lateral line, a “salient tube which runs straight down the middle of the body and is stiffened by thin subcutaneous equidistant scales”

Rouleina watasei (Tanaka 1909)    in honor of biologist Shozaburo Watasé (1862-1929), Imperial University of Tokyo

Talismania Goode & Bean 1896    ia, belonging to: the Talisman, one of two French vessels employed in deep-sea exploration (the other was the Travailleur), from which multiple specimens of Talismania and Bathytroctes were collected

Talismania antillarum (Goode & Bean 1896)    of the Antilles, referring to type locality in the Gulf of Mexico off Florida

Talismania aphos (Bussing 1965)    a-, without; phos, light, referring to absence of luminous organs

Talismania bifurcata (Parr 1951)    bi-, two; furcutus, pronged, allusion not explained, probably referring to its deeply forked caudal fin

Talismania brachycephala Sazonov 1981    brachys, short; cephala, head, referring to shorter head compared to other closely related forms

Talismania bussingi Sazonov 1989    in honor of ichthyologist William Bussing (1933-2014), who first collected this species in the southeastern Pacific and identified it as Binghamichthys microphos (=T. antillarum)

Talismania filamentosa Okamura & Kawanishi 1984    referring to long, filamentous pectoral-fin ray

Talismania homoptera (Vaillant 1888)    homos, same; ptera, fin, referring to nearly equal length and equal relative positions of dorsal and anal fins

Talismania kotlyari Sazonov & Ivanov 1980    in honor of Alexander Kotlyar (b. 1950), P. P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, who collected five specimens of the type series

Talismania longifilis (Brauer 1902)    longus, long; filum, thread, referring to greatly elongated upper ray of pectoral fin

Talismania mekistonema Sulak 1975    mekistos, longest; nema, thread, referring to greatly elongated upper ray of pectoral fin

Talismania okinawensis Okamura & Kawanishi 1984    ensis, suffix denoting place: Okinawa Trough, East China Sea, type locality

Xenodermichthys Günther 1878    xenos, strange or foreign (i.e., different) and derma, skin or hide, referring to “rather tough” skin, “finely longitudinally wrinkled, with numerous nodules, regularly arranged”; ichthys, fish

Xenodermichthys copei (Gill 1884)    patronym not identified but clearly in honor of zoologist-paleontologist Edward Drinker Cope (1840-1897)

Xenodermichthys nodulosus Günther 1878    having small nodes or knots, referring to “rather tough” skin, “finely longitudinally wrinkled, with numerous nodules, regularly arranged”